Purpose: Children with autism spectrum disorder are at an increased risk for developing seizures, which can be triggered by classical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that has a safer drug profile. The objective is to present the experience with seizure control in autistic children who are placed on Aripiprazole.
Methods: Series of consecutive autistic children with comorbid epilepsy treated with Aripiprazole were identified prospectively over a 3-year period. Monthly follow up by one pediatric neurologist was performed to document seizure control.
Results: 56 autistic children with comorbid epilepsy were placed on Aripiprazole. Most children (59%) were seizure free for at least 6 months. The initial Aripiprazole dose was 5 mg in all patients. Follow up ranged between 5-8 months (mean 6.9). A total of 5 (9%) children developed seizure provocation (3/5) or worsening seizure control (2/5). There were 3 males and 2 females with ages ranging between 6-11.5 years (mean 8.5). Three of these children had a previous history of seizure worsening with other antipsychotic drugs (respiridone in 2 and haloperidol in 1). One child with seizure provocation developed status epilepticus 5 days after introducing Aripiprazole that required intensive care admission. The drug was stopped in all 5 children with no long-term effects.
Conclusion: Seizure provocation or worsening seizure control is not uncommon following the introduction of Aripiprazole in autistic children with controlled epilepsy. Although the risk is low, parents should be warned and advised on what to do, particularly in the first month of therapy.
Nearly all energy production in living organisms is by oxidation reactions (fires are large oxidative embers)
Oxidation reactions produce, through complex intermediate steps, small energy packages that are more easily stored than a sudden combustion oxidation. The slow and controlled production of energy in a nuclear power plant allows its use, a massive explosion produces the result that we know ... It’s the same thing in our bodies. These reactions are never 100% efficient, not all the energy produced is used as bio fuel. Indeed, during the intermediate stages, they induce a deterioration of cells and tissues by consuming about 10% of this energy. They cause significant “wear and tear” when there is no longer any compensation for these parasitic oxidations. The latter can be excessively used in pathological situations inducing inflammatory reactions, or simply during metabolic overproduction, or even simple intense and prolonged efforts.
Purpose: There are uncertainties about whether general or central obesity is the more important determinant for blood pressure and hypertension in young Chinese. We aim to investigate the association between adiposity measures and blood pressure and hypertension in young medical students.
Methods: A total of 380 medical students were recruited from the 2012 batch in the Clinical College of Dali University. Anthropometric measures and office blood pressure were measured. Blood pressure status was defined by Chinese hypertension guidelines and ACC/AHA 2017 hypertension guidelines, respectively. We examined the associations of adiposity measures (body weight, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], ponderal index [PI], body adiposity index (BAI) and conicity index [CI]) with blood pressure and hypertension by sex.
Results: In 380 subjects (women 66.6%, mean age 21.5 years), the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2) was 2.1%, and the prevalence of hypertension was 2.6% (≥ 140/90 mmHg) and 24.5% (≥ 130/80 mmHg), respectively. In correlation analyses and multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, most adiposity measures of central obesity were significantly associated with blood pressure in men, while in women, either adiposity measures of central or general obesity were associated with blood pressure. The predictive power of adiposity measures for hypertension was generally low in men. However, adiposity measures of either general obesity or central obesity were predictive for hypertension defined by Chinese hypertension guidelines in women.
Conclusion: There are gender-specific associations of central and general obesity with blood pressure and hypertension in young Chinese medical students.
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer (CC), a common malignancy among Kenyan women. New CC screening methods rely on oncogenic HPV (“high-risk”, or HR-HPV) detection, but most have not been evaluated in swabs from Kenyan women.
Methods: HPV typing was performed on 155 cervical swabs from Kenyan women using the Roche Linear Array® (LA) and careHPV™ (careHPV) assays. Detection of 14 oncogenic HPV types in careHPV assay was compared to LA results.
Results: Compared to LA, sensitivity and specificity of careHPV assay was 53.0% and 80.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of careHPV in swabs from women with cervical dysplasia was 74.1% and 65.2%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of careHPV in swabs from HIV-infected women was 55.9% and of 96.4%, respectively. Overall agreements of careHPV assay with LA was substantial.
Conclusion: The results for careHPV assay are promising for oncogenic HPV detection in Kenyan women. The low sensitivity of careHPV for detection of HR-HPV could limit it’s benefit as a screening tool. Thus, a full clinical validation study is highly desirable before the careHPV assay can be accepted for cervical cancer screening.
Background: The number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) is increasing due to improved survival. Most suffer at least one treatment-related late effect, even decades after treatment, thus lifelong long-term follow-up (LTFU) care is a necessity. Currently no standardized LTFU programme for CCSs exists in South Africa.
Study purpose: This study investigated current LTFU care of CCSs in South Africa.
Methods: A survey was conducted amongst 31 South African paediatric oncologists using the SurveyMonkeyTM online tool. Information obtained included: training/experience, LTFU practices, late effects knowledge and opinion regarding the importance of a standardized LTFU programme.
