Background: There is paucity in studies reporting long-term results following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. A UK national ligament registry (NLR) designed to collect demographic, clinical and outcome data on patients undergoing ACL reconstruction was launched in 2013. There was therefore an emergent question on the role of such registry as an additional source of evidence.
Study aims: A framework analysis aimed to provide a basis for the evaluation of outcomes following ACL management and formulate a structure of the evidence, which can be derived from the registry.
Methods: A systematic approach was adopted to select relevant studies. Qualitative thematic and meta-narrative analyses were conducted. Level-1 registry data were recorded for all primary ACL reconstruction procedures from January to June 2016. Registry data content and validity were evaluated.
Results: Seven studies were suitable for analyses yet none defined the pattern of meniscal injury following initial treatment. When reported the incidence varied markedly between 23% and 80%. There was evidence of collection of at least one principal outcome measure in at least 85% of participants across all studies. Thematic analysis identified four key domains of outcome measures (1) intervention selection, (2) Knee stability evaluation, (3) Patient reported outcomes, (4) Radiographic evaluation and risk of secondary osteoarthritis. Graft choice, rate of meniscal and chondral injuries and cumulative risk of revision surgery had incomplete and inconsistent reports. Comparison of demographic and clinical data with the first registry report demonstrated: predominately younger patient population; older female patients at time of intervention; and higher incidence of meniscal tears.
Conclusions: Registry data driven quality and research improvement open a new paradigm in ACL reconstruction evidence base and future practice. Early observations have consolidated the importance of associated meniscal injuries in the management of ACL rupture. Further work is needed to improve registry data completeness, accuracy and validity. A proposed data migration process using available technologies can help harmonise data collection without the added burden on clinical services.
As people get older, chronic diseases become an important reason of disability while a decline in physical functions is related to aging among the elders, which may lead to dependency and isolation of the older adults. Body asymmetry and imbalance body alignment can bring added stress to the joint structures that can cause dysfunction of the joint, ligaments, tendons, bursas, and related muscles, which in return brings about problem while walking or during activities of daily living. Joint Functional Screening (JFS) is a systemic clinical examination with clinical reasoning of the entire human joints body, with or without causative limitation to derive a holistic analysis of musculoskeletal system. JFS profile helps to assess body disorder of older people. This clinical screening include documentation of balance of the body, lower and upper body strength, joints flexibility, body composition, and body alignment. This is an innovation build to profile a normal musculoskeletal state to decode any anomaly in an otherwise a normal subject, who might be preparing to take up any activities in one’s lifespan that could elicit an injury which could be prevented. JFS could be a useful tool for physiotherapists, exercise therapist or even the personal trainers to screen a body prior to rehabilitative or an exercise program; and this clinical screening is presently a best guidance to prevent risk of fall or injury among individual healthy people and older adult.
The research investigated the perception of nutrition and exercise as a tool in controlling Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) among elderly civil servants in Anambra State of Nigeria. A total of 250 respondents comprising 150 elderly academic staff Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka and 100 senior civil servants in the Anambra state civil service, who willingly, volunteered to participate in the study. Their ages ranged between 55-65 years purposively selected. The instrument for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire, with a reliability value of 0.73 using the test retest method. All data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages and chi square tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study showed that nutrition (diet) and exercise have significant effect in the prevention/control of (CVDs) among the elderly. It is therefore recommended that at the civil service secretariats, universities and other establishments/parastatals, should establish high standard eateries (restaurants) where qualified caterers, would regularly provide nutritious diet, at subsidized rate for workers in this category. In order to enable these class of workers have at least one good meal per day, in addition to a mandatory one- work-free afternoon (2.00pm-4.00pm) for routine/regular physical exercises for these class of workers.
Purpose: This study aimed to identify physical activity, enjoyment, and factors for future activity between an active video game (AVG) condition and self-paced exercise (SPE) among college-aged students.
Methods: Thirty college-aged volunteers (age=22±1.68 years) completed 4-45 minute physical activity sessions (2 AVG; 2 self-paced). A survey and a brief structured interview followed.
Results: Overall, participants expended more calories, accumulated more steps, and more physical activity during SPE; however, participants in the AVG condition met daily exercise recommendations. The majority of participants (81%) enjoyed playing the AVG. Autonomy and competence were found as common themes among those who preferred the SPE condition; whereas, lack of knowledge and exercise variety were emergent themes among those who preferred AVG.
Conclusions: This study provides evidence that college students could meet daily exercise recommendations by participating in AVG interventions; although AVGs that provided autonomy and allowed users to demonstrate competence would be preferable.
