Tilmicosin (TMC) is a semi synthetic macrolide antibiotic of tylosin derivatives commonly used by veterinaries, has been shown to reveal beneficial pharmacological activities. In the current study, the potential wound healing activity, Anti-oxidant effect (ulcer and hepatoprotective) were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic (central and peripheral), hypnotic and antispasmodic activity were also screened. This study included adult both sexes of rats (200-250 gm), mice (20-25 gm) and adult rabbits. Experimental wound was induced on the anterior-dorsal side of each rat whereas, ulcer induced by ethanol causing mucosal damage in rats. The oral anti-inflammatory induced through formalin producing edema, antipyretic (Brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia) and analgesic (writhing test, hot plate method, tail immersion method) while hypnotic effects induced through thiopental sodium. Anti-spasmodic effect on isolated organs (intestinal and uterine muscles) using new method of Modular Single Chamber Organ Bath were carried out on experimental animals. Tilmicosin antibiotic at different two doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg b.wt., has an important role in treatment of ulcer (cytoprotective effect) and improvement the wound healing processes besides anti-inflammatory, analgesics, and anti-pyretic effects. Tilmicosin revealed also hypnotic and intestinal anti-spasmodic effects but showed Pharmacovigilence hepatotoxic effect through the histopathological studies which revealed sever hepatic damage especially at larger dose.
Veterinary and agricultural surfactants are supposed to be inert additives, yet these substances commonly exert biological side-effects, in given cases synergistic with those of the active ingredients of these preparations. This is explicitly seen in altered toxicity of veterinary or pesticide formulations compared to their active ingredients alone. Neither the individual effects of these excipients, nor such combination effects are well-studied in toxicology, and therefore, possible toxicity consequences are occasionally not being considered at sufficient significance in the authorization, use and control of these substances. Risk assessment of these substances should cover all hazards they may represent, and corresponding levels of exposure. Surfactants used in veterinary and pesticide formulation enter the environment either by direct dispersion or by indirect release through excrement, leaching, sewage waters or sludge, and in turn, create potential exposure to a number of non-target organisms. Biochemical and (eco)toxicological hazards recently identified regarding certain agricultural surfactants include cytotoxicity (on cell lines of epithelial, neural and other tissues, as well as stem cells and tumor cells), endocrine disrupting effects, as well as aquatic ecotoxicity. This Mini Review summarizes toxicological effects identified in our studies in aquatic toxicity tests, in cell viability and cytotoxicity tests, in estrogenic activity assays, correlated with biochemical analysis of the surfactants and their decomposition. The conclusions are hoped to facilitate environmentally precautious revision of surfactants widely used in agriculture.
Dry eye or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is commonly seen in the dog. Veterinary ophthalmologists diagnose this aqueous tear deficiency using the Schirmer tear test (STT), but this measures tear production and does not indicate ocular surface pathology. The vital dye Rose Bengal is commonly used in the diagnosis of dry eye in human patients but until now has not been reported in veterinary patients. Here we corelate the degree of Rose Bengal staining with the STT value and find a reasonable association between dye staining of the ocular surface and tear production, although clearly other factors are also important in the genesis of ocular surface damage in dry eye.
Sheep are not native to Australia and were originally imported; 44 sheep were among the animals transported from Great Britain to the penal colony established on the east coast of Terra Australis in January 1788 http://firstfleetfelowshp.org.au.
The following brief account of the history of wool in Australia is taken from “The Australian Merino” which began;
The Australian Merino…comprised one of the greatest creative expressions of domestic animal species by and for mankind…one of the greatest contributions to the world economy .
These original sheep were for human provisions and consisted of fat-tailed native sheep from the Cape of Good Hope, but the primary source of sheep for the first three or four decades of Australia’s history were from Bengal, the closest British colony to Australia.
Although the veterinary art has been practiced since antiquity, the modern era began in the 18th century with the establishment of the discipline of “Veterinary Science” at universities. In the 19th century, veterinary education began in Australia with Kendall’s private veterinary school in 1888 . In 1909, a Veterinary Faculty was established at the University of Melbourne and Kendall’s school was incorporated into it. In 1910, a second faculty was established at the University of Sydney and in 1936, a third was established at the University of Queensland [2-4]. A fourth school was established at Murdoch University in Western Australia (WA) in 1974 .
Canine Distemper have become a major concern within the veterinary clinical work. Thus, the appearance of many cases of canine distemper in adult animals with their vaccination plan up to date has alarmed veterinarians. Many cases of canine distemper have become a major concern within the clinical veterinary task. The purpose of this work was to detect the gene of hemagglutinin of the virus canine distemper, by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction associated with Reverse transcription (RT-PCR), as confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of disease. For this, peripheral blood samples of animals were used clinically patients and were grouped according to their date of extraction and using vaccines commercial as control.
The results allow to demonstrate a high sensitivity of the technique, besides allowing the use of samples up to seven days of storage at 4°C, despite the fragility of RNA viral.
Detection of canine distemper virus haemagglutinin gene in field samples and its high sensitivity, suggests studying its use as a diagnostic tool complementary to the clinical diagnosis of canine distemper in our country.
COVID-19 is a mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease that has leaded to a tremendous global pandemic wide spreading throughout nations of all continents with successive waves of high morbidities and mortalities. However, several independent vaccine production projects are working ahead for combatting the pandemic, but it is obvious they cannot create a sufficient umbrella that could protect billions of humans in a short term. Indeed, the current approved protocols including frequent cleaning of hands, social distancing and covering face mask are disappointing for their claimed capabilities to efficiently control of the pandemic. As they failed to highlight the critical determining role of air refreshing into indoors that 90 percent of infected people at least involved in enclosed spaces. Instead, Outdoor Access Approach (OAA) can be promising according veterinary medical successful experiences in control of air-borne contagious diseases as control of highly pathogenic avian influenza to become a global pandemic (One Health integration). Along with the above-mentioned protocols. Adaptation of all aspects of ordinary life activities in human societies to guarantee an efficient fresh air flow into enclosed spaces and prevention of the most dangerous air stagnation in them is the core stone of the OAA. This article discusses practical suggestions to attain such situation which can provide a kind of symbiosis with COVID-19` infection major threatening.
Vaccine production process have been fuzzy journey to the public and, in some degrees, to those in the setting. By clearly showing the lengthy and challenging journey of vaccine development process, thereby suggesting the economic and health implication of improper use of veterinary vaccines, the paper tries to add the attention given to infection prevention. Starting from the foundations, the types and requirements of veterinary vaccines are described. The paper concludes with current research and regulatory quos in the topic.
Background: A Grey 12-year-old Arabian endurance horse gelding was referred to the SHS Veterinary Center for anorexia, mild colic of 5 days duration, and melena of 1 day duration. The owner reported recurring colic, 12 episodes of mild colic in the previous year.
Methods: On admission, vital signs were within normal limits and body condition score was estimated to be 3/9.
Results: Packed cell volume (PCV) was 28% [reference range (RR): 31% to 47%] and plasma total protein was 58 g/L (RR: 60 to 80 g/L). Hematochezia was observed. Abdominal ultrasound examination detected no abnormalities. Over the next 12 h, the horse experienced hematochezia and several mild episodes of colic and death. A necropsy was performed. A mass arising from the right dorsal ascending colon near the base of the cecum and extending transmurally from the colonic mucosa into the mesocolon was a 8 cm × 5 cm × 8 cm firm, homogenous, tan mass. The portion of the mass that extended into the colonic lumen was pedunculated, with an ulcerated surface. The adjacent segments of colon were markedly reddened and edematous. Histologically, the mass was comprised of large interweaving sheets of small, spindle cells with ill-defined cell borders embedded in abundant myxomatous matrix. Tumor cells contained scant eosinophilic cytoplasm and oval to elongate nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and inconspicuous nucleoli. Mitotic figures were rare (1/10) high power fields. Tumor infiltrated between the muscularis interna and the muscularis externa at the myenteric plexi.
Conclusion: Gross and histologic appearance, were consistent with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
The research was conducted in the Gross section of Veterinary Anatomy laboratory with the aim of preparation and comparing some skeleton bones of local domestic turkey and guinea fowl. Samples were purchased, sacrifice, feather and excess flesh were removed and boiled using water to produce the bones. The duration of process was recorded. Comparative biometry study was conducted on some selected bones (scapular, coracoid, furcular and tibiotarsus) and the bones were mounted using wooden stand, copper wire, and adhesive gum with the aim of enhancing avian teaching. Based on the processes of the research. It was recommended to use plastic materials in production of skeletal models to avoid deterioration of bones for proper teaching in veterinary anatomy.
Background: The acaricidal action of Ozonized sunflower oil (OSO) has demonstrated in different clinical cases of different animal species, such as psoroptic rabbits and pig sarcoptic scabies and recently in demodesic goat.
Objectives: This study evaluated the effectiveness of OSO as treatment for generalized demodicosis mange in dogs.
Animals: Twenty dogs of different breeds, between six months and one year of age with generalized demodicosic mange that attended to Veterinary Clinic “José Luis Callejas” Havana, Cuba, during the year 2015, were included in the study.
Methods: The demodicosis diagnostic was based on its clinical history, the mite’s presence by deep scraping and clinical signs. All cases had a history of receiving before conventional treatments without solution. OSO treatment was topically applied daily, every 12 hours, after shaving all affected areas. Monitoring of clinical signs, mite counting on scaling, pruritus and capillary regrowth (7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days) were performed.
Results: The results showed a significant reduction of mite counts, clinical signs and pruritus since the 7th day of application. The animals recovered the fur on more than 90% of the body surface. All the animals (100%) recovered from generalized demodesic mange in 84 days of treatment.
Conclusion: The effectiveness and safety of OSO as election treatment of generalized demodicosis mange in dogs was demonstrated.
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