Surgery

‘Rotational alignment on patients’ clinical outcome of total knee arthroplasty: Distal femur axillary X-ray view to qualify rotation of the femoral component

Published on: 4th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588740322

Background: Rotation of the femoral component in total knee replacement (TKR) is very important for good long-term results. Malrotation of the femoral component usually requires subsequent reimplantation. We performed X-ray projections of the knee at 90° to determine proper rotation of the femoral component without use of computed tomography. Methods: The axial projection of the distal femur was measured in post-TKR cases. During the TKR operation, Whiteside’s method had been used to provide symmetrical flexion space. The exact outer rotation of the femoral component was measured by x-ray determination of the middle condylar twist angle, from the central epicondylar axis and posterior condylar axis. Results: The middle condylar twist angle was in outer rotation, with an average of 3.36° (range: 1-7.6), similar to the literature. Six of the patients underwent bilateral TKR. In total, the case series included 18 women and 15 men, with average age of 71.34 years-old (range: 56-85). As a clinical evaluation we used Knee Society Score (2011). From results 2 patients were not very satisfied with the instability TKR. Axially X-ray seemed to be only which could distribute these patients. Summary: X-ray values have the same evaluation as computed tomography. The results were 2 patients in pattern of 48, which were sufficient to extrapolate to whole population according to the statistical methods. This corresponds to 4% which we can add to evaluate satisfaction of all patients after TKR and eventually lower the total of unsatisfactory patients which is total of ¼ of total. It is also forensic reason for all patients. Our recommendation to have good results and patient satisfaction in TKR is to do x-rays before and after operation. Important are x-rays antero-posterior, lateral, and Kanekasu projection to know the rotation after TKR. Other cases without stability in flexion are nor very rarely planed for revision surgery, which is much more expensive, and burdens overall health system. 
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The role of UK national ligament registry as additional source of evidence for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Review of the literature and future Perspectives

Published on: 20th August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286426391

Background: There is paucity in studies reporting long-term results following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. A UK national ligament registry (NLR) designed to collect demographic, clinical and outcome data on patients undergoing ACL reconstruction was launched in 2013. There was therefore an emergent question on the role of such registry as an additional source of evidence. Study aims: A framework analysis aimed to provide a basis for the evaluation of outcomes following ACL management and formulate a structure of the evidence, which can be derived from the registry. Methods: A systematic approach was adopted to select relevant studies. Qualitative thematic and meta-narrative analyses were conducted. Level-1 registry data were recorded for all primary ACL reconstruction procedures from January to June 2016. Registry data content and validity were evaluated. Results: Seven studies were suitable for analyses yet none defined the pattern of meniscal injury following initial treatment. When reported the incidence varied markedly between 23% and 80%. There was evidence of collection of at least one principal outcome measure in at least 85% of participants across all studies. Thematic analysis identified four key domains of outcome measures (1) intervention selection, (2) Knee stability evaluation, (3) Patient reported outcomes, (4) Radiographic evaluation and risk of secondary osteoarthritis. Graft choice, rate of meniscal and chondral injuries and cumulative risk of revision surgery had incomplete and inconsistent reports. Comparison of demographic and clinical data with the first registry report demonstrated: predominately younger patient population; older female patients at time of intervention; and higher incidence of meniscal tears. Conclusions: Registry data driven quality and research improvement open a new paradigm in ACL reconstruction evidence base and future practice. Early observations have consolidated the importance of associated meniscal injuries in the management of ACL rupture. Further work is needed to improve registry data completeness, accuracy and validity. A proposed data migration process using available technologies can help harmonise data collection without the added burden on clinical services.
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Injuries of the shoulder sustained by Surfboard riders

Published on: 9th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317656813

Background: To determine the spectrum of shoulder pathologies suffered by surfers. Methods: Prospective descriptive study. Surfers with shoulder injuries who were referred to a sub-speciality orthopaedic shoulder private practice situated on the Northern beaches of Sydney (Australia) were recruited over a three-year period. Results: 42 shoulders in 37 subjects were included-12 acute injuries (29.3%), 9 acute on chronic (22%) and 20 chronic injuries. Average age 48 years (range 20-72 years). Seventeen subjects (46%) had manual occupations and 20 subjects (54%) had office-based occupations. Spectrum of pathologies included rotator cuff tendon tears, long head of biceps tendon pathology, labral tears, acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis. Discussion: There is a wide spectrum of acute and chronic shoulder injuries sustained by surfers. The most common presentation was for chronic pathology. The average age of 48 suggests that age may play a role in attritional/degenerative change and therefore an increased likelihood of injury.
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Final solution in femoroacetabular impingement - Threaded cups in hip revision surgery 2002-2012

Published on: 23rd October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7900083791

Purpose: Here, we report the complications of endoprosthesis with threaded cups according to our application in cases of complicated acetabulum (hip revisions and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI)). Methods: A total of 504 patients was analyzed, including 189 men and 315 women. For re-implanted patients (n = 49), the mean time to re-implantation was 6.3 years and the average age at re-implantation was 54.7 years. For censored patients (n = 455), the mean time to censoring was 5.5 years and the average age of the implant was 55.7 years. Among the patients that were censored, 77 died and 378 patients did not experience an event necessitating re-implantation. Results: For the total study population, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of 5 year survival is 0.94 and of 10 year survival is 0.85. 90% of the implants survived 7 years, 80% of the implants survived almost 12 years and 70% of implants survived almost 15 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggests that men have higher survival than women. Age of the patient at the time of implant was not a statistically significant factor for re-implantation (p value = 0.21) but sex was (p value = 0.02). Women had 2.25 times more risk of being re-implanted than men. Conclusions: In our case series, the failure rate, as a result of aseptic loosening, was 7.4% (n = 51). More than half the failure cases (56%) required re-implantation. Over one-third (37%) of the primary arthrosis cases, were found to be FAI, lessening the frequency of diagnosis of the former. In our clinic, the threaded cup seems to be indispensable in hip revision surgery and in treating FAI.
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Congenital Quadricuspid Aortic Valve, a Rare Cause of Aortic Insufficiency in Adults: Case Report

Published on: 23rd January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286350758

Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is rare congenital malformation of the aortic valve with estimated prevalence of 0.013% to 0.043% [1-4]. QAV is most commonly associated with aortic insufficiency (AI), which is found in almost 75% of cases [5]. QAV can also be associated with other cardiac defects such as ventricular or atrial septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, subaortic fibromuscular stenosis, malformation of the mitral valve, and coronary anomalies [3]. Up to 40% of all patients with QAV undergo aortic valve replacement surgery most commonly due to progressive AI in 88% of case [2,3,6]. Here we report a case from our institution of a woman with QAV with severe AI and anomalous origin of the right coronary artery.
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Indications and Results of Coronarography in Senegalese Diabetic Patients: About 45 Cases

Published on: 20th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286426513

Introduction: Coronary disease accounts for 75% of diabetic mortality. Coronary angiography reveals lesions that are often diffuse, staggered and multi-truncated. The objective of this study was to determine the indications and results of coronary angiography in diabetic patients. Method: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study which took place from May 2013 to July 2015 at the cardiology clinic of the Aristide Le Dantec hospital. We have included all diabetics who have benefited from coronary angiography by studying clinical and paraclinical data, particularly coronary angiography ones. Results: During this period, 400 patients had coronary angiography, including 45 diabetics, a hospital prevalence of 11.25%. The average age of our patients was 62.27 y/o with extremes of 44 and 85 y/o. The sex ratio was 1.6 in favor of men. Diabete was revealed in 42 patients. Almost all patients were type II diabetics (44 patients) since 9.94 years in average. The associated cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension 66.7% and dyslipidemia 49.6%. Only 4 patients had typical chest pain. The electrocardiogram was abnormal in 84.4% of cases with 26 cases of SCA ST +. Coronary angiography was abnormal in 37 patients with significant stenosis in 30 patients. A single-truncular lesion was found in 14 cases, 8 had bi-truncular and other 8 had tri-truncular one. The anterior interventricular artery and the segment II of the right coronary were the most affected branches. Concerning the management, 14 patients had angioplasty with an active stent, 8 patients had medical treatment alone and 9 patients had coronary artery bypass surgery. Accidents occured for 4 patients, two of whom had arterial spasm, one of a vagal discomfort and another had an occlusion of the circumflex that led to the implantation of a stent. Conclusion: Diabetes is accompanied by progressive coronary atherosclerosis, which has an adverse effect on patients' prognosis. Tri-truncal affection and indications for coronary artery bypass surgery are common
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Is there an ideal blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass to prevent postoperative cerebral injury? – What does the recent evidence say?

Published on: 21st November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7943236620

Post cardiac surgery stroke is a devastating complication with an incidence as high as 50%1. The association between intra-operative mean arterial blood pressure (MAP- better called linear blood pressure) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the development of postoperative stroke-as diagnosed by neuroimaging- and of cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is controversial. This is due to differences in the study populations, stroke assessment tools, operation and conduction of MAPs, variations in neurocognitive testing and duration of follow up. As a result there is a gap in the knowledge on an ideal MAP as a preventive measure of post CPB stroke and POCD.
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Timing of cardiac surgery and other intervention among children with congenital heart disease: A review article

Published on: 9th August, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8212836826

Background: Early diagnosis and improved facilities are necessary for determining the optimal timing of surgery and other interventions in children with congenital heart diseases in Nigeria. This is because late presentation, late diagnosis and delayed surgery can lead to mortality and affect the quality of life among these children. Objectives: This review article is aimed at enumerating the timing of cardiac surgeries and other interventions and to seek if there is any factor associated with the timing of cardiac surgery. Methods: A search on PubMed database, World Health Organization libraries, Google scholar, TRIP database, and reference lists of selected articles on timing of cardiac surgery in children was done. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was also searched. We noted few data from African setting. Key words such as timing of cardiac surgery; children, congenital heart defect were used. Conclusion: Appropriate timing for cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease is very important as late surgical intervention could result in several morbidities and mortality.
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How often is Klippel-Feil Syndrome associated with congential heart disease presentation of five cases and a review of the literature

Published on: 3rd September, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8270717914

Introduction: Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), is a bone disorder characterized by the abnormal joining (fusion) of two or more spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae), which is present from birth. Three major features result from this abnormality: a short neck, a limited range of motion in the neck, and a low hairline at the back of the head. In some individuals, KFS can be associated with a variety of additional symptoms and physical abnormalities which contribute in the deterioration and complication of the condition of the child. Aim of presentation: Here, we report five children from Kosovo with KFS associated with different heart abnormalities, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of selected conditions in resources-limited settings. Methods: Retrospectively we analysed medical reports of five children, diagnosed at different age with congenital disease and clinical and lab signs of Klippel-Feil syndrome. Conclusion: Basing on our cases, all diagnosed in a small country as a Kosovo, we can conclude that KFS is not such a rare condition. In addition, such syndrome is not so rarely associated with different congenital heart disease. In four cases cardiac surgery was indicated and successfully was done abroad Kosovo in the lack of such services in Kosovo.
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Evaluation of the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting on the right ventricular function using speckle tracking echocardiography

