Woman

Ultrasound conjugated with Laser Therapy in treatment of osteoarthritis: A case study

Published on: 24th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317653930

Osteoarthritis of the hand is a chronic condition that involves hand joints, but receives less attention. Few studies have investigated the use of ultrasound therapy and laser therapy for the treatment of hand osteoarthritis. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the conjugated treatment of therapeutic ultrasound and laser therapy on the pain and joint function of a patient with hand osteoarthritis. The is case of a woman, 57 years old, with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis on hand for 3 years, presenting constant pain and worsening after manual activities. The pain and function were evaluated, respectively, by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Australian Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index questionnaire (AUSCAN). After 12 sessions using ultrasound and laser therapy application, there was an expressive improvement in the pain and functional indexes of the patient. The combined application of therapeutic ultrasound and laser therapy, through the unified field action of the therapies used, proved to be efficient in reducing pain and improving the functionality.
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Congenital Quadricuspid Aortic Valve, a Rare Cause of Aortic Insufficiency in Adults: Case Report

Published on: 23rd January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286350758

Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is rare congenital malformation of the aortic valve with estimated prevalence of 0.013% to 0.043% [1-4]. QAV is most commonly associated with aortic insufficiency (AI), which is found in almost 75% of cases [5]. QAV can also be associated with other cardiac defects such as ventricular or atrial septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, subaortic fibromuscular stenosis, malformation of the mitral valve, and coronary anomalies [3]. Up to 40% of all patients with QAV undergo aortic valve replacement surgery most commonly due to progressive AI in 88% of case [2,3,6]. Here we report a case from our institution of a woman with QAV with severe AI and anomalous origin of the right coronary artery.
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TMD and pregnancy?

Published on: 14th March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7877876040

Pregnancy is a happy stage in life of every woman, but at the same time it is a rather difficult period, since pregnancy represents a serious strain on the body. In the body of a woman during this period there are significant physiological changes that ensure the correct development of the fetus, prepare the body for the upcoming delivery. In this difficult period, the burden on all organs and systems of the woman’s body is significantly increased. Especially often suffer joints; there is a risk of permanent pain, the development of diseases or exacerbation of existing diseases. One of the most common problems is Temporomandibular Dysfunction or Disorder (TMD) which many women face, but still hasn’t been explained.
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Small cell carcinoma of the ovary with hypercalcemia: Case report and review of the literature

Published on: 3rd July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7815113047

We describe here the case of a 23-year old woman with small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) with SMARC-A4 mutation who benefited from surgery in two steps leading to a total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic and lombo-aortic lymph nodes dissection. She also received 6 courses of poly-chemotherapy after the surgery. A close follow-up was then performed by clinical examination every three months with determination of serum calcium and CA125 level as well as imaging with thoraco-abdominal CT scan. To date, the patient has a disease-free survival of more than 9 years. We also reviewed the literature on this topic and discuted the new diagnostic and prognostic genetic tool SMARC-A4 mutation.
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Value of ambulatory blood pressure measure in pregnancy hypertension

Published on: 9th November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929243019

It is still not well known the prognostic cardiovascular value of 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the pregnant woman with hypertension. Objectives: Assess to the prognostic value of ABPM parameters in predicting maternofetal event. Methods: Retrospective and observational study which included 166 pregnant women. Results: The authors found that the night time DBP was the best predictor of adverse events. Non-dipper profile had worse survival at follow up until delivery compared to those with a dipper profile. Conclusions: ABPM is a tool for pregnant with HT because this is the unique method available that analyses the night blood pressure.
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Giant cellular angiofibroma of the vulva: case report

Published on: 9th May, 2019

Cellular Angiofibroma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor without gender preference. It is usually a small (<3cm), well-circumscribed, mostly asymptomatic and typically slow growing. Surgical removal of the mass with its capsule is the preferred treatment, not only helps guarantee complete excision and prevent its recurrence but also minimize blood loss. We present the case of a 76-year-old woman with a giant vulvar mass. 
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Autoimmune encephalitis associated with an ovarian teratoma in a 29-year old woman

