Venous

Assessment of lipid and hematological profile among blood donors in European Gaza Hospital, Palestine

Published on: 16th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192805778

Background: There is an important shortage of blood in the greatest blood banks worldwide to meet up with requirements for numerous medical interventions. Limited studies have associated regular blood donation to the lowering of lipid function parameters. Assessing the lipid function is a classical method of evaluating an individual’s risk for coronary heart disease. Objective: The general goal of the study is to determine lipid and hematological profile among blood donors in European Gaza Hospital, Palestine. Materials and Methods: This study was a case-control study that involved 120 male, 40 of whom were regular blood donors (study group), 40 first time donors and 40 non- donors (control group) aged between 18-60 years. A volume of 5ml venous blood was drawn from each fasting participant into a dry biochemistry screw-capped tube. This was allowed to clot and the serum was used to determine total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), while HDL-C/LDL-C and TC/LDL ratio were calculated by using the following formula. Anthropometric parameters (weight, height) of donors were measured using standard protocol. The height (in meter), weight (in kilogram) were used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) using the following formula. BMI= weight (kg)/ (height in meter)² and blood was collected from each participant in EDTA (for hematocrit, ESR). Three groups were matched for age and BMI. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Chi-square (χ²) was used to compare the relationship between categorical variables, ANOVA was used to measure the difference between means. Data were summarized using tables, pie charts, histograms. A P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant for all tests conducted. Results: The mean total cholesterol (169±10.85 mg/dl), triglycerides (116±9.73 mg/dl), HDL (54±2.5 mg/dl ), LDL (92±11.4mg/dl), LDL/HDL ratio (1.73±0.25) and TC/HDL ratio (3.16±0.26) were lower in the regular blood donors than the first time donors(198±10.13, 179±5.82, 42.33±1.6, 120±11.2, 2.85±0.36, 4.7±0.40) and non- donors (202±10.19, 180±12.68, 41.75±1.4, 125±11.7, 2.99±0.33, 4.86±0.32) respectively and statistically significant (P < 0.05).The mean ESR (6.63±0.87mm/hr) was lower statistically significant in the regular blood donors than the first time donors (7.40±1.17) and non- donors (7.60±1.48) respectively (P < 0.05). The mean HCT (42.98±0.86%) was lower statistically significant in the regular blood donors than the first time donors (44.63±0.90) and non- donors (44.75±0.74, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Regular donors have reduced risk of developing coronary heart disease as reflected by the low total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, TC/HDL-c ratio and HCT and high HDL. BMI in regular donor was less than the donor for the first time and did not donate, but did not reach the statistical significance. Also in our study regular donors have reduced risk of developing inflammation as reflected by low ESR.
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Hemoptysis after subclavian vein puncture for pacemaker implantation: A case report

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330425842

Background: Subclavian venous access for pacemaker lead insertion is a common procedure and is normally considered safe in the hands of an expert. However, subclavian venepuncture is not without complications, starting from mild subcutaneous hematoma to pneumothorax. We here present a case of hemoptysis occurring after difficult subclavian vein puncture, which subsequently improved on conservative management only. Case Summary: A 65-year-old gentleman, post aortic valve replacement had persistent high-grade AV block and was taken up for a dual chamber pacemaker implantation. Immediately following venous access, he had a bout of hemoptysis, which recovered on its own. Post procedure chest x-ray was suggestive of alveolar hemorrhage which cleared gradually in next three-four days. Discussion: Post subclavian venepuncture hemoptysis is known; but it is a rare complication, arising either because of lung parenchyma injury or arterial injury. This is mostly benign and improves on conservative management only; however rarely it may be massive and life threatening where transcatheter arterial embolization may be required.
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A proposed mechanism to explain increases in intracranial pressure: The concept of cerebral artery wedge pressure

Published on: 8th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8514665738

We hypothesize that, with elevated cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pressure, cerebral micro-vascular obstruction and congestion may occur despite (subdural) large-vein pressures being normal. Smaller veins emptying into these larger, dura-enveloped veins are not immune to the compressive effects of elevated CSF pressure and a “Starling Resistor” mechanism might explain why elevated CSF pressures collapse these smaller veins. This small cerebral venous starling resistor compression mechanism may be the final common pathway for many patients suffering from increased CSF pressures and might also be an important contributor to impaired focal venous drainage presenting as a headache with normal venous sinus pressures.
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Occluded superior vena cava and failed epicardial pacing: An unorthodox solution

