catheter

Severe Infantile Coarctation and Mid Aortic Stenosis in Williams Syndrome

Published on: 30th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192818729

We report a challenging patient with Williams syndrome and severe coarctation of the aorta. As in a few similar cases reported, several surgical and catheter interventions for recoarctation, intrastent intimal proliferation and stenosis of the left sub-clavian artery were required. Aortic patch angioplasty is planned for the future in a grower child.
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Preclinical stiff heart is a marker of cardiovascular morbimortality in apparently healthy population

Published on: 31st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8192795566

Background: The prognostic significance of impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation and increased LV stiffness as precursor of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and death is still largely unknown in apparently healthy subjects. Methods: We constituted a cohort of 353 patients with normal ejection fraction (>45%) and no significant heart disease, based on a total of 3,575 consecutive left-sided heart catheterizations performed. We measured peak negative first derivative of LV pressure (-dP/dt) and operating chamber stiffness (Κ) using a validated equation. Patients were categorized as having: 1) normal diastolic function, 2) isolated relaxation abnormalities (-dP/dt > 1860mm Hg/sec and K <0.025mm Hg/ml), or 3) predominant stiff heart (K ≥0.025mm Hg/ml). Results: During a follow-up of at least 5 years, the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (death, major arterial event, heart failure, and arrhythmia) was 23.2% (82 patients). Compared to isolated relaxation abnormalities, predominant stiff heart showed stronger prognostic significance for all events (p=0.002), namely heart failure (HR, 2.9; p=0.0499), cardiac death (HR, 5.8; p=0.03), and heart failure and cardiac death combined (HR, 3.7; p=0.003). Conclusion: In this apparently healthy population referred to our center for cardiac catheterization, the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction was very high. Moreover, predominant stiff heart was a better predictor of cardiovascular outcomes than isolated relaxation abnormalities.
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Novel paclitaxel-coated balloon angioplasty via single retrograde popliteal access for challenging superficial femoral artery and iliac artery lesions?

Published on: 24th September, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8261371866

Objectives: We report our results regarding the use of BioPath™ paclitaxel-coated balloon catheters for superficial or distal external iliac artery revascularization via single retrograde popliteal access. Methods: We included 105 prospective consecutive patients. Single retrograde popliteal access was achieved under ultrasound guidance with the patients laid prone. An over-the-wire atherectomy system was used if risk of distal embolization was high due to plaque intensity of the target lesion. A 4 to 7 mm-diameter BioPath™ 035 balloon catheter was used for all lesions. Follow-up at 6th month included doppler ultrasound examination for patency. Results: Seventy-two patients (68.6%) had total SFA occlusion and 41 patients (39%) had concomitant external iliac artery involvement, out of whom 31 (29.5%) had total occlusion. Procedural success 90.5% for superficial femoral artery and 85.3% for external iliac artery. One-year patency rates in SFA and EIA were 84.8% and 80.4%, respectively Conclusion: Single retrograde popliteal access and drug-coated balloon angioplasty may offer a useful alternative to known modalities in treatment of challenging superficial femoral artery and concomitant iliac artery lesions
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Impact of Pacemaker Implantation on 12-Month Resource Utilization Following TAVR Hospitalization

Published on: 21st October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8286124047

Purpose: This study reports resource utilization during a Medicare Beneficiary’s (MBs) Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) index hospitalization and all subsequent encounters for 12 months and compares data between MBs who did or did not receive a pacemaker implantation (PPM) during their index hospitalization. Method: This retrospective study examined Medicare hospital claims from January 1, 2014 through June 30, 2015. 15,533 MBs who survived for 365 days were studied. Information from all encounters during the study period was combined to compare hospital resource utilization and outcomes. Results: 14.8% of MBs had a PPM during the index hospitalization. 46.0% of MBs had at least one readmission to a hospital during the 365-day follow-up period. 54.6% of MB’s first hospital readmission occurred within 90 days of their TAVR discharge date. Average total Medicare reimbursement for all hospitalizations was $60,638 ± $28,974 associated with average total hospital length of stay of 11.2 ± 11.7 days. After adjusting for demographics and 47 comorbid conditions, MBs receiving a PPM during the index TAVR had significantly higher estimated Medicare reimbursement ($5,132) and longer total length of stay (1.8 days) for the entire study period than MBs not receiving a PPM. Conclusion: Total Medicare reimbursement and hospital LOS were significantly higher among MBs that had a PPM implantation during their index admission; however, there were no significant differences in readmission rates, readmission length of stay, or days to first readmission during the follow-up period between the two study cohorts.
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Hemoptysis after subclavian vein puncture for pacemaker implantation: A case report

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330425842

Background: Subclavian venous access for pacemaker lead insertion is a common procedure and is normally considered safe in the hands of an expert. However, subclavian venepuncture is not without complications, starting from mild subcutaneous hematoma to pneumothorax. We here present a case of hemoptysis occurring after difficult subclavian vein puncture, which subsequently improved on conservative management only. Case Summary: A 65-year-old gentleman, post aortic valve replacement had persistent high-grade AV block and was taken up for a dual chamber pacemaker implantation. Immediately following venous access, he had a bout of hemoptysis, which recovered on its own. Post procedure chest x-ray was suggestive of alveolar hemorrhage which cleared gradually in next three-four days. Discussion: Post subclavian venepuncture hemoptysis is known; but it is a rare complication, arising either because of lung parenchyma injury or arterial injury. This is mostly benign and improves on conservative management only; however rarely it may be massive and life threatening where transcatheter arterial embolization may be required.
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Left ventricular ejection fraction and contrast induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization: Results of retrospective chart review

Published on: 15th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8330168042

Background: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is an important cause of increasing the hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. By increasing intra-renal vasoconstriction, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) can increase the risk of CI-AKI. We sought to investigate whether LVEF can impact the incidence of CI-AKI after cardiac catheterization and whether it can be used to predict CI-AKI. Methods: Patients underwent cardiac catheterization from December 2017 to February 2018 at Jersey Shore University Medical Center were enrolled in the study. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or an increase of ≥ 25% from the pre-procedure value within 72 hours post-procedure. The maximum allowable contrast dose was calculated using the following formula: (5* (weight (kg)/creatinine level (mg/dL)). A multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for potential confounders, were used to test associations between LVEF and CI-AKI. Results: 9.6% had post catheterization CI-AKI. A total of 18 out of 44 (44%) of patients who had CI-AKI also had ongoing congestive heart failure. No statistically significant association found neither with maximum allowable contrast (p = 0.009) nor ejection fraction (p = 0.099) with the development of CI-AKI. Conclusion: In spite of the fact that no statistically significant relationship found between the percentage maximum contrast dose and the ejection fraction with the post-procedure CI-AKI, we heighten the essential of employing Maximum Allowable Contrast Dose (MACD) and ejection fraction in patients undergoing PCI to be used as a clinical guide to predict CI-AKI.
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Our experience with single patch repair of complete atrioventricular septal defects

Published on: 2nd May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588716552

Background: Various surgical methods have been utilized in the management of complete atrioventricular septal defects (CAVSD). Early intervention and achievement of a competent left atrioventricular valve are the key factors for successful treatment. Methods: A total of 66 patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect have been operated in a tertiary care center. Patient group consisted of 28 males and 38 females with an average age of 6.2 ± 3.3 months. Ventricular and atrial defects were repaired generally with single-patch technique using autogenous pericardium. Results: Preoperative catheterization and angiography was performed in 41 patients. Single patch and modified single patch techniques were preferred in 57 and 9 patients respectively. The average duration for respiratory support, intensive care unit stay and discharge from hospital were 36 ± 49.3 hours, 4.1 ± 1.9 days, and 10.1 ± 3.3 days respectively. In the left atrioventricular valve mild, moderate and severe regurgitation were detected in 44 (66.6%), 17 (25.7%) and 2 (3%) patients postoperatively. No regurgitation was determined in 3 patients (4.5%). Two cases ended up with mortality (3%). Conclusion: Single patch repair technique can provide satisfactory surgical outcomes in patients with complete atrioventricular septal defect.
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An unusual presentation of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia

Published on: 12th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8958459896

