miRNA

MicroRNA Therapeutics in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Published on: 27th June, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597564

Breast cancer is a complex disease and one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. In case of approximately 15% of all breast cancers, three markers i.e. estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptors-2 (HER2) are not expressed, and is commonly termed as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Particularly, TNBC is associated with a higher percentage of breast cancer related mortality, which is often aggressive and most frequently found with a BRCA1 mutation or increased basal marker expression. However, due to the limitations of chemotherapy and radiation based treatment; the current challenge is to establish a new strategy of diagnosis and treatment of TNBC. The deregulation of a number of microRNAs (miRNAs) in breast cancer has been widely reported. Therefore, this review is directed towards enhancing our understanding of the involvement of various miRNAs in the pathology of TNBC, their upregulations and downregulations and the effects on various factors. From recent studies a number of miRNAs are found to be related with TNBC, which have great potential to be used as a biomarker to determine the disease prognosis and predict the fate of disease. Again miRNA can be targeted to be applied as a therapeutic to provide a great benefit to the patients of TNBC by finding a new, safe, and effective treatment strategy.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Host biomarkers for early diagnosis of infectious diseases: A comprehensive review

Published on: 5th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165317456

Biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis of disease and other conditions for many decades. There are diverse ranges of analytical targets, including metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins were used as a biomarker. Clinical diagnoses already rely heavily on these for patient disease classification, management, and informing treatment and care pathways. For that there is always a need of rapid and point of care test. However, until fairly recently, studies of biomarker efficacy in a clinical setting were mainly limited to single or dual use, and the landscape was complex, confused, and often inconsistent. Few candidates emerged from this somewhat clouded picture: C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT) for sepsis, ADA for mycobacterium tuberculosis and a Circulating miRNAs serve as molecular markers for diverse physiological and pathological conditions.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Anti-Inflammatory probiotic biomarkers in Fermented foods

Published on: 24th January, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7985918960

We present below a mechanistic molecular approach for development of Anti-Inflammatory biomarkers of Probiotic Bacteria in Fermented Foods. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote human health by counteracting the noxious toxic gut microflora in human intestine, by modulating of the tight junctions, and by increasing mucin production, enforcing intestinal epithelial cell barrier function, modifying microbial community within the gut intestinal disorders, and improving immune responses associated with chronic inflammation in experimental animal models, collectively enhancing human health. Cytokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages are regulated by probiotics through key signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated kinases, resulting in alleviation of several disorders such as allergies, diabetes, obesity, heart diseases and cancer. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression by inhibiting gene translation. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches in cell lines and mice models to study effects of probiotic conditional media and heat-killed bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory effect to elucidate the mechanisms by which probiotics affect signaling pathways, and by using global cytokine and microRNA gene expression analyses arrroaches to develop biomarkers for studying different pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, and using statistical approaches to analyse the data, we show that cytokines and miRNAs have an essential role in regulation of cancerous and inflammatory bathways. This mechanistic approach will result in developing specific disease biomarkers for the early diagnosis of certain pathogenic states, as well as evaluating the effect of different dietary componenents on developed biomarkers in health states that will promote and enhance human health. Comparing the concordance of the in vitro to the in vivo research findings will confirm the correspondence of both approaches to each other. Moreover, this study will have a major public health relevance in elucidating the role of miRNAs and their targets in inflammation, paving the way to diagnosing and treating of pathogenic human disease stages.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat

Use of MicroRNAs to Screen for Colon Cancer

Published on: 31st August, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317598451

Colon cancer (CC) screening is important for diagnosing early stage for malignancy and therefore potentially reduces mortality from this disease because the cancer could be cured at the early disease stage. Early detection is needed if accurate and cost effective diagnostic methods are available. Mortality from colon cancer is theoretically preventable through screening. The Current screening method, the immunological fecal occult blood test, FOBTi, lacks sensitivity and requires dietary restriction, which impedes compliance. Moreover colonoscopy is invasive and costly, which decreases compliance, and in certain cases could lead to mortality. Compared to the FOBT test, a noninvasive sensitive screen that does not require dietary restriction would be more convenient. Colonoscopy screening is recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC). Although it is a reliable screening method, colonoscopy is an invasive test, often accompanied by abdominal pain, has potential complications and has high cost, which have hampered its application worldwide. A screening approach that uses the relatively stable and nondegradable microRNA molecules when extracted from either the noninvasive human stool, or the semi-invasive blood samples by available commercial kits and manipulated thereafter, would be more preferable than a transcriptomic messenger (m)RNA-, a mutation DNA-, an epigenetic-or a proteomic-based test. That approach utilizes reverse transcriptase (RT), followed by a modified quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). To compensate for exosomal miRNAs that would not be measured, a parallel test could be performed on stool or plasma’s total RNAs, and corrections for exosomal loss are made to obtain accurate results. Ultimately, a chip would be developed to facilitate diagnosis, as has been carried out for the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in foods. The gold standard to which the miRNA test is compared to is colonoscopy. If laboratory performance criteria are met, a miRNA test in human stool or blood samples based on high throughput automated technologies and quantitative expression measurements currently employed in the diagnostic clinical laboratory, would eventually be advanced to the clinical setting, making a noticeable impact on the prevention of colon cancer.
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat