Concussion occurs with some frequency in a variety of sports. Any trauma to the brain can also result in temporary or chronic olfactory dysfunction. The relationship between sports concussion and olfactory dysfunction is not well studied, nor do we know whether only more severe injuries result in smell impairments. Three sports players who had previously experienced either a moderate or severe concussion were compared to matched controls. Only the player with a previous severe concussion had a current olfactory impairment. We tentatively suggest that the distinction between moderate and severe concussion may represent a possible cut-off between the presence and absence of olfactory impairment in sports players.
In recent years, the increasing number of patients with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders seeking timely, intensive, prolonged and task oriented hospital- and home- based physical rehabilitation, and the decreasing numbers of trained therapist to provide the needed care, have left a palpable gab. These have resulted in several preventable deformities with associated complications leading to social and economic burdens. Although the introduction of some robotic devices has addressed some of these concerns, the shortfalls from the use of these devices limit their effectiveness. The newly introduced hand rehabilitation board (Dominic’s Board) was prospectively evaluated in 82 patients with ULMDs of different etiologies to assess its therapeutic efficacy in rehabilitation of ULMDs. Additive, but complementary effect was observed when used along with conventional hospital-based therapy and at home, suggesting the effectiveness of this device in preventing or ameliorating the complications associated with ULMDs.
Most patients with anterolateral ankle pain report some history of trauma as the precipitating event. In the majority of cases of anterolateral ankle pain with no history of trauma the cause is proliferative synovitis, especially in the area of the anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament [1,2]. Our case report is about a patient with anterolateral ankle pain and snapping, with no history of trauma, caused by an abnormal peroneal tertius muscle belly. We have found only one similar case reported in the literature . That particular case was treated with arthroscopic resection, which requires specialist arthroscopic skills. In our case we have done an open resection, which can be safely performed by most surgeons.
Coronary artery aneurysm is commonly defined as a localized dilatation exceeding the diameter of adjacent normal coronary segments by 50% . Coronary artery aneurysms may be fusiform, involving the full circumference of the coronary artery, or saccular, involving only a portion of the circumference . Causes of coronary artery aneurysms include atherosclerosis (accounting for 50% of cases), Kawasaki disease, polyarteritis nodosa, infection, trauma, coronary dissection, percutaneous coronary angioplasty, and congenital malformations . The abnormal blood flow within the coronary artery aneurysm may lead to thrombus formation, embolization, rupture, myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction . Here we present a case of a giant fusiform coronary artery aneurysm who passed away due to coronary rupture after acute myocardial infarction.
Blunt chest trauma leads to a wide range of lesions, relatively minor parietal injuries to potentially fatal cardiac lesions, making diagnosis and management difficult. The diagnosis is currently facilitated by imaging, however, these lesions may go unnoticed and be discovered late through complications.
We report the case of a neglected heart wound revealed by a heart failure. This case is notable due to a favourable outcome despite a delay in diagnosis due to a lack of pericardial effusion and the absence of cardiac symptoms, and a long delay from injury to appropriate treatment in the presence of a penetrating cardiac wound deep enough to cause a muscular ventricular septal defect and lacerate the anterior mitral leaflet.
Septic arthritis of the shoulder joint is rare and might affect around 3% of the general population . A delay in diagnosis may increase morbidity and lead to bone and cartilage destruction . Septic arthritis is an unusual complication of pregnancy and can progress to permanent arthropathy and disability .
Septic arthropathy in pregnancy requires multidisciplinary team involvement for prompt recognition and treatment to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. High index of suspicion is vital when clinical and laboratory findings suggest septic arthritis. There are multiple predisposing factors reported previously for septic arthritis of the shoulder in pregnancy such as medical conditions, pyelonephritis and trauma. We report a 37 year old lady who presented at 26 weeks gestation with acute left shoulder pain and high temperature following minor left palm trauma. She also had left mastectomy with axillary clearance ten years earlier. She underwent arthroscopic wash out of her left shoulder joint and was covered with antibiotics with rapid improvement and recovery. We reinforce the importance of early multidisciplinary involvement when septic arthritis of the shoulder in pregnancy is suspected especially in women who have had previous mastectomy and axillary clearance which could be a predisposing factor for such a rare and serious joint condition in pregnancy.