Published on: 15th May, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165450551

NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare disease first described in 2007. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis affects mostly young women as neoplasms, mostly ovarian teratomas, are the underlying cause. The disease is caused by antibodies binding to extracellular epitopes of neuronal cell-surface, which leads to an internalization of NMDA-receptors. The characteristic syndrome of patients with anti-NMDAR as well as its recovery follows a certain pattern. Treatment includes immunotherapy and removal of the immunologic trigger. This case report describes a young woman with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis caused by an ovarian teratoma. 
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Maternal mortality and factors affecting it, among pregnant women in Abeokuta South, Nigeria

Published on: 2nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8185504249

This observational study assessed the knowledge of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at two selected hospitals in Abeokuta South, Nigeria on the causes and risk factors of maternal mortality, identified barriers to knowledge acquisition, and examined the influence of parity of respondents on their knowledge of factors causing maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is extremely high in Nigeria, it is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Descriptive research design was used in this study and qualitative data from 136 respondents selected randomly, were obtained through a self-designed questionnaire that comprised three sections. Data were analyzed and indicated that parity of the pregnant women do not have an influence on their knowledge of factors responsible for maternal mortality. Findings revealed that majority (67.6%) of the respondents had high knowledge on the causes of maternal mortality – haemorrhage, sepsis, prolonged/obstructed labour, anaemia, unsafe abortion, infection, hypertensive disorders, care rendered by unskilled medical practitioners and its risk factors - parity, poverty, place of last delivery and low attendance at antenatal clinic. Educational background, marital status, irregular antenatal visits, socio-cultural practices and occupational status were identified as barriers to knowledge acquisition. This paper concluded that pregnant women may have a high knowledge about the factors responsible for maternal mortality. This is probably due to the fact that all respondents had formal education and because they were interviewed on antenatal clinic days, which suggests that they might have heard about the causes and risk factors for maternal mortality during their visits. Authors recommended that government should employ qualified health professionals and provide medical subsidy, it is hoped that this will ensure that pregnant women get quality care throughout the period of pregnancy and delivery.
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Submitral Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm: Unusual and Late Complication of Cardiac Surgery

Published on: 21st January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317646407

Despite the background of advances in cardiac surgery procedures for higher risk population, the postoperative complication has already been a challenge for cardiac surgeon and Heart-Team. Future perspectives to exceed this challenge could be periodically patient’s follow up and advance diagnostic workup. We describe the diagnosis of a large sub mitral left Ventricle Pseudoaneurysm that was identified in a 59-year-old woman 17 years after she underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement for rheumatic valvular disease
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Amenorrhea-An abnormal cessation of normal menstrual cycle

Published on: 9th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8572766101

Amenorrhea is the absence or abnormal cessation of menstrual cycles in a woman of reproductive age. Prolonged cessation of menstrual cycles might results in complications such as infertility, psychosocial developmental delays, Osteoporosis, fractures etc. Better understanding of physiology of menstruation is essential to understand the various causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea. Any disruption or functional abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis can result in abnormal menstruation or amenorrhea. Therefore it is crucial to identify this menstrual distress in women at early age to minimize the risks of reproductive dysfunction in premenstrual and postmenstrual conditions.
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Parabens: The love - hate molecule

Published on: 2nd May, 2020

Parabens are the esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid [1], mimicking oestrogen, the hormone which makes a woman a woman; women love it and men hate it. 
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Viral meningitis in pregnancy: A case report

Published on: 13th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8691250730

Ms X is a 34 year old para 1 woman who presented at 26+5 weeks’ gestation with fever, neurological symptoms and history of a viral illness. She was treated empirically for bacterial meningitis and transferred to a tertiary maternity hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for enteroviral ribonucleic acid (RNA), confirming viral meningitis. Ms X improved clinically and was discharged after six days. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of meningitis in pregnancy. Thorough history, examination and workup is vital for timely treatment. Prognosis in viral meningitis is excellent with no clear adverse fetal or neonatal outcomes.
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The Death of a Baby from the Congenital Anomalies of the Urinary Tract