Published on: 13th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8514668207

Permanent pacemaker implantation is conventionally done via upper limb veins. But in 1% - 6% cases, usual sub clavicular approach is either not possible or contraindicated due to complete occlusion of superior vena cava (SVC) or bilateral subclavian vein and/or bilateral implant site infection or thin skin [1]. Alternative approaches are warranted, including leadless pacemaker or complex lead extraction techniques, before considering surgical epicardial lead placement as a last resort because it has own hazards. We report a patient with complete heart block, total SVC obstruction, and a previously implanted malfunctioning epicardial lead presenting with pacemaker end of life. In view of exhaustion of the surgical option and in a resource constrained situation for lead extraction or leadless pacemaker, transiliac endocardial pacemaker implantation was done and a repeat surgery was averted. Learning objective: Complete venous occlusion is not very often encountered after pacemaker/ICD implantation. Apart from the risk of general anesthesia and invasive surgery, epicardial leads increase battery drain, and have a shorter operating life compared to an endocardial lead. The sparingly utilized iliac venous approach for permanent pacemaker implantation is a valuable, safe and minimally invasive alternative, when the conventional percutaneous access is unavailable, and surgery is undesirable or not possible. 
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Femoral venous closure: A single-centre retrospective analysis in real world all comers with MynxGrip® vascular closure device

Published on: 18th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8628667812

Background: Vascular closure devices (VCD) are routinely used to achieve haemostasis following percutaneous arterial procedures. The extravascular polyethylene-glycol based MynxGrip® device (Cardinal Health) received FDA approval for use in the closure of femoral veins, but so far limited data is available on its use, especially with concomitant use of anticoagulants. Method: This is a retrospective analysis of data from a single-centre on the effectiveness and complication rates following the use of the MynxGrip® device for femoral venous closure in patients undergoing diagnostic/interventional (temporary pacing during balloon aortic valvuloplasty, or electrophysiology) procedures utilising 5-7F sheaths. Results: 85 patients (mean age 74 years) underwent femoral venous closure with the MynxGrip® device. 51.8% were male. The rate of concomitant anticoagulant or antiplatelet use was 52.9%. Device deployment was 100% successful with full haemostasis in all cases. There were no major vascular complications (bleeding, thrombosis, or infections). There was one case of a minor small venous hematoma which did not require treatment. The mean length of stay was less than 1 day (67.1% patients discharged the same day) and overnight stay only indicated by interventional procedure. Conclusion: These data support safety and efficacy of the MynxGrip® device for femoral venous closure with same-day discharge, even with concomitant aggressive antiplatelet and anticoagulant use. It has the potential for use in other large bore venous access sites. 
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Post-extrasystolic potentiation differentiates “true” from “pseudo” Low-flow, Low-gradient aortic stenosis

Published on: 16th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872657684

Post-extrasystolic potentiation (PESP) is a marker of contractile reserve and refers to the augmentation of left ventricular contractility due to preload recruitment and rise in intracellular calcium following a premature beat. In this case report we show that PESP might be a safe and helpful aid to evaluate low flow, low gradient aortic stenosis and contractile reserve in the cathlab, thereby reducing the potential risk of complications associated with intravenous dobutamine evaluation and reducing unnecessary testing.
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The Risk-Adjusted Impact of Intraoperative Hemofiltration on Real-World Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