Introduction: Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is the most frequent supraventricular tachycardia, commonly manifesting as autolimited paroxysmal episodes of rapid regular palpitations that exceed 150 beats per minute (bpm), dizziness and pounding neck sensation. Case presentation: We present a case of a male patient, 70 years old, with ischemic heart disease and slow-fast AVNRT treated with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in March 2019, with regular 6-months follow-ups. He was readmitted in our department in November 2020 for rest dyspnea and incessant fluttering sensation in the neck, without palpitations. The event electrocardiogram (ECG) was initially interpreted by general cardiologist as accelerated junctional rhythm, 75 bpm. Due to the persistence of symptoms and ECG findings, a differential diagnosis between reentry and focal automaticity was imposed. The response to vagal maneuvers and Holter ECG monitoring characteristics provided valuable information. We suspected recurrent slow ventricular rate typical AVNRT, which was confirmed by electrophysiological study and we successfully performed the RFCA of the slow intranodal pathway. Conclusion: AV nodal reentry tachycardia may have an unusual presentation, occurring in elder male patients with structural heart disease. Antiarrhythmic drugs can promote reentry in this kind of patients. In cases of slow ventricular rate, vagal maneuvers and Holter ECG monitoring can help with the differential diagnosis. The arrhythmia can be successfully treated with RFCA with special caution regarding the risk of AV block.
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Intraperitoneal and Subsequent Intravenous Vancomycin: An Effective Treatment Option for Gram-Positive Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis

Published on: 20th April, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317634403

Intraperitoneal vancomycin absorption is higher when there is peritoneal inflammation, but the absorption decreases with recovery from peritonitis. Consequently, intraperitoneal maintenance doses are ineffective, reducing the rate of cure. Aim:To evaluate the outcome of Gram-positive peritonitis treated with intraperitoneal and subsequent intravenous vancomycin. Methods: In April 1996, we initiated a protocol for treating peritonitis caused by Gram-positive organisms using a 2-g intraperitoneal loading dose of vancomycin followed by intravenous vancomycin at 1 g twice in 5 days for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and at 1 g three times in 5 days for Staphylococcus aureus. We analyzed episodes of Gram-positive peritonitis (coagulase-negative and S. aureus) and the efficiency of the treatment protocol in 113 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis between 1 April, 1996 and 3 August, 2016. There were 6090 patient-months and the mean treatment lasted 54±44 months. The outcomes were evaluated as (1) complete cure, (2) relapsing peritonitis, (3) catheter removal for refractory peritonitis, and (4) death. Results: A total of 51 cases of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus peritonitis and 37 of S. aureus were seen in 46 of the 113 patients (40.7%). Of these, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (92.15%) and 34 S. aureus peritonitis (91.89%) resolved. Conclusion:The response to treatment was very satisfactory.
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Evolution of anaesthesia in transapical aortic valve implantation Running head: Anaesthesia and transcatheter valve

Published on: 20th September, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317654731

The Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) had emerged more and more in the last twenty years. According to the scientific literature, this is an approved, suitable and alternative therapeutic choice to conventional surgery for aortic valve disease in high risk patients. The most of patients are octogenarians or nonagenarians, with multiple comorbidities (neurological,vascular,oncologic, haematological, etc). The evolution of TAVI techniques and its devices have improved the quality of results and reduced the peri- and post-procedural complications. Cardiac anaesthesia and analgesia in TAVI patients is very important and fundamental to a quickly and complete clinical restoring after the procedure. An optimal balance of drugs and peri-procedural management could reduce the neurological events (such as delirium), the days of hospitalization and the admission of intensive care unit. According to our experience in transapical approach, the low dose of propofol and desflurane allowed to optimal cardiac anaesthesia and rapid mechanical ventilation weaning in complex patient undergone to transcatheter valve implantation with transapical approach. Moreover, our protocol reduced considerably the incidence of perioperative delirium.
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Effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia during hepatectomy on intraoperative and post-operative patient outcomes

Published on: 13th November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929291912

