non-st elevation myocardial infarction

Assessment of risk factors and MACE rate among occluded and non-occluded NSTEMI patients undergoing coronary artery angiography: A retrospective cross-sectional study in Multan, Pakistan

Published on: 30th May, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7795966987

Objectives: The prime focus of the present study was to evaluate the most occluded coronary artery (OCA) among non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients, and risk factors associated with occluded and non-occluded NSTEMI. Also, major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) were evaluated among patients during index hospitalization. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in Multan Institute of Cardiology, Pakistan between 1st February, 2017, and 31st September, 2017. The data were collected from medical records of the outpatients and inpatients who were index hospitalized. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) And Microsoft Excel (MS Office 2010). Results: Among 624 patients, angiographic findings revealed that 63.9% were suffering from non-occlusive NSTEMI while 36.1% of the patients had occluded NSTEMI. In occluded NSTEMI patients, 30.3% were having single vessel occlusion while 5.8% were having multi-vessel occlusion. Also, 49.8% were having occlusion of right coronary artery (CA) while 44% were having occluded left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Multivariate analysis revealed that age (p=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p=0.001) had a statistically significant association. The incidence of MACE was high among non-OCA patients as compared to OCA patients but no statistically significant association was found (p=0.44). Conclusions: Angiography confirmed that most of the NSTEMI patients had OCA. But the MACE rate was not significantly differ among OCA and non-OCA patients. The risk factors associated with OCA were low LVEF and age.
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Diagnostic accuracy of TIMI versus GRACE score for prediction of death in patients presenting with Acute Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI)

Published on: 22nd February, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8022255638

Background: Acute Coronary Syndrome describes a spectrum of disease ranging from unstable angina through non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) to ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). Early death in NSTEMI is usually due to an arrhythmia. Patients should be admitted immediately to hospital, preferably to a cardiac care unit because there is a significant risk of death. Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of TIMI versus GRACE for prediction of death in patients presenting with Acute Non-ST elevation Myocardial Infarction. Material & Methods: This present cross sectional study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, CPEIC, Multan. All patients assessed according to given scores in the two scoring system i.e. TIMI risk score and GRACE score. Then patients were labeled as high or low risk for death. Data was collected by using pre-designed proforma. 2x2 tables were generated to measure the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative Predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of TMI Risk score and GRACE Score for prediction of death in NSTEMI patients. Results: In our study the mean age of the patients was 55.73±9.78 years. The male to female ratio of the patients was 1.6:1. The diabetes as risk factor was found in 145(39%) patients, smoking as risk factor was found in 53(14.2%) patients and hypertension as risk factor was found in 174(46.8%) patients. the sensitivity of TIMI risk was 97.7% with specificity of 92.93% and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.16%, similarly the sensitivity of GRACE risk was 100% with specificity of 95.96% and the diagnostic accuracy was 97.85%. Conclusion: Our study results concluded that both the TIMI risk and GRACE risk are good predictor of death in patients presenting with Acute Non-ST elevation Myocardial Infarction with higher sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy. However the GRACE risk showed more accurate results as compared to TIMI risk.
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Correlation between the Values of Immature Platelet Fraction and Mean Platelet Volume with the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Published on: 26th September, 2023

Introduction: The identification of new markers of thrombotic risk and early diagnosis of Non-ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) could allow the optimization of the therapy and predict short and long-term prognosis. Aims and objective: We aimed to assess the impact of Immature Platelet Fraction (IPF) and Mean Platelet Volume (MPV) levels on the extent of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in patients with NSTEMI undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: This is a prospective observational study in which 100 subjects of Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction were recruited. For the measurement of platelet count, IPF and MPV samples were analyzed by an automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex XN 1000). Patients were subjected to coronary angiography as per institutional protocol and the extent of coronary artery lesion was noted. Result: A cutoff of MPV (fL) ≥ 10.6 can predict the involvement of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) with a sensitivity of 84%, and a specificity of 50%. With the cutoff of IPF (%) ≥ 2.4, it can even predict the type of disease i.e., Double Vessel Disease (DVD), or Triple Vessel Disease (TVD) with a sensitivity of 97%, and a specificity of 19%. Mean IPF values and MPV levels were significantly higher in patients with LAD involvement i.e., 4.40 ± 1.72% (p = 0.003) and 12.45 ± 1.88 (p = 0.030) respectively than in patients without involvement of LAD i.e., 2.78 ± 1.50% and 11.08 ± 2.19 respectively. Conclusion: Immature platelet fraction and mean platelet volume were significantly associated with the involvement of the left anterior descending artery which was the most commonly involved vessel in patients with NSTEMI. Mean platelet volume was also associated with TVD which was statistically significant. MPV and IPF can be useful early independent hematologic markers to identify patients with a higher risk for significant CAD as they are readily available and inexpensive.
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Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease on Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Published on: 5th February, 2024

Background: Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) results in a reduction in patients’ life expectancy. Different risk factors affect the risk of Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE). Although the role of kidney dysfunction in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in cardiac events has been identified, many patients with AMI are unaware of their underlying kidney disease. This study aimed to compare the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events and identify predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events in the medium term among patients with and without renal dysfunction following AMI. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1039 patients who were hospitalized for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) between 2018 and 2019. The patient cohort comprised 314 women (mean age: 69.8 ± 13.2 years) and 725 men (mean age: 60.5 ± 13.8 years). Patient data were obtained from the registry of patients with acute myocardial infarction and the participants were followed up for a minimum of one year following hospital discharge to assess the incidence of MACE.Results: The study found that patients with a Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) level below 60 had a significantly higher mortality rate than those with a GFR level of 60 or above (15.7% vs. 3.5%,p < 0.0001). The multivariate analysis showed that Diabetes Mellitus (DM), GFR, and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) are significant risk factors for cardiovascular events. (p = 0.016, p = 0.015, p = 0.006 respectively), while variables such as sex, age, and Hypertension (HTN) were not significant risk factors. There was a negative correlation between GFR and death (0.241 - = r, p < 0.0001)Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of detecting kidney disease during an AMI and managing risk factors for cardiovascular disease to improve health outcomes and reduce the risk of mortality.
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