Published on: 27th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597137

Objectives: The role of perioperative hemofiltration (HF) in adult patients with impaired renal function undergoing cardiac surgery is controversial. There are suggestions that it may be beneficial for high risk patients undergoing prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. However, long term outcomes in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients have not been investigated. Methods: To address this we retrospectively followed 7620 patients who underwent CABG between April 2001 and March 2006. Logistic regression was used to risk adjust in-hospital outcomes. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to risk adjust Kaplan-Meier freedom from death curves. Outcomes were adjusted for American Heart Association and American College of College of Cardiology recommended variables. Results: 113 patients had intraoperative HF, 38 had postoperative HF and control group of 7006 that had no HF. After adjusting for differences in case-mix, patients with preoperative kidney disease who received postoperative HF proportionately had significantly higher rates of hospital deaths as compared with intraoperative HF patients. In addition, 5-year follow-up risk-adjusted freedom from death indicated significant differences between intraoperative HF group and postoperative HF patients. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that after adjusting for differences in case mixes, the use of intraoperative hemofiltration may offer superior short term clinical outcomes and longer-term survival benefits for patients with preoperative kidney disease.
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Intraperitoneal and Subsequent Intravenous Vancomycin: An Effective Treatment Option for Gram-Positive Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis

Published on: 20th April, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317634403

Intraperitoneal vancomycin absorption is higher when there is peritoneal inflammation, but the absorption decreases with recovery from peritonitis. Consequently, intraperitoneal maintenance doses are ineffective, reducing the rate of cure. Aim:To evaluate the outcome of Gram-positive peritonitis treated with intraperitoneal and subsequent intravenous vancomycin. Methods: In April 1996, we initiated a protocol for treating peritonitis caused by Gram-positive organisms using a 2-g intraperitoneal loading dose of vancomycin followed by intravenous vancomycin at 1 g twice in 5 days for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and at 1 g three times in 5 days for Staphylococcus aureus. We analyzed episodes of Gram-positive peritonitis (coagulase-negative and S. aureus) and the efficiency of the treatment protocol in 113 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis between 1 April, 1996 and 3 August, 2016. There were 6090 patient-months and the mean treatment lasted 54±44 months. The outcomes were evaluated as (1) complete cure, (2) relapsing peritonitis, (3) catheter removal for refractory peritonitis, and (4) death. Results: A total of 51 cases of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus peritonitis and 37 of S. aureus were seen in 46 of the 113 patients (40.7%). Of these, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (92.15%) and 34 S. aureus peritonitis (91.89%) resolved. Conclusion:The response to treatment was very satisfactory.
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Anemia response to Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol-Epoetin Beta (Mircera) versus Epoetin Alfa (Eprex) in patients with chronic Kidney disease on Hemodialysis

Published on: 5th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317633426

Objective: Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney disease, usually develops because of erythropoietin deficiency. Maintaining target hemoglobin (Hb) with minimal variability is a challenge in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study is to compare the long- and short-acting erythropoietin erythropoietin stimulating agents such as Mircera and Eprex in achieving these targets. Results: The response rate in the evaluation period was higher in patients treated with methoxypolyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera) than with epoetin (Eprex) alfa: 36 of 50 (72%) mean Hb concentration (10.51g/dl) versus 29 of 50 (58%) mean Hb concentration (9.81), with statistically significant p-value <0.0001. Conclusion: Treatment with (Mircera) administered intravenously once monthly was superior to treatment with (Eprex) administered subcutaneously three times weekly for maintaining haemoglobin concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.
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The incidence of hemodynamic and respiratory adverse events in morbidly obese presenting for Bariatric surgery

Published on: 25th July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7795943426

Context: Perioperative management of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery is challenging. Lacking standardized perioperative protocols, complication rates may be high. This retrospective study aims to quantify the incidence of significant blood pressure decreases on induction of anesthesia and intraoperative hypoxemia, before implementation of a standardized protocol designed for bariatric surgery. Design: Retrospective, observational study. Setting: A 250-bed county hospital in northern Sweden. Subjects: 219 morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery between 2003 and 2008. Main outcome measures: Incidence of systolic blood pressure (SAP) falls to less than 70% of the preoperative baseline during induction of anesthesia and incidence of perioperative hypoxemia. Results: The incidence of confirmed SAP falls to below 70% of baseline at induction of anesthesia was 56.2% (n = 123/219). This incidence rose with increasing age (p < 0.001) but not with body mass index (BMI). 3.7% (n = 8/219) of cases were marked as difficult intubations. A transient period of hypoxemia was observed in 6.8% (n = 15/219) and was more common with increasing BMI (p = 0.005). Fourteen different drug combinations were used in the study population. Of those administered an induction anesthetic drug, 72.6% (n = 159/193) were given an overdose when calculated by lean body weight, but this did not correlate significantly to SAP falls (p = 0.468). Conclusion: The incidence of a significant blood pressure fall upon induction of anesthesia was common. The incidence of airway and ventilation problems were low. Overdosing of anesthetics and excessive variation in applied anesthesia methods were found.
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Assessing the Neurocognitive function effects of ketamine in Cardiac Surgical patients

Published on: 23rd October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929258453

Background: Despite remarkable progress in surgical, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and anesthetic tecniques, neurocognitive damage still remains an important cause of postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery. The aetiology of neurocognitive damage is likely to be multifocal; including macro and microemboli, cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation and nonpulsatile flow. N-methyl-D-asparticAcid (NMDA) receptors play an important role during neurocognitive damage. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist to the phencyclidine site of NMDA receptor for glutamate and directly suppresses proinflammatory cytokine production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether ketamine has neuroprotective effects during open-heart surgery through the use of neurocognitive tests. Methods: We considered all patients aged between 58-76 years who were referred to a single cardiothoracic surgical team for elective, primary coronary revascularization. Patients were excluded from the study for the following reasons: a history of neurological, psychiatric, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, hematologic and clotting systems disorder and repeat procedures. Undergoing CPB were randomized 2 groups: Group1 (ketamine)(n=25) or Group2 (propofol)(n= Patients 25) In the propofol group, anesthesia was induced with 3mg/kg propofol, 1µg/kg remifentanyl, 0.1mg/kg vecuronium. Remifentanyl 0.5-1μg/kg/min was infused intravenously throughout the whole procedure. In the ketamine group, anesthesia was induced with 1-2mg/kg propofol, 1-2mg ketamin, 0.1mg/kg vecuronium. Ketamin 1mg/kg/hour was infused intravenously. Pressors, inotropic agents and antiarrhythmics were used as needed. The Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSE) was administered the day before surgery and three days later. The change in scores for MMSE was calculated for each patient and all the group. The results were compared statistically with paired simple t-test. Results: The mean age, CBP duration, lowest temperature was not statistically significant (Table1). Peroperative and postoperative blood pressures and pulse rates showed differences between groups. There were no preoperative differences between the groups on any of the mean MMSE score (Table2). The ECG monitoring revealed that most patients remained in sinus rhythm, with no difference between groups. Conclusions: We could not demonstrate that intraoperatively administered ketamine resulted in greater neuroprotective effects compared with propofol. Ketamine in combination with propofol during cardiac surgery is associated with a stable hemodynamic profile. Propofol may reduce the delivery of microemboli to the cerebral circulation by decreasing the cerebral blood flow. Propofol has a direct neuroprotective effect in vitro, although Roach et al. could not demonstrate a protective effect of propofol during open-heart surgery. Propofol enhances the antiinflammatory response to surgery by several mechanisms. This might have masked a neuroprotective effect of ketamine because propofol was administered in both groups in our study.
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Effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia during hepatectomy on intraoperative and post-operative patient outcomes

Published on: 13th November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929291912

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with balanced general anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamics and fluid requirement, and on postoperative patient outcome. Design: The study design was a retrospective data analysis of patients undergoing open hepatectomy at a single tertiary care center from May, 2013 to June, 2016. Patients undergoing hepatectomies were separated into two groups: patients not receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (either no epidural or epidural catheter not used intraoperatively) were designated the control group and patients receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (bolus and/or continuously). Patients were excluded if they underwent laparoscopic or non-elective procedures. Results: 103 patients were included in the data analysis: Control n=14, Epidural = 89 patients. There were no major differences in demographics between groups. Epidural patients did not have higher requirements in intraoperative intravenous fluid administration, blood loss, or vasopressor use compared to control patients. Patients who received epidurals required less intravenous opioids with better post-operative pain scores initially and also on post-operative day 2. There were no differences in length of time to ambulation, or post-operative acute kidney injury amongst groups. Conclusions: This study shows that patients undergoing hepatectomies using combined epidural and general anesthesia: 1) have no increased requirement for intraoperative crystalloid, colloid, or blood component therapy, 2) require lower total intravenous opioid dose, and 3) subjectively report better pain control. Therefore, intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia may be advantageous for ERAS protocol based oncological procedures.
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Anaesthetic management of an elderly patient with ischaemic heart disease and previous MI undergoing elective inguinal hernia repair: Case report