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with balanced general anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamics and fluid requirement, and on postoperative patient outcome. Design: The study design was a retrospective data analysis of patients undergoing open hepatectomy at a single tertiary care center from May, 2013 to June, 2016. Patients undergoing hepatectomies were separated into two groups: patients not receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (either no epidural or epidural catheter not used intraoperatively) were designated the control group and patients receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (bolus and/or continuously). Patients were excluded if they underwent laparoscopic or non-elective procedures. Results: 103 patients were included in the data analysis: Control n=14, Epidural = 89 patients. There were no major differences in demographics between groups. Epidural patients did not have higher requirements in intraoperative intravenous fluid administration, blood loss, or vasopressor use compared to control patients. Patients who received epidurals required less intravenous opioids with better post-operative pain scores initially and also on post-operative day 2. There were no differences in length of time to ambulation, or post-operative acute kidney injury amongst groups. Conclusions: This study shows that patients undergoing hepatectomies using combined epidural and general anesthesia: 1) have no increased requirement for intraoperative crystalloid, colloid, or blood component therapy, 2) require lower total intravenous opioid dose, and 3) subjectively report better pain control. Therefore, intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia may be advantageous for ERAS protocol based oncological procedures.
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Blockade of the distal sciatic nerve with the patient in the supine position using a newly developed position aid with integrated ultrasound probe holder

Published on: 9th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8195621280

Background: We have developed a femoral supporting pad with an integrated ultrasound probe holder and examined its practical usability on patients with lower limb surgery. Objectives: To evaluate the function of this novel femoral supporting pad with respect to its practicability during the performance of a distal sciatic nerve blockade, the time needed to perform this blockade including the catheter insertion and the quality of postoperative analgesia within the first 24 hours. Methods: 50 patients which had been scheduled for elective lower leg, ankle or foot surgery had received a continuous blockade of the distal sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve blockade was performed sonographically controlled with the patients in supine position by using our novel femoral supporting pad with an integrated ultrasound probe holder. Primary endpoint: duration of the intervention. Secondary endpoints: pain intensity (visual analogue scale VAS 0-10) at the first postoperative day; cumulative opioid (piritramide) requirement during their stay on the post Anaesthesia care unit (PACU) with vs. without distal sciatic nerve blockade. Results: 49/50 patients received a distal sciatic catheter, which had been sonographically placed within a mean time (mean ± sd) of 11:30 ± 3:13 minutes. VAS at the first postoperative day was (mean ± sd) 1 ± 2 at rest and 2 ± 2 as maximum. The piritramide requirement during PACU stay (mean ± sd) was 11 ± 8 mg without vs. 3 ± 6 mg with distal sciatic nerve blockade (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Continuous distal sciatic nerve blockade using a novel femoral supporting pad with an integrated ultrasound probe holder was feasible in 49 of 50 patients within 11 minutes and 30 seconds.
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Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Published on: 7th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165598100

Background: Transcatheter arterial embolization can be used for patients with recurrent bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract after failed endoscopic treatment. Our aim to identify the clinical and technical factors that influenced the outcome of transcatheter embolization for therapy of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after failed surgery or after failed endoscopic treatment in high risk surgical patients. Methods: We performed a prospective study to analysis of the 15 patients who underwent Transcatheter arterial embolization for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding at Alshifa hospital from January 2015 to March 2019. The following variables were recorded: demographic data, time from bleeding start to TAE, units of packed red cells before TAE and units of packed plasma before Transcatheter arterial embolization and we analysis 30 days rebleeding rates and mortality. Results: Patients treated with Transcatheter arterial embolization (median age: 62 years, range: 14–79 years).The technical success rate of the embolization procedure was 100%. Time from bleeding start to TAE was 2.1 (1-4) days , units of packed red cells before Transcatheter arterial embolization was 12.8 (4-22) packed and units of packed plasma was 3.2 (2-5) packed. Following 30 days after embolization, 2 (13%) patients had repeated bleeding and 3 (20.0%) patients died. Conclusion: In our experience, arterial embolization is a safe and effective treatment method for upper gastrointestinal bleeding and a possible alternative to surgery for high-risk patients.
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Pneumocephalus following labour epidural analgesia, a rare case report

Published on: 5th May, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9041187138

The lumbar epidural analgesia is commonly used for labour analgesia. The “loss of resistance to air” LORA technique is commonly used for recognition of epidural space. One of the rare complications of this technique is Pneumocephalus (PC). We want to present a case of Pneumocephalus which the mother developed during epidural analgesia in labour. The patient complained of severe headache immediately after attempt at epidural catheter insertion. The symptoms progressively worsened following delivery. A postnatal anaesthetic review was performed and an urgent CT scan of the brain was arranged that showed pneumocephalus. A conservative management pathway was followed with liberal analgesia, oxygen inhalation and keeping the patient mostly in supine position. Her symptoms regressed in severity over the next three days and subsided after one week. We believe that the amount of air used for LORA should be minimized; LORA should not be used after dural puncture and the use of normal saline would alleviate the risk.
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Lessons from the success and failures of peritoneal Dialysis-Related Brucella Peritonitis in the last 16 years: Case report and Literature review

Published on: 31st December, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7964745961

Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection that is endemic in some Mediterranean countries, North Africa and the Middle East. Brucella is a rare cause of peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) population and in non-dialysis patients alike. We report here a challenging case of PD-related Brucella peritonitis in a 45-year-old Saudi male with late peritonitis that delivered some key learning throughout its course from presentation, diagnosis and treatment to catheter salvage attempts so as to circumvent PD failure. We provide an in-depth review of limited published literature on PD-related Brucella peritonitis (seven cases, and present case) and summarized the data on key clinical characteristics, management and PD technique outcome to benefit nephrologists when encountered with this rare presentation.
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Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with molecular targeted therapy for a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma with intrahepatic metastasis and main portal vein tumor thrombus: A case report and literature review

Published on: 2nd June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8616348339

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high morbidity, high recurrence, and high mortality rates. In China, the morbidity of HCC is fifth among all malignant tumors and HCC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Most HCC patients also have liver cirrhosis. Surgery is the sole curative method for HCC; however, many patients are diagnosed with HCC during its advanced stages so radical resection can no longer be performed. Therefore, the proportion of patients who undergo radical hepatectomy is less than 30%. Patients with mildly advanced HCC cannot undergo hepatectomy and thus transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and/or biological targeted therapy are alternative options. However, data on the effects of TACE therapy or biological targeted therapy are limited. Therefore, an investigation of multimodal and individualized treatments is critical to ensure the best treatment. In June 2018, we treated an advanced HCC patient with multiple metastases and right portal vein tumor thrombus. The patient exhibited partial remission after undergoing treatment with TACE and crizotinib capsules for 1 month. The case and a literature review are reported here.
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Management of Ischemic Stroke during cardiac catheterization: A case report and review of literature

Published on: 22nd August, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8259338471

Stroke following coronary interventions is a devastating and most dreaded complication with signiβicant morbidity and mortality. Various factors have been ascribed for this complication including the technical errors [1]. A small percentage of strokes are iatrogenic, including those associated with invasive cardiac procedures. According to the literature, it is a rare complication of left heart catheterization [2]. Percutaneous coronary intervention is increasingly used to treat patients with diffuse atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes and even high-risk patients such as low ejection fraction [1]. The authors describe a patient who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in the context of inferior infarction, which was complicated by ischemic stroke during cardic catheterization.
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Causes of hospital admission of chronic kidney disease patient in a tertiary kidney care hospital

Published on: 21st June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8172399426

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at the risk of increase hospital admission as compared to the general population, due to various reasons. They have increased vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as infections, therefore they usually got admit in health care units due to various reasons. The causes of hospitalization in CKD patients in this part of the world are not studied well. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in The Kidney Centre Post Graduate Training Institute (TKC-PGTI) of Karachi. Variables included in the study were age, gender, are of residence, ethnicity, smoking status and level of education. Comorbid conditions like causes of CKD and causes of hospitalization. Data analysis performed by using software IBM SPSS 21. Results: Total of 269 patients were enrolled in our study. The male 148(55%), mean age was 55 years. The most common cause of hospitalization in our population was infection148 (55%) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was the most common site of infection 55 (20%) followed by sepsis of unknown origin 29(10.8%). Cardiovascular events like volume overload 32 (11.4%) and acute coronary syndrome 20(7.4%) were the second most important cause of hospitalization. Conclusion: Hospitalization of CKD patients is high, and in our population infection is found to be the leading cause of hospital admission. Infection originating from urinary tract is more common in all stages of CKD patients, while blood born infection originating from double lumen (DL) dialysis catheter or arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation is more common in dialysis population. Cardiovascular events, both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary edema due to volume overload followed the infections.
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Complications of Internal jugular catheters in haemodialysis patients at a kidney care center in Nigeria