Published on: 30th December, 2019

Purpose: This was a prospective study conducted at Benha University hospital and National Heart Institute on one hundred patients undwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to evaluate the effect of CABG on the right ventricular (RV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Methods: All cases were subjected to detailed medical history, full physical examination, 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG), routine laboratory tests including (complete blood picture, liver functions, renal functions and lipid profile) and echocardiography either conventional echocardiography or STE, all parameters obtained before and within 2 weeks after surgery. Results: By conventional echocardiography there was statistically significant decrease in peak right ventricle systolic velociy (RVS) from (12.76 ± 1.72) to (7.33 ± 1.71) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) from (22.8 ± 3.99) to (13.77 ± 4.63) among the studied patients after CABG. While there was significant increase in right ventricle fractional area change (RVFAC) from (44.69 ± 3.25) to (49.01 ± 3.36). On the other hand, there was non-significant change in right ventricle end diastolic diameter (RVEDD) at mid-cavity from (26.37 ± 2.72) to (26.53 ± 2.72) and basal segment from (36.05 ± 2.98) to (36.29 ± 3.04), right ventricle stroke volume (RVSV) from (65.44 ± 7.02) to (65.85 ± 6.86) and right myocardial performance index (RMPI) from (0.491 ± 0.088) to (0.498 ± 0.086). By STE There was statistically significant decrease in right ventricle global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) from (-20.63 to -14.1) after CABG. There was statistically significant decrease in right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain [apical decreased from (-23.73 to -13.7), mid-cavity decreased from (-25.76 to -11.53), basal decreased from (-20.39 to -10.13) and lateral wall declined from (-23.01 to -9.13)]. There was statistically significant decrease in interventricular septum longitudinal strain [apical decreased from (-19.77 to -10.06), mid-cavity decreased from (-17.81 to -10.87) and basal decreased from (-15.89 to -11.13)]. There was statistically significant increase in RV circumferential strain of lateral free wall from (-12.04 to -16.21), while there was non-significant change in RV circumferential strain of septum from (-19.77 ± 4.86) to (-20.37 ± 5.14). Conclusion: Distorted RV geometry after CABG can lead to altered deformation parameters, in other words longitudinal functional parameters may underestimate RV function and the decrease in RVGLS was compensated by increase in circumferential strain of lateral free wall of RV without change in RVSV or RMPI. Therefor changes in deformation parameters should always be interpreted in relation to change in geometry.
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Occluded superior vena cava and failed epicardial pacing: An unorthodox solution

Published on: 13th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8514668207

Permanent pacemaker implantation is conventionally done via upper limb veins. But in 1% - 6% cases, usual sub clavicular approach is either not possible or contraindicated due to complete occlusion of superior vena cava (SVC) or bilateral subclavian vein and/or bilateral implant site infection or thin skin [1]. Alternative approaches are warranted, including leadless pacemaker or complex lead extraction techniques, before considering surgical epicardial lead placement as a last resort because it has own hazards. We report a patient with complete heart block, total SVC obstruction, and a previously implanted malfunctioning epicardial lead presenting with pacemaker end of life. In view of exhaustion of the surgical option and in a resource constrained situation for lead extraction or leadless pacemaker, transiliac endocardial pacemaker implantation was done and a repeat surgery was averted. Learning objective: Complete venous occlusion is not very often encountered after pacemaker/ICD implantation. Apart from the risk of general anesthesia and invasive surgery, epicardial leads increase battery drain, and have a shorter operating life compared to an endocardial lead. The sparingly utilized iliac venous approach for permanent pacemaker implantation is a valuable, safe and minimally invasive alternative, when the conventional percutaneous access is unavailable, and surgery is undesirable or not possible. 
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Our experience with single patch repair of complete atrioventricular septal defects

Published on: 2nd May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588716552

Background: Various surgical methods have been utilized in the management of complete atrioventricular septal defects (CAVSD). Early intervention and achievement of a competent left atrioventricular valve are the key factors for successful treatment. Methods: A total of 66 patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect have been operated in a tertiary care center. Patient group consisted of 28 males and 38 females with an average age of 6.2 ± 3.3 months. Ventricular and atrial defects were repaired generally with single-patch technique using autogenous pericardium. Results: Preoperative catheterization and angiography was performed in 41 patients. Single patch and modified single patch techniques were preferred in 57 and 9 patients respectively. The average duration for respiratory support, intensive care unit stay and discharge from hospital were 36 ± 49.3 hours, 4.1 ± 1.9 days, and 10.1 ± 3.3 days respectively. In the left atrioventricular valve mild, moderate and severe regurgitation were detected in 44 (66.6%), 17 (25.7%) and 2 (3%) patients postoperatively. No regurgitation was determined in 3 patients (4.5%). Two cases ended up with mortality (3%). Conclusion: Single patch repair technique can provide satisfactory surgical outcomes in patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect.
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Clinical profile and surgical outcomes of children presenting with teratology of Fallot