Published on: 25th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8615126196

Ischemic heart disease may occur in isolation, or in combination with the pathological process of vascular ageing, arteriosclerosis. These two conditions have differing impacts on the haemodynamic changes in response to anaesthesia and surgery. Hypertension is not a feature of ischemic heart disease, and vice versa, but where the two conditions co-exist, hypertension aggravates and accelerates the pathological processes of ischemic heart disease. Patients older than 40 yrs. presenting for anaesthesia and surgery must therefore be considered at risk of any combination of these three conditions. Anaesthetic techniques must also be chosen to minimize haemodynamic changes which in the normal healthy patient cause no serious morbidity, but which, in the patient with ischemic heart disease, can lead to serious morbidity or death. Here we report a 70 years old (BMI of 23.3) elderly, hypertensive Male patient with ischemic heart disease with previous MI (EF of 40% - 5%) undergoing elective Inguinal hernia repair. We Opted Spinal anesthesia over General anaesthesia as it should be an asset in cardiac patients undergoing non-cardiac lower abdominal surgeries to reduce preload and after load, stress response, coagulation responses, improves coronary perfusion, provides better postoperative analgesia, reduces incidence of perioperative MI, maintains myocardial oxygen supply demand ratio and avoids harmful effects of GA such as hypotention due to intravenous induction drugs, tachycardia and hypertension due to pressor response during direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
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Haemostasis with suture-tourniquet technique following removal of large-bore venous sheaths for endovascular recanalization of acute thrombosis in native arteriovenous fistula

Published on: 26th August, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8277769392

Purpose: To investigate the suture-tourniquet technique for haemostasis in patients with acute thrombosis of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) whom underwent manual aspiration thrombectomy using large-bore venous sheaths and high dose heparin. Methods: Between January 2016 and May 2018, patients with acute AVF thrombosis performed successful manual aspiration thrombectomy by using large bore venous sheaths and high dose heparin were included in this retrospective study. Success rate for haemostasis, procedural complications clinical and imaging follow up was reported descriptively. Results: A total of 52 patients with 64 procedures met the inclusion criteria. In 60(94%) of 64 procedures, successful haemostasis was achieved with suture-tourniquet technique. In 2(3.1%) of the 64 procedures, the suture broke while turning the tourniquet and haematoma occurred in another 3 procedures (4.7%) although suture-tourniquet technique was applied appropriately. Manual compression was performed in these patients. There were 3 major complications unrelated the suture-tourniquet technique. Conclusion: The suture tourniquet technique can achieve haemostasis rapidly and can be safely used with low complication rates without fistulae thrombosis after large-bore venous sheath removal following treatment of AVF thrombosis.
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Short term effect of Intravenous Intermittent Iron Infusion versus Bolus Iron Infusion on Iron parameters in Hemodialysis patients

Published on: 21st December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597713

Intravenous iron is used in combination with erythropoi esis-stimulating agents to treat the anemia of hemodialysis patients, however, there is variety in the dose and the frequency. So we compare bolus intravenous iron administration protocol vs an intermittent intravenous iron infusion protocol for 3 months in a single blinded design that was conducted on 30 patients randomized into 2 matching groups. Iron parameter, hemoglobin level, and CRP were monitored before and at the end of study. Patients with end stage renal disease on regular hemodialysis with iron deficiency anemia can be treated with intravenous iron administration either by the protocol of divided doses of IV iron through the sessions of hemodialysis or by giving the total dose of iron needed as a single large dose on only one session of hemodialysis, obtaining the same outcome in correction of iron parameters in treatment of iron deficiency anemia.
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Posterior Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome in a patient after second dose of Rituximab for treatment of resistant Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Published on: 16th February, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347066275