Context: Shoulder pain is one of the most frequent reported complaints in intensive competitive swimming. The so-called ‘swimmers’ shoulder’ has been widely explored and has been reported sometimes without specific reference to contributing mechanisms or structures. Somatic dysfunction is defined as an impaired or altered function of related components of the somatic system and may appear in the early stage of pain feeling.
Aim: To evaluate somatic dysfunctions in a group of young competitive swimmers with and without shoulder pain and its relationship with the shoulder’s mobility along with the efficacy of an osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on shoulder’s mobility, pain, and comfort of swimming.
Material and method: 20 competitive swimmers (14.6 ± 1.3 ys; 11.6 ± 2.4 hs.wk-1) were divided into two groups, with and without shoulder pain (SPG/CG). Before and after light touch/OMT, and 1 week later, somatic dysfunctions, shoulder’s range of mobility, pain, and swimming comfort were assessed by 2 independent osteopaths.
Results: Somatic dysfunctions were observed in both groups without significant differences in the number or localization and were independent of severity of pain. In the SPG, pain decreased significantly after OMT (6.1 ± 1.9 vs. 3.9 ± 1.8; p = 0.001) and remained stable 1-week later (P = NS). Shoulder’s mobility was lower on the aching shoulder in the “shoulder pain” group when compared to the control group on flexion and abduction tests but not on extension or adduction tests. Following OMT, only abduction improved when compared to light touch. Comfort in swimming was reported as “better” in both OMT/light touch groups.
Conclusion: There is no difference between light touch and OMT as both decreased pain and increased comfort in swimming but abduction range of motion only improved in the OMT group.
Fiber-based model of the left ventricle is known since 1628 but the complex 3D structure of myocardial fibers has not taken into account in normalcy or in disease until the last decade. We here present the case of a 60-year-old female patient affected by ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Left ventricle was reconstructed according to a novel surgical technique aimed at rebuilding an elliptical ventricular chamber and redirecting myocardial bundles of fibers in a near-normal orientation, by means of an original suturing technique. Left ventricular torsion was restored, proving the reorientation of myocardial fibres’ bundles. The restored physiologic shape was maintained along the years, gradually improving global ejection fraction and diastolic indices, showing a positive remodeling induced by the optimised geometrical and functional parameters.
The unexpected and never proven before renewal of ventricular torsion is an adjunctive element of ventricular efficiency, mainly in ventricles that work at a critical mechanics. A new fiber-based reading of heart function could improve clinical and functional outcomes and address some unsolved issues in the surgical treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy as well as in medical approaches to the diseased myocardium.
Objective: Plaque morphology plays an important prognostic role in the occurrence of cerebrovascular events. Echolucent and heterogeneous plaques, in particular, carry an increased risk of subsequent stroke. Depending on the quality of the plaque echogenicity based on B-mode ultrasound examination, carotid plaques divide into a soft lipid-rich plaque and a hard plaque with calcification. The aim of this study was to investigate structural changes in the basement membrane of different carotid artery plaque types.
Patients and methods: Biopsies were taken from 10 male patients (average age; 75 + 1 years) and 7 females (68 + 3 years). The study population included patients suffering from a filiform stenosis of the carotid artery, 8 patients with acute cerebrovascular events and 9 with asymptomatic stenosis. Scanning electron and polarised light microscopic investigations were carried out on explanted plaques to determine the morphology of calcified areas in vascular lesions.
Results: By means of scanning electron microscopy, multiple foci of local calcification were identified. The endothelial layer was partially desquamated from the basement membrane and showed island-like formations. Polarised light microscopy allows us to distinguish between soft plaques with transparent structure and hard plaques with woven bone formation.
Conclusion: The major finding of our study is the presence of woven bone tissue in hard plaques of carotid arteries, which may result from pathological strains or mechanical overloading of the collagen fibers. These data suggest a certain parallel with sclerosis of human aortic valves due to their similar morphological characteristics.
Climate change brings extreme events like drought, landslide, flood and anticipated more constraint to profitable livestock production causing huge economical loss in the livestock sector of the country. Deaths of livestock and damage to farms and farm infrastructure is causing a huge loss, small livestock holders are highly venerable to such climatic hazards. So to cope with these uncertain climatic hazards livestock insurance is the one of the best strategies. This study reveals that different climatic hazards is been experienced by the livestock holders of Kaski, Dolakha and Jhapa district of Nepal, 62% of the respondent has observed the change in climate. Of the total respondents perceived around 47% farmer have insured their livestock in Kaski district, 33% in Jhapa and 20 % in Dolakha district. Beside the proper vaccination, deworming, management and feeding of animals people are insuring their livestock assets due to uncertain in the climatic pattern and its consequences, this shows that livestock insurance is the one of the tool to mitigate with changing climate and climate relate hazard in livestock sector of Nepal.
Background: The foot is an important and complex structure that provides support, balance and propulsion to locomotion, thus, its proper care can help to have a better life quality avoiding pain. The medial longitudinal arch is an important structure that is related to injury risks when it shows some impairment. The purpose of this study was to characterize the foot arch index in people in relation to age and gender.
Methods: The sample was composed of a total of 122 subjects, 79 healthy young subjects (40 women and 39 men) and 43 healthy elderly subjects (32 women and 11 men). Ten seconds of standing barefoot plantar pressure was measure through Tekscan F-Scan device, and the data processing, filtering, and arch index (AI) calculation were performed using MATLAB™ 7.0.
Findings: The elderly group presented a lower arch (AI-0.23) than the young group (AI-0.13) (p=0.000); young female and male groups show similar AI, while the elderly female group showed lower arch (AI-0.23) than the elderly male group (AI-0.18) (p=0.033).
Interpretation: The foot arch has a trend to be lower with aging, and even lower within elderly female subjects, probably due to some decrease within plantar muscle’s stiffness, that in turn may be related to lower physical activity and footwear choices.
Aim: To assess and learn oral health awareness and hygiene practices among geriatric patients and also to identify important barriers in the establishment of oral health services, disease prevention and oral health promotion programmes for the same.
Materials and Methods: A total of 500 patients in the age group of 50 years and above were selected using random sampling technique. A self‑administered structured questionnaire including 20 multiple choice questions was given to them. The results were analyzed using percentage.
Results: The result of this study shows an acute lack of oral hygiene awareness and limited knowledge of oral hygiene practices. In Rohini, few people use tooth brush.
Conclusions: Hence, there is an urgent need for comprehensive educational programs to promote good oral health and impart education about correct oral hygiene practices.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes with various treatment options.
Objective: To compare the efficacy and effect on pregnancy outcome of Metronidazole and Clindamycin in women with bacterial vaginosis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Methodology: Randomized controlled study of 136 pregnant women diagnosed with BV at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. A structured proforma was used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and other relevant data. Treatment was with either oral Metronidazole or oral Clindamycin for seven days. A secondary test and evaluation of the effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes were determined. Data analysis was done using the SPSS statistical package version 22.0
Results: BV prevalence was 23%, with similar cure rates with both medications. The failure rates of clindamycin and metronidazole were 10.4% and 13% respectively (p = 0.639). The mean gestational age at delivery in the metronidazole treated group was 38.67 weeks ± 1.69 compared to 38.68 weeks ± 1.64 in the oral clindamycin group (p = 0.96). Pre-labour rupture of membranes and preterm delivery rates with both medications were similar (p = 0.73; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-4.9) and (p = 0.73; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-4.9) respectively.
Conclusion: Both medications have comparable efficacy and similar pregnancy outcomes in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in low-risk asymptomatic pregnant Nigerian women and thus can be used interchangeably.
Introduction: Contraception is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. In the first year of postpartum period around 65% of women are having unmet need of family planning. Post Placental Intrauterine Contraceptive Device is not only advantageous to the women and couples; even the service providers benefit from PPIUCD. PPIUCD insertion on the same delivery table saves time and separate clinical procedure is not required.
Methodology: The Quantitiative Pre-Experimental One Group Pre and Post Test research design was used. 70 Antenatal mothers were selected by using Purposive Sampling Technique who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and who were available during the period of data collection at selected hospital, Puducherrry. Data was collected by using Structured Interview Schedule.
Result: The Pre test mean score of Knowledge was 9.98 ± 2.38 and Post Test mean score of Knowledge was 14.91 ± 1.15. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-20.82) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Attitude was 34.67 ± 5.67 and Post test mean score of Attitude was 44.27 ± 4.70. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-17.25) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Acceptance was 0.11 ± 0.320 and Post Test mean score of Acceptance was 0.29 ± 0.455. The paired‘t’ value of t = -3.778 found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Demographic and Obstetrical Variables like age at marriage, previous childbirth and decision maker of family about family planning have shown significant association with Post Test level of Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD at p < 0.05 and p < 0.001.
Conclusion: The researcher concluded that Prenatal Intensive Counselling increases the mother’s Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD. So Prenatal Intensive Counselling on PPIUCD can be given to Antenatal Mothers during their antenatal visits to meet the unmet needs of family planning.