The greater risk of hypernatremia in patients over 65 years old are associated with impaired mental status and physical disability which may result in impaired sensation to thirst, impaired ability to express thirst, and/or decrease access to water [1,2]. Normally, anti-diuretic hormone (ADH, also known as arginine-vasopressin, AVP) is secreted in response to 1-2% increase in osmolality which stimulate thirst, as do hypovolemia and hypotension.
Introduction: Several treatment options are available for the optimal treatment for orbital fractures, depending on aesthetic and functional results after orbital wall reconstruction. The objective of this study is to compare the effect and safety of large orbital floor fractures with titanium mesh combined with poly-L-lactic acid/polyglycolic acid copolymer implants (Lactosorb®) vs. autologous costochondral graft. A wide range of permanent and biodegradable materials have been used successfully for orbital floor reconstruction, however they present with disadvantages for reconstruction of large defects, even if combined.
Patients and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients from Estado de México, México, with access to ISSEMYM health care service, presenting with orbital floor fracture treated at Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery/Maxillofacial Surgery at ISSEMYM Medical Center Toluca between January 2007 and July 2010. Age, sex, etiology, clinical findings, fracture pattern, and treatment modality (Titanium mesh with absorbable implant vs. costochondral graft) were considered. Predictor and outcome variables as complications, inpatient, trauma- surgery interval, surgical time and donor site pain are considered.
Results: Follow up of 21 patients (12 weeks) 17 male, 4 female, ages 22-63 was made. Enophthalmos, main objective of this study, was identified with statistical significance presenting 0% (n=0) post-op Group B patients and 30% (n=3) for Group A (p=0.049). Statistical significance was found referring to inpatient days between two groups being less for costochondral reconstruction patients (p=0.02). No pain in patients undergoing alloplastic surgery. An interesting result was that donor area analogue pain scale for costochondral graft was 2.9/10.
Conclusion: Surgical outcome and complications where evaluated comparing different materials for orbital floor reconstruction. Costochondral graft is a suitable choice when orbital reconstruction is indicated.
Statement of the problem: Anterior tooth fracture, as a result of traumatic injuries, frequently occurs in dentistry. This leads to necrosis of pulp and periapical pathology. The goal of endodontic and restorative dentistry is to retain natural teeth with maximum function and pleasing esthetics.
Purpose of the study: This study aimed at proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth through the procedure known as “Biological Restoration.”
Materials and methods: Biological post obtained through natural, extracted teeth from another individual represents a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of damaged anterior teeth that provides highly functional and esthetic outcomes.
Conclusions: This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of mandibular left lateral incisor after non-surgical healing of periradicular lesion.
Introduction: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is one of the most disruptive anomaly that affects the masticatory system and is referred as permanent movement disfunction of the mandible caused by bilateral or unilateral fibrous or bony adhesions and create problems. The etiology is congenital or idiopathic and include trauma, arthritis, infection, previous TMJ surgery etc. Management requires extensive resection of the ankylotic mass and reconstruction of the ramus-condyle unit with autogenous or alloplastic grafts. Most of the time, combination of surgical treatment with physiotherapy is needed in order to achieve maximum rehabilitation and functionality of the mandible.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to present the surgical management of an unusual case of unilateral TMJ ankylosis and recent of literature review.
Case report: A thirty-seven-year old patient reported unable moving his lower jaw. Clinical examination revealed unilateral TMJ ankylosis of congenital cause and the lateral movement of the mandible was impossible. The patient surgical treatment included resection of the newly formed bone mass, replacement of the condyle with costo-chondral graft and replaced of articular disc with the temporal fascia. Since and for ten years after surgery the patient shows no signs of relapse.
Conclusion: The development of TMJ ankylosis may be congenital or acquired etiology. In order to manage it required a comprehensive clinical and radiographic examination. Surgical resection of the bone and coronoid process on the entire side is necessary and a graft that mimics the articular disc is placed, while it is necessary the immediate postoperative kinesiotherapy.
A clinical case of treatment of two severe intrabony defects on the aesthetic zone is reported and followed for one year.