Published on: 22nd February, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7735844397

A 36-year-old woman pregnant, G2 P1, presented at 27 weeks of gestation after two previous visits elsewhere, as an outpatient in a gynecological clinic. An ultrasound examination revealed bilateral hydronephrosis. Also, ureteral dilation and bladder overdistension was present (Figures 1-3). We evaluated that the cause was a urinary tract obstruction. Specifically, we are dealing with posterior urethral valves. The anteroposterior diameter of the pelvis on a transverse view of the abdomen was 6 mm. The amniotic fluid index (AFI) was 3 cm, so, oligohydramnios.
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Millian´s ear sign: Bilateral ear erythema

Published on: 9th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8982640801

A 79 years old woman presented with one-day history of pain, redness, pain and swelling without discharge in her left ear, later her right ear started with the same symptoms as in her contralateral ear spreading around the scalp and the forehead (Figure 1), she denied fever, or other constitutional symptoms. 
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Three visionaries for HRT

Published on: 15th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897954469

When a woman consults a doctor about Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), the first concern is that there is an increased risk of breast cancer with HRT. And this sole reason might be the reason for refusing the offer of HRT. However, this practice has minimal basis and evidence to support it. Although HRT is an umbrella term, women who have no uterus receive oestrogen-only HRT or Estrogen Replacement therapy (ERT). No valid study has linked ERT with an increased risk of breast cancer [1,2].
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Vulvar lipoma: A rare tumour

Published on: 5th May, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9030351429

A 26 year nulliparous woman presented to the OPD with complaint of painless swelling in the vulva for the last 1.5 years which gradually increased in size causing difficulty in walking. 
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Factors associated with Female Genital Mutilation among daughters of reproductive aged women at Academic Charity Teaching Hospital (ACTH)

Published on: 11th June, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9081421008

Introduction: It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation still remains to be a serious problem for large proportion of women in most sub-Saharan Africa countries including Sudan, with a high prevalence of 88%. Objective: The main objective was to identify the factors associated with FGM among daughters of reproductive aged woman. Materials and methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers, the total sample was collected in ACTH based on the number of reproductive age mothers with at least one daughter older than 5 years. A structured and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The data obtained was analyzed by the use of the SPSS software. Results: Out of 200 mothers, 113 (56.5%) had at least one circumcised daughter. Knowledge about genital mutilation (AOR = 4.29, 95% CI: 1.13-15.37), attitude (AOR = 48.53, 95% CI: 14.45-198.69) and mothers circumcision status (AOR = 14.03, 95% CI: 2.81- 95.45) were the most significantly associated with FGM. Furthermore, having good knowledge, positive attitude, high socio-economic status, being literate, being of Christian religion and living in urban area had lower odds of having a circumcised daughter. Conclusion: In this study, more than half of the mothers had at least one circumcised daughter. Mothers’ knowledge, attitude, circumcision status, socio-economic status, age, residence, educational level and religion were significantly associated with female genital mutilation.
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Recurrent hydrothorax due to diaphragmatic perforation post hepatocellular carcinoma radiofrequency ablation: A case report

Published on: 15th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8979519249

Radiofrequency ablation is one of the most commonly used therapies for potentially curative small hepatocellular carcinoma. Although radiofrequency is usually a safe procedure, severe and potentially fatal complications can happen. This is a case of a 72 years old woman with cirrhosis secondary to Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD), who presented recurrent hydrothorax after treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and in which diaphragmatic perforation was subsequently diagnosed. We reviewed the differential diagnosis and management in a pleural effusion after a radiofrequency procedure. Although diaphragmatic perforation is an uncommon complication after RFA procedure, this case aims to help clinicians being aware of non-habitual complications.
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Incidental findings in traditional nuclear medicine practice