Published on: 14th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667862731

Background: Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a very common cyanotic congenital heart disease presenting early at birth with various degrees of cyanosis. If left uncorrected surgically, can lead to death. Objectives: This study is aimed at determining pattern and surgical outcome of children with teratology of Fallot in a budding health facility in India over a year period. Result: A total of 51 children were diagnosed of TOF over the period, of which 66.7% were males with mean age of 48.14 ± 45.36 months. The surgical outcome showed only 3.9% mortality. The death was among children >1 to 5 years. The mean number of days in intensive care unit (ICU) was 5.8 ± 11.2 days. 82.4% of the patients were off-pump post-operatively, compared to 17.6% with re-pump. Among those who had re-pump, 77.8% were males and among those without re-pump, 64.3% were likewise males (χ2 = 0.6, p = 0.41). About 92.2% (47/51) of patients had pulmonary regurgitation post-op, ranging from mild to moderate regurgitation. 51.1% of the regurgitations were mild while 25.5% and 23.4% were moderate and severe regurgitations respectively. Post-operative VSD was detected in 51% (26/51) of the patients. The post-op right ventricular pressure (RVOT) was significantly lower than that of pre-op pressure, 10.8 ± 1.5 mmHg vs. 31.7 ± 4.5 mmHg (pair t test = 8.7, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Timely surgical repair is crucial in alleviating several morbidity and mortality associated with teratology of fallot. Pulmonary regurgitation is a very common sequel after surgery and can result in death.
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Open heart surgery in Nigerian children the need for international and regional collaboration: The Bayelsa and Enugu experience

Published on: 9th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124692893

Background: Children with congenital heart diseases (CHD) often require palliative or definitive surgical heart interventions to restore cardiopulmonary function. Lack of early cardiac intervention contributes to large numbers of potentially preventable deaths and sufferings among children with such conditions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to highlight our experience and the importance of international and regional collaboration for open heart surgery in children with CHD and capacity building of local cardiac teams in Bayelsa and Enugu States. Methodology: In November 2016, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed by the managements of FMC, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, UNTH, Enugu and an Italian-based NGO- Pobic Open Heart International for collaboration in the area of free open heart surgery for children with CHDs and training of local cardiac teams from both institutions either in Nigeria or in Italy. Patients for the program were recruited from Bayelsa and Enugu States with referrals from all over the country with combined screening and selection done in UNTH. Selected patients were operated on and funded free of charge by the Italian NGO. Hands on training of the local cardiac teams and cardiac intervention was done twice yearly in Nigeria. Result: From inception of the program in November, 2016 to May, 2019 a total of 47 children (21 Males, 26 Females; age range 6 months to 14 years) with various types of congenital heart defects had free open heart surgery from the program with 41 surgeries done in UNTH & 6 in Italy (complex pathologies). Also, home cardiac teams from UNTH and FMC, Yenagoa gained from on-site capacity training & retraining from the Italian cardiac team both in Nigeria and in Italy. The Success rate was 95.7% (44) and Case Fatality rate was 4.3% (2). Conclusion: There is a great efficacy in early cardiac intervention. This is with respect to a high success rate and minimal Case Fatality seen in this study. This was achieved through Regional and international collaboration.
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The Case of the Phantom Trophoblastic Tumor

Published on: 19th April, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7586693742

This report provides an insight into a very unusual problem in the first trimester of pregnancy, and describes the unfolding of a series of potential blunders. We all know that most problems in gynecologic oncology become terribly magnified when the patient is pregnant. HB had a routine ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy, and a large, extremely vascular mass occupying most of the lower anterior abdominal wall, was found (Figure 1). Because she had received methotrexate two years earlier for a persistent elevation of the hCG titer following surgery for an ectopic pregnancy, she was referred to the gynecologic-oncology service with the working diagnosis of metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). An MRI showed a vascular mass in the subcutaneous tissue invading the rectus sheath and muscle, but not attached to the uterus (Figure 2). The report stated, in no uncertain terms, that the mass was strongly indicative of a metastasis from GTD. However, the hCG level was consistent with the estimated gestational age, and a mass such as this would represent an extremely unusual way for this disease to present. She had been told that she would need the have the pregnancy terminated, followed by chemotherapy to reduce the size of the mass prior to its removal.
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Small cell carcinoma of the ovary with hypercalcemia: Case report and review of the literature

