cabg

Evaluation of the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting on the right ventricular function using speckle tracking echocardiography

Published on: 30th December, 2019

Purpose: This was a prospective study conducted at Benha University hospital and National Heart Institute on one hundred patients undwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to evaluate the effect of CABG on the right ventricular (RV) function using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Methods: All cases were subjected to detailed medical history, full physical examination, 12 leads electrocardiogram (ECG), routine laboratory tests including (complete blood picture, liver functions, renal functions and lipid profile) and echocardiography either conventional echocardiography or STE, all parameters obtained before and within 2 weeks after surgery. Results: By conventional echocardiography there was statistically significant decrease in peak right ventricle systolic velociy (RVS) from (12.76 ± 1.72) to (7.33 ± 1.71) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) from (22.8 ± 3.99) to (13.77 ± 4.63) among the studied patients after CABG. While there was significant increase in right ventricle fractional area change (RVFAC) from (44.69 ± 3.25) to (49.01 ± 3.36). On the other hand, there was non-significant change in right ventricle end diastolic diameter (RVEDD) at mid-cavity from (26.37 ± 2.72) to (26.53 ± 2.72) and basal segment from (36.05 ± 2.98) to (36.29 ± 3.04), right ventricle stroke volume (RVSV) from (65.44 ± 7.02) to (65.85 ± 6.86) and right myocardial performance index (RMPI) from (0.491 ± 0.088) to (0.498 ± 0.086). By STE There was statistically significant decrease in right ventricle global longitudinal strain (RVGLS) from (-20.63 to -14.1) after CABG. There was statistically significant decrease in right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain [apical decreased from (-23.73 to -13.7), mid-cavity decreased from (-25.76 to -11.53), basal decreased from (-20.39 to -10.13) and lateral wall declined from (-23.01 to -9.13)]. There was statistically significant decrease in interventricular septum longitudinal strain [apical decreased from (-19.77 to -10.06), mid-cavity decreased from (-17.81 to -10.87) and basal decreased from (-15.89 to -11.13)]. There was statistically significant increase in RV circumferential strain of lateral free wall from (-12.04 to -16.21), while there was non-significant change in RV circumferential strain of septum from (-19.77 ± 4.86) to (-20.37 ± 5.14). Conclusion: Distorted RV geometry after CABG can lead to altered deformation parameters, in other words longitudinal functional parameters may underestimate RV function and the decrease in RVGLS was compensated by increase in circumferential strain of lateral free wall of RV without change in RVSV or RMPI. Therefor changes in deformation parameters should always be interpreted in relation to change in geometry.
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The Risk-Adjusted Impact of Intraoperative Hemofiltration on Real-World Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

Published on: 27th February, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597137

Objectives: The role of perioperative hemofiltration (HF) in adult patients with impaired renal function undergoing cardiac surgery is controversial. There are suggestions that it may be beneficial for high risk patients undergoing prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. However, long term outcomes in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients have not been investigated. Methods: To address this we retrospectively followed 7620 patients who underwent CABG between April 2001 and March 2006. Logistic regression was used to risk adjust in-hospital outcomes. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to risk adjust Kaplan-Meier freedom from death curves. Outcomes were adjusted for American Heart Association and American College of College of Cardiology recommended variables. Results: 113 patients had intraoperative HF, 38 had postoperative HF and control group of 7006 that had no HF. After adjusting for differences in case-mix, patients with preoperative kidney disease who received postoperative HF proportionately had significantly higher rates of hospital deaths as compared with intraoperative HF patients. In addition, 5-year follow-up risk-adjusted freedom from death indicated significant differences between intraoperative HF group and postoperative HF patients. Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that after adjusting for differences in case mixes, the use of intraoperative hemofiltration may offer superior short term clinical outcomes and longer-term survival benefits for patients with preoperative kidney disease.
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Aortic dissection complicating carotid dissection and myocardial infarction

Published on: 18th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8982641722

A 58-year-old hypertensive man presented to our insti-tution with acute chest pain and dizziness. Electrocardiogram revealed inferior wall myocardial infarction with suspected right ventricular involvement (Figure 1A). Computed tomographic aortography (CTA) depicted ascending aortic dissection (AAD) with involvement of bilateral carotid, subclavian, and right common iliac arteries (Figure 1B). Replacements of aortic valve and ascending aorta with CABG (Ao-RSVG1-LAD and Ao-RSVG2-RCA) were conducted. 
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A patient with pulseless ST elevation myocardial infarction caused by a very late stent thrombosis

Published on: 24th September, 2022

Background: Persistent contrast staining is highly associated with stent thrombosis. Case summary: A 75-year-old woman presented with new-onset effort angina. A coronary angiogram revealed a 90% blockage of the distal left main trunk (LMT) and a 99% blockage of the ostial left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). A 3.0 × 18-mm CYPHER™ the stent had previously been implanted into the dominant proximal circumflex artery (LCx) in 2009 because of unstable angina. The patient developed pulseless ST elevation myocardial infarction after the withdrawal of antiplatelet therapy before a scheduled CABG. The patient recovered with VA-ECMO and PCI using aspiration thrombectomy and urgent CABG.Discussion: This case highlighted that a preoperative patient may develop thrombosis at a previous stent site with peri-stent contrast staining and withdrawal of an antiplatelet regimen in certain settings poses an imminent risk for preoperative deterioration. A bridging strategy using intravenous PY12 inhibitor before CABG should be considered in this setting. The revascularization strategy should be selected based on coronary anatomy, hemodynamic status and baseline risk for CABG. A hybrid revascularization approach should be considered in this patient population.
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Conduit quality control protocol in CABG

Published on: 27th September, 2023

Cardiac revascularization surgery has a long history. Its results and safety are well known. Nonetheless, the long-term patency rate of certain grafts used in cardiac revascularization is non-optimal, and CABG is associated with a risk of cerebrovascular stroke due to aortic manipulation. We have developed a simple control quality protocol of the anastomosis performed in CABG, aiming to improve the long-term patency of certain grafts used in cardiac revascularization surgery and reduce the risk of cerebrovascular stroke in those patients. 
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