Objective: To describe some aspects of the quality of ambulance care and completeness of information in the transfer forms of emergency patients who arrived in ambulances to the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL).
Methods:This was a descriptive study. All ambulances arrived at the NHSL during the study period with an emergency patient were selected (n=409) and from those 250 transfer forms, which could be traced were taken. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for ambulance staff. A Checklist, which has been derived from the standard patent chart, was used to determine the availability of information on transfer forms.
Results: Of the 409 ambulances, the patient was accompanied by a doctor in 4% (n=16), a nurse in 4% (n=15) and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) in 1% (n= 4), and there were 675 miner employees and 409 drivers. Twenty six percent (n= 4) of doctors, 12.5% (n= 2) of nurses, 100% (n=4) of EMTs, 56.9% (n=189) of drivers and 24.3% (n=164) of minor employees had received training in emergency medicine/pre-hospital care.
The time interval between receipt of the message and loading the patient to the ambulance was >15 minutes on 19% (n= 75) of the occasions and from the latter time to commencement of the journey was >15 minutes on 7% (n=27) of the occasions.
The call number of sending facility 0.4% (n=1) and sending time 33.2% (n=83) were poorly documented. The past surgical histories 20.8% (n=52), chronic diseases 48% (n=120), psychological problems 13.2% (n=33) and allergies 9.2% (n=23) were poorly documented. Details of physical examination findings except cardio-vascular system were not documented in >50% of transfer forms. Medications had been documented fairly (>60%) in most of the transfer forms and however, the procedures (IV fluids, ECG) were poorly documented (<30%).
Conclusion: The completeness of information in the transfer form was not up to standards. This emphasizes for need of well-structured standard transfer form in the country.
Background: Timely starting of breastfeeding is defined as the starting of breastfeeding within one hour after childbirth. Globally mothers who practiced breastfeeding within one hour were less than half in percent. In least developed countries like Eastern and Southern Africa including Ethiopia infant breastfeeding practice within one hour were low. The aim of this study was to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have an infant less than six months of age in Gunchire town, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods: The study was conducted from May 1 to 28, 2019 in Gunchire town. Data were collected by using a structured face to face interview questionnaire. The community based cross-sectional study was employed on 333 women. The study participants were selected by Simple random sampling techniques. The data were coded, entered, cleaned and analyzed by SPSS with windows version 21.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression statistical model was used. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to see the strength of association.
Results: In this study the magnitude of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 80.5%. Governmental employed mothers (AOR=2.914, 95% CI: 1.139, 7.46), Antenatal care follow up (AOR=5.99, 95% CI: 1.29, 27.81), Baby skin to skin contact (AOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.092, 5.34), Vaginal delivery (AOR=5.82 95% CI: 1.68, 20.14) Institutional delivery (AOR=5.5, 95 CI%: 1.66, 18.3), Good knowledge of breastfeeding (AOR=4.02, 95% CI: 1.04, 15.59) and Breast disease (AOR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.73) were significantly associated with timely starting of breastfeeding.
Conclusion: More than two third of the mothers timely initiated breastfeeding within one hour after birth. Being governmentally employed, having Antenatal care follows up, skin to skin contact, mode of delivery, knowledge of mothers about breastfeeding and place of delivery were positively and significantly associated with timely initiation of breast feeding, whereas, breast disease was protective against timely starting of breastfeeding. Therefore, we would like to recommend Enamore woreda health office and Gunchire primary Hospital staffs work at MCH clinic to provide appropriate services and stimulate the mothers to initiate breastfeeding, skin to skin contact enhancing within the first hour of birth.
Environmental electromagnetic fields are nowadays available in all environments today. These areas affect the biological system. Controlled interactions with elecrtomagnetic fields can have positive effects when unrestricted interactions have negative effects. Uncontrolled exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic fields can cause adverse effects such as signal transduction in cells and tissues, cell membrane structure, ion channels, molecular interactions, DNA damage. But contrary to controlled exposure, it positively affects tissues. The most obvious example of this is seen in the bone and cartilaginous tissue. Repairing fractures and damage in bone and cartilage. This has been shown in many studies. Below is a summary of the relevant information.
The study was conducted in Ilu and Waliso districs of South West Shoa Zone to investigate the perception of dairy cattle producers on oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination services. A total of 122 respondents (38 from Ilu and 84 from Waliso districts) owning at least one lactating cow and participated in synchronization program were randomly selected and interviewed individually by using semi- structured questionnaire. Both primary and secondary data were used to generate reliable information on the intended topic. All collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 20 and the output was presented by descriptive statistics such as percentage and mean values in inform of graphs. Most of the respondents (67.15%) indicated that their satisfaction level towards synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. Only few of them reported being satisfied as (medium-13.45%, good - 12.35% and very good - 7.05%). This might be because of shortage of feed, silent heat, poor performance of the inseminator and low awareness of farmers on the technology. From the study it was also noted that the overall percentage (26.22%) of calving rate to oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. This might be due to heat detection problem (36%); A.I technician efficiency (29.25%), absence of A.I technician (23.9%) and distance of A.I center (10.25%). Therefore, the skill and knowledge based training should be given for both the farmers and implementers to enhance perception and adoption of the technology.
Background: The purpose of this study was to establish a new, reliable and reproducible reference line for assessing bladder neck descent using 2-dimensional transperineal ultrasound. Therefore, we created a novel line, named Symphysis-Levator Line (SLL) and defined it as the connecting line between the hyperechogenic, dorsocaudal edge of the symphysis pubis and the hyperechogenic anterior margin of the puborectalis muscle, posterior to the anorectal junction.
Methods: A retrospective study was performed including 111 patients, who underwent a transperineal ultrasound as part of an urogynecological examination in the department of Urogynecology at the University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz. We calculated the bladder neck decent using the SLL and compared our results with the measurements assessed using a horizontal line through the infero-posterior margin of the symphysis pubis, as previously described by Dietz (Horizontal Symphysis Line, HSL). In addition, we calculated the intra- and interobserver reliability of the two methods and examined the influence of various patient characteristics on the obtained values.
Results: Both methods demonstrated a high intra- and interobserver reliability. Even though the HSL produced slightly higher numerical values for the bladder neck descent, the novel SLL was more precise. Our data support that the 2-point fixation of the SLL on two anatomical structures ensures the stability of the reference plane during the functional changes of the pelvic floor.
Conclusion: The Symphysis-Levator Line could be a useful tool for urogynecologists in the future.
Miscarriage is a frequent outcome of pregnancy, with major emotional implications to the couple experiencing such an event. Threatened miscarriage is the commonest complication of early pregnancy and affects about 20% of pregnancies. It presents with vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps. On the other hand recurrent miscarriages are post implantation failures in natural conception. Increasing age of women, smoking, obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and a previous history of miscarriage are risk factors for threatened miscarriage. The pathophysiology has been associated with changes in levels of cytokines or maternal immune dysfunction. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings are important to determine the treatment options and provide valuable information for the prognosis. Many surgical and non-surgical interventions are used in the management of threatened and recurrent miscarriages. In this review, we present available evidence-based guidance on the incidence, pathophysiology, investigation and clinical management of recurrent miscarriage and threatened miscarriage, focusing mainly on the first trimester of pregnancy and primary healthcare settings. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice.
Aim: To identify the possibility of correction of motor function of the gastro-intestinal tract in experimental pancreatitis with the administration of infliximab.
Material and methods: Pancreatitis was modeled by the administration of picrylsulfonic acid retrogradely into the pancreatic duct of rat (n=5) and 4 animals were control. Electromyogram (EMG) of the pancreatic duct was monitored immediately after the administration of picrylsulfonic acid and on the 15th day of pancreatitis simulation before and after the administration of infliximab. The morphological investigation of pancreas was conducted on the 15th day of development of pancreatitis and on the 15th day of treatment of pancreatitis with infliximab.
Results: Infliximab restores the motor function of pancreatic duct and structure of pancreas during acute pancreatitis.
Conclusion: Protective action of infliximab during acute pancreatitis was shown.
The quality characteristics of selected black gram varieties viz., VBN 5, VBN 7, ADT 3, T9 and CO 6 and were evaluated for their suitability for the preparation of thick pancake. The foaming stability and foaming capacity were found to be maximum in VBN 5, CO 6 and T9. Maximum rise in volume was recorded in CO 6 (149 ml) followed by VBN 5 (148 ml) and T9 (147 ml) which is an indication good quality of thick pancake. Thick pancake prepared using 5 black gram varieties were analyzed for the physicochemical and microbial load. The texture profile viz., springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess was evaluated for VBN 5, CO 6, T9 and VBN 7 respectively. The protein content was higher in thick pancake prepared from VBN 5 (25.47/100 g) compared to CO 6 (24.66 g/100g). Among the selected varieties, CO 6, T9 and VBN 5 had good batter content, texture, and microstructure and were found to be most suitable for thick pancake preparation.
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Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
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Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
Akowuah Jones Asafo
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