The biomaterial of choice was enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®; Straumann™) alone with a preservation papilla flap and a minimally invasive surgical technique.
After surgical treatment, the patient was kept in a supportive periodontal therapy programme with 6-month interval between appointments.
In the one year after surgery appointment, clinical and radiographic changes were observed, showing periodontal health and stability.
Introduction: Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (ATIN) is an acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from damage to the tubulointerstitial tissue due to infection, trauma, or use of medication. It is clinically non-specific.
Case: A teenager with multiple trauma, hospitalised after lowering of level of conscience, and convulsion fits. While in the emergency ward, he received: midazolam, fentanyl and phenytoin. The cranial and abdominal CT scans were normal. He was stable with no signs of shock, trauma or infection; he developed oliguria and serum creatinine (Scr) 1.7mg/dL), 12 hours after the admission. After 36 hours, Scr levels were at 3.4mg/dL and urea at 55mg/dL. He had AKI according to pRIFLE (66.2% reduction in clearance). After other causes of AKI had been ruled out, the possibility of ATIN was raised; the phenytoin was suspended and pulse therapy, with methylprednisolone, was promptly initiated. After the first pulse, there was already a decline in the creatinine and urea readings; 48 hours later: Scr at 2.2mg/dL and urea at 86mg/dL. Thirty days after being discharged from hospital, the patient was in good health and had full restoration of kidney function.
Discussion: The singularity of this report relies on the rarity of ATIN secondary to the use of phenytoin and also in the importance of recognizing this aetiology as being one of the origins of AKI.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis allows the reversal of AKI through suppression of treatment with phenytoin and introduction of corticosteroid therapy, when necessary.
Frequency specific microcurrent (FSM) has been used to treat myofascial pain syndrome [1,2] fibromyalgia associated with spine trauma , delayed onset muscle soreness , acute and chronic neuropathic pain  and chronic scarring in burn patients . In this case, its use was modified to include not only the treatment of neuropathic pain but the treatment of neural adhesions in a patient with a ten year history of pain at rest and painful restricted range of motion following an ulnar nerve anterior transposition surgery in 2001. Eleven standard physical therapy sessions including augmented soft tissue mobilization using plastic tools, and muscle strengthening exercises and stretching failed to resolve symptoms. Three sessions of frequency specific microcurrent produced complete resolution of pain and symptoms. Patient remained symptoms free at one-year follow up.
The study aimed to identify possible environmental risk factors for breast cancer among women in Gaza Strip and conducted in 2010. A case- control study design was used with face to face interviews by structured questionnaire with breast cancer patient women as well as healthy women. Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the collected data. The study population was 288 women, 144 were women with breast cancer (cases) and 144 were healthy women (controls) with response rate 100% for cases as well as controls. The study was carried out in the two main hospitals in Gaza Strip (El-Shifa and European Gaza) and on cases who had a regular follow up in each hospital, while controls have been chosen from women who had no history of breast cancer by mammogram or by self-examination. In this study the main statistically significant risk factors were; marital status, educational status, physical trauma on breast, medication for infertility treatment, eating red meat 500g or more weekly, eating canned food, eating chicken skin, eating raw and cooked vegetables, using oils with saturated fats in cooking, living in or beside a farm, dealing with crops with naked hands, working in a farm during pesticides application or during 24 hours of pesticides application, cleaning pesticides’ equipment, living with people working in a farm or a agricultural field, and application of pesticides personally. In contrary, no statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls in relation to area of residency, exposure to X-ray in the past, having radiation therapy, getting contraceptive pills, using hair dyes, using anti-deodorant underarm, using facial cosmetics, using hair removal ointment, washing vegetables and fruits, buying and transporting pesticides, and wearing protective tools during pesticides mixing and application.