Published on: 11th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8199204365

Internal jugular vein catheters (IJC) is recommended as the central venous access of choice in haemodialysis patients. However it is associated with complications of variable severity. Objectives: To study the complications associated with internal jugular vein catheters in haemodialysis patients in southern part of Nigeria. Methodology: The clinical details of patients who had IJC insertion at the kidney house, Hilton clinics Port Harcourt from 1st October 2011 to 30th September 2016 were documented. Complications from the IJC developed by the patients during the study period were also documented. The data obtained was analyzed using SPSS version 22. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 129 patients had 150 internal jugular catheter insertions. The mean age was 51.4±15.2 years with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. All the patients had chronic kidney disease; about 80% had tunneled IJC and 96.9% of the catheters were inserted in the right internal jugular vein. Immediate complications were recorded in 10% and late complications in 34.9% of the procedures. The immediate complications were kinking of guide wire (2%), arterial puncture (1.3%) and difficulty in locating the internal jugular vein (1.3%) or tunneling (1.3%). The late complications were infection (12.8%), poor blood flow (9.2%), bleeding (5.5%) and spontaneous removal of the catheter (5.5%). There was no statistical significant difference in both immediate and late complication with age and sex. The ultrasound examination at discharge had a sensitivity of 31% and specificity of 87% to detect future symptomatic lymphoceles. The positive predictive value was only 10%. The second ultrasound test had the best test variables to detect symptomatic lymphoceles with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 87% and a predictive value of 28%. Conclusion: Internal jugular catheter is froth with immediate and late complications in haemodialysis patients.
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High water intake in preventing the risk of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Published on: 12th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8199212116

Background: Hyperuricosuria, persistently low urinary pH, and low urinary volume are the main risk factors of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Epidemiologic studies suggest that high water intake is protective against the occurrence of symptomatic kidney stone events of all types. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to evaluate the effectiveness of increased water intake to prevent symptomatic uric acid kidney stone events. Methods: Seventeen studies were identified for the meta-analysis. Analysis of Q and I2% statistics revealed that a high heterogeneity in 16 studies, thus, random effects model was used. Protective associations were identified for high water intake individuals (SMD=0.52 L; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.84; p=0.002); a significantly decreased relative super saturation of uric acid versus controls (SMD=-1.15; 95% CI: -2.00, -0.30; p=0.008). Risk factors including urinary uric acid excretion and pH were not significantly related to high water intake (SMD=7.32mg/d, 95% CI: -52.27, 66.91; p=0.81), (SMD=0.14; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.31; p=0.09), respectively. Further subgroup analyses revealed that urinary uric acid excretion was significantly decreased in healthy individuals (SMD=-36.23 mg/d, 95% CI: -65.14, -7.31; p=0.001) compared to stone formers (SMD=27.41 mg/d, 95% CI: -33.18, 88.01; p=0.38); urinary uric acid excretion was significantly decreased in routine water intake groups (SMD=-61.49 mg/d, 95% CI: -120.74, 12.24; p=0.04) compared to mineral water intake groups (SMD=44.50 mg/d, 95% CI: -18.30, 107.29; p=0.16); urinary pH was significantly higher in mineral water groups (SMD=0.13, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.46; p=0.04) compared to regular water groups (SMD=-0.00, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.13; p=0.98). Results: A total of 129 patients had 150 internal jugular catheter insertions. The mean age was 51.4±15.2 years with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. All the patients had chronic kidney disease; about 80% had tunneled IJC and 96.9% of the catheters were inserted in the right internal jugular vein. Immediate complications were recorded in 10% and late complications in 34.9% of the procedures. The immediate complications were kinking of guide wire (2%), arterial puncture (1.3%) and difficulty in locating the internal jugular vein (1.3%) or tunneling (1.3%). The late complications were infection (12.8%), poor blood flow (9.2%), bleeding (5.5%) and spontaneous removal of the catheter (5.5%). There was no statistical significant difference in both immediate and late complication with age and sex. Conclusion: This meta-analysis identified evidence that urinary uric acid excretion, volume, pH and relative supersaturation of uric acid can be altered with high water intake intervention, reducing the risk of uric acid kidney stones.
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