Published on: 3rd July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7815113047

We describe here the case of a 23-year old woman with small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) with SMARC-A4 mutation who benefited from surgery in two steps leading to a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic and lombo-aortic lymph nodes dissection. She also received 6 courses of poly-chemotherapy after the surgery. A close follow-up was then performed by clinical examination every three months with determination of serum calcium and CA125 level as well as imaging with thoraco-abdominal CT scan. To date, the patient has a disease-free survival of more than 9 years. We also reviewed the literature on this topic and discuted the new diagnostic and prognostic genetic tool SMARC-A4 mutation.
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A Rare case of synchronous primary malignancies of gall bladder and ovary

Published on: 6th September, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7856138332

A malignant tumor has the capacity to grow rapidly and to metastasize to the other parts of the body. Ovary has been a common organ for secondaries caused by hematological spread of the tumor and exhibits the same histopathology as that of the primary tumor. Very rarely, it has been found that the patients suffer from two or more histologically distinct, simultaneously detected malignancies, which are called as synchronous tumors or multiple primaries [1]. These multiple primaries can have an impact on cancer treatment (e.g., surgery) and affect the overall prognosis of the patient. Although there is no consensus on the definition of synchronous cancer, commonly two or more primary tumors that occur in a patient closely with respect to the time interval are termed as synchronous tumors [2]. Simultaneous diagnosis of gall bladder carcinoma with ovarian carcinoma with distinct histopathology is rare. A very few cases have been reported so far in literature. We discuss here a rare case that presented with synchronous tumor of gall bladder and the ovary.
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Hyperthermia and Breast cancer: A short review

Published on: 17th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286427114

The main goal of hyperthermia is to elevate the tumor temperature to kill tumor cells and improve local control. The usage of hyperthermia is combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Hyperthermia is delivered in different types of cancers like breast cancer, melanoma and sarcoma. Breast cancer treatment enroll surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Hyperthermia is given once or twice a week concomitantly with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This short review will enlight the types, physics, and the results of hyperthermia especially in the management of breast cancer therapy.
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Trans-abdominal cervical cerclage revisited

Published on: 18th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165593316

Changes in contemporary obstetric and gynaecological practice in relation to ultrasound cervical screening during pregnancy, the treatment of intra-epithelial cervical neoplasia and laparoscopic surgery have resulted in an increased utilization of trans-abdominal cervico-isthmic cerclage in an attempt to reduce the incidence of mid-trimester and early preterm birth in women with repeated pregnancy loss.
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Evaluation of ImageJ for Relative Bone Density Measurement and Clinical Application

Published on: 15th December, 2016

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286423139

The main method for evaluation of healing processes of the jaws in oral and maxillofacial surgery are radiological diagnostics. Quantitative description is possible by measuring the relative bone density, which puts the mean grey value of a certain area in relation to the surrounding bone tissue. In this research the intra- and interindividual variability is determined for this method and a standard operation procedure is elaborated. Therefore ten panoramic radiographs of typical surgical indications in oral a maxillofacial surgery were analyzed by three different members of the workgroup, five times each. The measurements were analyzed with descriptive and comparative statistical methods. The mean coefficient of variation was 2.972% ± 2.361%. The measurements of defect regions were more consistent (2.252% ± 1.928%) than the measurements of surrounding bone (3.691% ± 2.626%). The analysis of variance did not show a statistically significant influence of the different raters to the measurements (ANOVA, Pr>F = 0.9462). Following the standard operation procedure this method seems to be an easy, cheap and close to practice way to visualize healing process of the jaws. Especially in the mandibula, but also in the maxilla with special reconsideration of the sinus-region, it seems to be suitable.
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