An enquiry into the lack of attention awarded to serotonin antagonism in the treatment of arterial thrombosis revealed that the mode of action of serotonin and its platelet receptor antagonists was an action upon thrombus growth, and not, as with other anti-platelet drugs upon the initiation of thrombosis. This lack of effect could explain why this approach has been considered not to be effective. However under conditions of arterial stenosis in which there is platelet activation by increased shear stress, and during the growth phase of arterial thrombi, serotonin 5HT2A antagonism has been demonstrated to have great potentcy in dispersing thrombotic obstruction to blood flow. This mode of action, the lack of participation of serotonin in haemostasis, and the absence of serotonin in wounds accounts for the proven lack of effect of effect of pure specific 5HT2A antagonists (i.e., not those with other actions) on operative bleeding and skin bleeding times. This lack of effect on haemostasis solves the dosing problem encountered with other anti-thrombotic drugs, with which drug concentration cannot be controlled with single fixed doses, leading to the association between increased anti-thrombotic efficacy and increased bleeding complications. Thus 5HT2A antagonism appears to be the preferred approach, from the point of view of safety and lack of bleeding risk; this consideration applies particularly to thrombosis therapy in the context of traumatic accidents, surgical operations and invasive procedures such as angioplasty.
Varicella zoster virus (VZV), a double-stranded DNA virus, is a highly contagious human neurotropic virus that belongs to the alpha group of herpes viruses [1-4]. Primary VZV infection (chickenpox) occurs in childhood then the virus becomes latent in the nerve ganglia [1,5-7]. Reactivation of the virus may occur decades later and cause herpes zoster (HZ) which is manifested by a typical painful skin eruption that has characteristic dermatomal distribution [1,5]. Reactivation of VZV is usually predisposed to: old age; comorbid medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive airway disease, and end-stage renal disease; and immunosuppression due to malignancy, autoimmune disorders, immunosuppressive therapies, trauma, cytotoxic chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and solid organ transplantation (SOT) [1,5-7].
Introduction: Pancreatic pseudocysts (PPs) are mostly delayed complications of acute or chronic pancreatitis and trauma. Pancreatic pseudocysts are usually managed by supportive medical treatment without surgical procedure. All the surgical interventions (percutaneous, endoscopic or surgical approaches) are based on the location, size, symptoms, complications of the pancreatic pseudocyst and medical condition of the patients. Recently, laparoscopic cystogastrostomy has become most appropriate approach especially for retrogastric pancreatic pseudocysts. In this study, we would like to report results of laparoscopic anterior transgastric cystogastrostomy by using linear articulated endo GIA stapler (Covidien medium thick purple) and versa-lifter (versa lifter®, laparoscopic retractor, manufactured by protomedlabs, France) in 14 pancreatic pseudocysts patients.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with pancreatic pseudocysts treated by laparoscopic anterior transgastric cystogastrostomy from September 2010 to October 2014. All of the patients were controlled for the recurrence of pancreatic pseudocysts in February 2017.
Results: 14 patients with pancreatic pseudocysts were managed by laparoscopic anterior transgastric cysto-gastrostomy. Conversion was performed in only one patient (7%). There were no symptoms and signs of recurrence of pancreatic pseudocyst during on average 43.6 months follow up time.
Conclusion: Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy by using articulated linear endo-GIA stapler and versa-lifter is a safe and effective method for management of appropriate retro-gastric pancreatic pseudocysts.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Common manifestations of asthma include wheezing, chest tightness, cough, shortness of breath. Diagnosis of asthma requires clinical documentation of respiratory symptoms, exacerbation of symptoms following exposure to triggers, as well as demonstration of expiratory airflow obstruction. Wheeze is a continuous sound, lasting longer than 0.25 s that is produced by oscillation of opposing airway walls [1,2]. Wheezing, although a typical symptom of asthma, can also be caused by other diseases. Apart from asthma, wheezing can be due to extra-thoracic upper airway obstruction, intrathoracic upper airway obstruction, lower airway obstruction.
Benign multimodal goiter is a common disease, that rarely causes upper airway obstruction. Retrosternal goiter should be taken into account the differential diagnosis of upper airway obstruction . The respiratory symptoms of a retrosternal goiter may be masked for years due to the slow growth of the goiter. Patients commonly complain of respiratory symptoms if tracheal diameter is narrowed more than 50% from the normal size. Respiratory symptoms may be suddenly precipitated by spontaneous or traumatically induced bleeding into the substernal goiter, as well as by tracheal infections . Clinical management of this condition is really challenging. Diagnosis is also not straightforward, as clinical suspicion is needed. There are cases of retrosternal goiter mimicking asthma that remain undiagnosed for many years. Retrosternal goiter should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of patients diagnosed as suffering from asthma, and presenting no improvement despite medical therapy. In addition, it should be taken into account that sudden gland enlargement due to hormonal changes might lead to life threatening upper airway obstruction with clinical picture similar to bronchial asthma attack . In a recent very interesting case report, the authors present a case of a pregnant woman in the second trimester who presented with an acute airway obstruction due to the enlargement of a retrosternal goiter .
Goiters are the more common masses of the superior mediastinum [6,7]. Commonly, retrosternal goiter is due to the extension in the thorax of a cervical goiter. However, rarely, it may represent primary disease due to the growth of ectopic thyroid tissue. In addition, retrosternal goiter may develop in patient submitted to thyroidectomy due to cervical multinodular goiter . Although retrosternal goiters are commonly asymptomatic, symptoms may include dyspnea, stridor, hoarseness, dysphagia, superior vena cava syndrome, transient ischemic attacks, cerebral edema, Horner’s syndrome, and thyrotoxicosis . Diagnosis could be verified by neck and chest radiography, thorax CT and MRI. Chest radiography commonly shows a widened mediastinum with a superior mediastinal mass causing compression of the trachea as well as deviation of the trachea to the right. Mediastinal computed tomography reveals a mass that is extension of the thyroid gland. The presence of respiratory symptoms in a patient with retrosternal goiter is an indication for surgery. The majority of retrosternal goiters can be approached through a cervical approach [9,10].
The objective of this study is to determine prevalence of alcohol-substance use among university students, and to investigate the correlation between the childhood abuse, suicide probability and anger expression styles in students who have drinking problems. A survey was carried out among randomly selected students from the Faculty of Education in Baskent University in Turkey. Study sample consists of 399 university students. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Trait Anger and Anger Expressions Scales (T-Anger-Anger EX), and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) were used. The CAGE questionnaire was applied to identify the problems of alcohol use. Probable presence of an alcohol use disorder is indicated by a score of 1+, whereas a score of 2+ was taken as the cut-off point for assessing presence of clinically significant alcohol use problems. Data were analyzed using with t test and multiple binary logistic regression. Of the whole sample 36.9% reported that they had ever tried drinking alcohol. The overall prevalence of alcohol use problems according to CAGE 1+ was 14.4% and CAGE 2+ was 7.3%. Sexual abuse and Anger-In were predictors of CAGE 1+, suicide probability was predictor of CAGE2+. Childhood trauma experiences especially, sexual abuse, suicide probability, trait anger, the anger expressed inside and outside were main factors to identify alcohol use problems. Professionals and parents must pay attention to childhood traumatic experiences, suicide and anger expression styles in youths with alcohol use problems.
Introduction: Necrotizing Fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressing, severe suppurative infection of the superficial fascia and the sorrounding tissues that may lead to necrosis, septic shock and death if left untreated. Facial NF is rarely seen and symptoms may be non-specific at the onset and depend on the origin site and the stage of the disease, making it difficult for diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done following the PRISMA guidance. PubMed database was searched for case reports published between January 2007 and March 2017. Full text articles were obtained and assesed for relevance. Data extraction was performed as an iterative process.
Results: A total of 24 articles, describing 29 adult patients with facial NF were included. Facial NF was more common in males. Skin trauma was the most frequent mechanism of lesion and diabetes mellitus was the most common associated systemic disorder. Periorbital area was the most affected area. In order of appereance, swelling and pain were the most common initial clinical manifestations. Group A Streptococcus was the most frequent microorganism isolated. Advanced airway management was needed in more than 50% of the cases and surgical management was done in 90% of the cases.
Conclusions: Practitioners should be aware of its existance, epidemiology, etiology, risk factors and initial clinical manifestations to develop a high index of suspicion, to order studies that may discard or confirm the diagnosis, and to offer prompt treatment to preserve patient’s life and reduce the disfigurement and disability that it may cause.
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Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
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Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Israel
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University of Agriculture, Pakistan
Muhammad Sarwar Khan
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Assistant Professor, UCLAS Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, India