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological syndrome with clinical features of altered sensorium, headaches, visual problems and seizures. It has been associated with uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and immunosuppressive drugs. Rituximab has also been implicated as a cause of PRES that usually occurs after the first dose. We report a case of PRES that occurred after the second dose of Rituximab. A twenty three years old female known case of resistant TTP treated with multiple courses of steroids and plasmapharesis was admitted with renal failure, severe volume overload ad lower respiratory tract infection. She was treated with hemodialysis, intravenous antibiotics, steroids and plasma exchange (PEX). 
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Emergency care sick palliative and problems oncology in emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic

Published on: 30th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8873202033

Emergency medical care in palliative patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to provide a consistent treatment for stable patients that should be consistent with the goals and benefits, the perspective of these patients, but avoiding palliative patients with a poor prognosis that is unlikely to survive. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world around 8.8 million deaths a year. Worldwide, about 7-10 million patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, recently there has been a significant increase in the number of cases diagnosed with cancer. About 70% of cancer deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. The goals of emergency medical care based on the criteria of BLS and ACLS, that is should be done “Do not do resuscitation, do not intubate but continue medical treatment excluding endotracheal intubation without prospects for the patient, but offering BLS only treatment concentrated symptomatic. ED is often the only place that can provide the necessary medical interventions (e.g., intravenous fluids or pain management medications. Medications as well as immediate access to advanced diagnostic tests when needed such as CT, RM and other diagnostic and treatment procedures.
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Stem cells in patients with heart failure experience

Published on: 20th April, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7666352115

Between 2003 and 2011, 17 patients with heart failure were treated with stem cells as part of our Foundation’s Regenerative Medicine program. In several centers and countries 4 with ischemic cardiomyopathy of which 3 were surgically implanted with autologous bone marrow stem cells (ABMSC) plus bypass surgery. One patient was treated with hyperbaric medicine plus bypass surgery. Patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy were implanted surgically with 2 different types of stem cells. Ten patients were implanted with stem cells derived from human fetuses (HFDSCs) and three patients with autologous bone marrow stem cells (ABMSC). The ejection fractions of the coronary artery bypass graft off pump OPCAB (control group) versus coronary artery bypass group off pump OPCAB plus stem cell transplantation were as followsin the entire serie: preoperative, 30.7% +/- 2.5% compared to 29.4% +/- 3.6%; 1 month, 36.4% +/- 2.6% versus 42.1% +/- 3.5%; 3 months, 36.5% +/- 3.0% vs. 45.5% +/- 2.2%; And 6 months, 37.2% +/- 3.4% versus 46.1% +/- 1.9% (p <0.001). The first patient performed at our center in Argentina in this series is alive and asymptomatic 15 years after implantation, and the rest of this series we do not have current data. A patient without visible vessels in the anterior wall of the left ventricle was treated with 18 hyperbaric chamber sections from one hour at 1.4 AT. After creating angiogenesis, the patient was operated on receiving 2 grafts (mammary and venous) without extracorporeal circulation in the anterior descending artery and diagonal artery. The preoperative ejection fraction was 33% at 90 months of follow up the ejection fraction was 58%. The patient at 90 months was asymptomatic. Of the idiopathic heart disease group, nine patients underwent median sternotomy, and received human fetal stem cells (HFDSCs from ectopic pregnancy or spontaneous abortion, three patients received autologous bone marrow stem cells ABMSC) and 1HFDSCs for Minimally Invasive Surgery. Patients with HFDSC, compared to baseline, improved: The mean (±SD) NYHA class decreased from 3.4 ± 0.5 to 1.33 ± 0.5 (P = 0.001); Mean EF increased 31%, from 26.6% ± 4.0% to 34.8% ± 7.2% (p = 0.005); the yield in ETT increased 291.3%, from 4.25 minutes to 16.63 minutes (128.9% in metabolic equivalents, 2.45 to 5.63) (P <0.0001); the mean LVEDD decreased 15%, from 6.85 ± 0.6cm to 5.80 ± 0.58cm (P <0.001); the mean performance on the 6-minute walk test increased 43.2%, from 251 ± 113.1 seconds to 360 ± 0 seconds (P = 0.01); the mean distance increased 64.4%, from 284.4 ± 144.9m to 468.2 ± 89.8m (P = 0.004); and the mean score in the Minnesota congestive HF test decreased from 71 ± 27.3 to 6 ± 5.9 (p <0.001). Kaplan-Maier’s probability of survival at 40 months was 66%. No rejection or cancer was observed at follow-up, in this series follow-up was discontinued at 4 years. In idiopathic patients receiving autologous cells by Mininvasive technique preoperative NYHA was 3.6 (+/- 0.70) 6 months after receiving stem cell therapy. The mean value of the functional class was 1.9 (+/- 0.90) (p <0.005). ) showing marked clinical improvement. The preimplantation ejection fraction was 28% (+/- 3.6%) and at 6 months 44% (+/- 4.7%) (p <0.005). There was a similar change in ventricular diameters: After 6 months LVESV went from 50mm (+/- 3.3) to 42mm (+/- 4.5) (p <0.05). Two of the three patients in this group received re-synchronization therapy; one died at 10 years and 4 months, another at age 11 and another one alive at 12 years of the implant. More experience should be performed with different techniques and cells to find the appropriate treatment in this type of patients.
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Preliminary Report on the Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in Patients with Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction

Published on: 28th August, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7844548189

Background: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) effects can shift immune responses toward anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic phenotypes, potentially helping patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Methods: We evaluated the effect of infusing allogeneic MSC intravenously in 9 patients with moderate BOS refractory to standard therapy who were not candidates for retransplant, dividing them into 3 dosing groups: Group 1, 1×106 MSC/kg (n=3); Group 2, 2×106 MSC/kg (n=3); and Group 3, 4×106 MSC/kg (n=3). We recorded pulmonary function tests, laboratory variables, and serum biomarkers pre- and post-MSC infusion. Results: These patients had significant decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over 1 year pre-MSC infusion (mean ± SD) FVC, 3.11±0.98 L, and FEV1 1.99+0.64 L versus FVC 2.58±1.03 and FEV1 1.61±0.52 just before infusion (P<0.05); representing a mean loss of 530 mL in FVC and 374 mL in FEV1 over 12 months. One year post-MSC infusion, mean FVC and FEV1 increased to 2.66±1.01 L and 1.63±0.55 L, respectively (changes no longer significant compared to before MSC infusion). Patients in Group 1 showed elevation of tolerance-inducing T regulatory cells and increased levels of epidermal growth factor. Tolerance-inducing Th-2 cytokines increased in Groups 1 and 2. These changes were not significantly different in these small sub-groups. Conclusion: MSC infusion appears to slow down or reverse the progressive decline in lung function in some patients with moderate BOS, possibly by inducing anti-inflammatory effects and promoting cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
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Challenges of haemodialysis: A single centre experience in South West Nigeria

Published on: 28th March, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8049457944

Background: Haemodialysis is the commonest method of Renal Replacement Therapy in Nigeria. Despite an advancement in the technicality and better understanding of haemodialysis, a number of complications are known to be associated with this procedure.. Objective: We aimed to highlight our experiences and share some of the uncommon complications encountered during haemodialysis and present the outcome of our patients. Subjects and methods: A retrospective review of 101 patients during the last two years was done. Data extracted include: sociodemographic characteristic, aetiology of kidney disease, type of vascular access, intradialytic complication and outcome of treatment. Results: The total number of dialysis session during the period was 823. Males constituted a higher proportion (64.4%) and were found to be older than female patients 49.8 vs 42.8 years (P=0.001). Majority (89.1%) had chronic kidney disease while chronic glomerulonephritis was the main cause of CKD as seen in about 45% of the patient. Due to the cost implication, only 2(1.98%) were able to undergo 3 sessions of dialysis per week for up to 1 month. Vascular access was femoral (66.3%), internal jugular vein (25.7%), while only 2% used Artero-venous-fistula and one patient had femoral vessel pseudoaneurysm from frequent cannulation. The commonest complication was hypotension which was present in 15.8%. Twenty-eight deaths were recorded, 44(43%) were either lost to follow up or absconded while 5% were transplanted at a referral centre. Conclusion: Challenges of renal replacement therapy is overwhelming in our country due to poor human and financial resources. Early diagnosis and adequate government support are advocated.
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