Published on: 28th July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7802611730

The presence of an incidental finding, defined as an abnormality which is unrelated to the initial scanning indication, is widely increases due to the access to new devices and imaging modalities. This growing number of incidental findings can lead to additional medical care including unnecessary tests nevertheless, in a minority of patients, can lead to diagnosis of an important and unexpected condition that could be crucial for the patient. We reported three cases in which nuclear medicine imaging, performed for different reasons and showed a relevant and unexpected pathology. In the case 1, a bone scan, performed in a 66 aged woman for breast cancer staging, allowed the diagnosis of a uterine fibroma. In the case 2, a HMPAO labeled-WBC scintigraphy performed because of a suspect of osteomyelitis, showed a remarkable heart-shaped photopenic area, highly suggestive of cardiac global dilatation. In the case 3, a 62 aged man referred to bone scintigraphy for the staging of recent diagnosed lung cancer. The bone scan allowed the diagnosis of a meningioma. Therefore, the occurrence of incidental findings could lead to reveal relevant abnormalities for the diagnostic pathway.  
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Retrosternal goiter mimicking asthma: A diagnostic challenge

Published on: 10th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8529515341

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Common manifestations of asthma include wheezing, chest tightness, cough, shortness of breath. Diagnosis of asthma requires clinical documentation of respiratory symptoms, exacerbation of symptoms following exposure to triggers, as well as demonstration of expiratory airflow obstruction. Wheeze is a continuous sound, lasting longer than 0.25 s that is produced by oscillation of opposing airway walls [1,2]. Wheezing, although a typical symptom of asthma, can also be caused by other diseases. Apart from asthma, wheezing can be due to extra-thoracic upper airway obstruction, intrathoracic upper airway obstruction, lower airway obstruction. Benign multimodal goiter is a common disease, that rarely causes upper airway obstruction. Retrosternal goiter should be taken into account the differential diagnosis of upper airway obstruction [3]. The respiratory symptoms of a retrosternal goiter may be masked for years due to the slow growth of the goiter. Patients commonly complain of respiratory symptoms if tracheal diameter is narrowed more than 50% from the normal size. Respiratory symptoms may be suddenly precipitated by spontaneous or traumatically induced bleeding into the substernal goiter, as well as by tracheal infections [4]. Clinical management of this condition is really challenging. Diagnosis is also not straightforward, as clinical suspicion is needed. There are cases of retrosternal goiter mimicking asthma that remain undiagnosed for many years. Retrosternal goiter should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of patients diagnosed as suffering from asthma, and presenting no improvement despite medical therapy. In addition, it should be taken into account that sudden gland enlargement due to hormonal changes might lead to life threatening upper airway obstruction with clinical picture similar to bronchial asthma attack [5]. In a recent very interesting case report, the authors present a case of a pregnant woman in the second trimester who presented with an acute airway obstruction due to the enlargement of a retrosternal goiter [3]. Goiters are the more common masses of the superior mediastinum [6,7]. Commonly, retrosternal goiter is due to the extension in the thorax of a cervical goiter. However, rarely, it may represent primary disease due to the growth of ectopic thyroid tissue. In addition, retrosternal goiter may develop in patient submitted to thyroidectomy due to cervical multinodular goiter [8]. Although retrosternal goiters are commonly asymptomatic, symptoms may include dyspnea, stridor, hoarseness, dysphagia, superior vena cava syndrome, transient ischemic attacks, cerebral edema, Horner’s syndrome, and thyrotoxicosis [4]. Diagnosis could be verified by neck and chest radiography, thorax CT and MRI. Chest radiography commonly shows a widened mediastinum with a superior mediastinal mass causing compression of the trachea as well as deviation of the trachea to the right. Mediastinal computed tomography reveals a mass that is extension of the thyroid gland. The presence of respiratory symptoms in a patient with retrosternal goiter is an indication for surgery. The majority of retrosternal goiters can be approached through a cervical approach [9,10].
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