Results: The response rate was 74% (23/31). Respondents had an average of 9 years’ experience. All (22/23; 96%) regarded LTFU as important. Only half (12/23; 52%) discussed late effects at diagnosis. Infertility and second malignancy risks were discussed by a third. Less than half (48%) used LTFU guidelines; the majority (9/11; 82%) adjusted them to the local context. Most survivors were followed by a paediatric oncologist (17/23; 74%).
About half of respondents (47.8%) shared LTFU with colleagues in private practice (50%), secondary (66.7%) or primary care facilities (25%). Almost half of respondents (10/23; 43.5%) regarded their late effects knowledge and LTFU experience as good, 8/23 (34.8%) as adequate and 3/23 (13%) as inadequate. All agreed that a national LTFU programme would be very important (87%) or important (13%). Almost half of the respondents (48%) understood what a Survivorship Passport was.
Conclusion: It is essential to develop a national standardized LTFU programme for CCSs in South Africa to ensure appropriate care for all survivors.
Background/Aim: In spite of global initiatives to provide sight for all by the year 2020, many middle-aged to elderly people in the Niger Delta still have significant visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive errors. The aim of this study is to assess the types of refractive anomalies that occur among presbyopic patients in Port Harcourt and determine the demographic pattern of these anomalies based on age and gender characteristics.
Methodology: This is a hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study in which sixty consecutive adult patients for refraction were seen. Every adult patient that came to get glasses during the study period was included in the study except where ocular or systemic contraindications were present. In addition to visual acuity, all patients had a detailed ocular examination and then refraction. The collected data was subsequently analysed using SPSS version 20.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.4 ± 9.4 years with a range of 35 to 80 years. A total of 60 patients were seen, comprising 30 males and 30 females. The commonest refractive error was presbyopia with hyperopic astigmatism and this accounted for 80% of all cases. Hyperopic presbyopia and presbyopia alone were the least common.
Conclusion: There is a high level of cylindrical and spherical errors in Port Harcourt. The full optical correction should always be prescribed to presbyopic patients to fully correct the associated visual impairment and improve the patients’ well-being.
Background: Lateral Pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ) has recognized applications in the management of Chronic Pancreatitis (CP). It is done for patients with severe pain, obstructed and dilated pancreatic duct. Ductal obstruction by stone or stricture causes rise of intraductal pressure and parenchymal ischemia. Surgical decompression of the duct and ductal drainage can achieve best pain relieve and slow the progression of the disease. We want to share our experience of removal of stones and strictures from the pancreatic duct system and drainage of the main pancreatic duct by lateral pancreatojejunostomy (LPJ) for chronic pancreatitis in a teaching institute.
Methodology: We studied 32 cases of chronic pancreatitis operated between January 2010 and January 2017 for a period of 7 years. Patients were selected with ultrasonography, CT scan and or Magnetic Resonance Cholangio Pancreatography (MRCP). Dilatation of the main pancreatic duct by at least 7 mm proximal to the obstruction were recruited for operation. We did Roux-Y lateral pancreato-jejunostomy for patients with obstruction of the pancreatic duct due to intraductal stones or strictures. Additional distal pancreatectomy were done in two cases for stones and/or abscess in the tail area. We did one Frey’s operation for stone and fibro-calcification of the head. In all cases ductal drainage was accomplished by LPJ. We studied their post-operative pain control, complications, recurrence and improvement of exocrine and endocrine function of pancreas and mortality during this period. We followed these patients for about 2 years after surgery.
Results: We found 27 out of 32 patients got complete remission of the abdominal pain. Their progression of disease also slowed down. Ultrasonic evidence of chronic pancreatitis have improved or resolved. Ductal diameter have decreased. Two had recurrence of stones in the head and in the parenchyma within a year. 2 patients died during this follow-up period. One died three months after LPJ due to massive gangrene of the small intestine distal to LPJ and jejuno-jejunostomy and subsequent short bowel syndrome. Other one died of complications of diabetes and malabsorbtion. Pain free survival is about 84% and recurrence is 6%. Mortality during this follow up period is 6%.
Conclusion: We found that surgery, if done early, can have good remission of abdominal pain and can slow the progression of chronic pancreatitis and prevent further stone formation in majority of patients. Patient’s exocrine and endocrine function improves or remain static. Patient with chronic calcific pancreatitis and diabetes are unlikely to have favorable outcome even after decompressive surgery.
Observing the epidemiology of some neurodegenerative disease is interesting to verify some similarity and also related advanced or non-advanced countries and related diet habits. There are relationship between this conditions and diet habits? Some neurological condition related neuro-degeneration can be related to a complex dynamic system like the glymphatic system and the brain vascular clearance. Failure in this system seem related to aggravates of some condition like PD or vascular or diabetic dementia. (Animal model). But what happen if this dynamic system is saturated? A deep investigation related the specific role in CNS make possible to search new innovative strategies. The social economic cost for the neurodegenerative disease is the right tool to new research.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a form of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), is a rare disease with an often-occult presentation. It is more common in 4th and 5th decades of life but can be seen in all ages.
This case report details a 76-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain, generalized weakness, and malaise, who was found to have pulmonary nodules on chest imaging. Biopsy of the lung nodule showed organizing pneumonia. Initially, antibiotics were used to treat the patient. However, she developed acute renal failure a few days after presentation and found to have positive serum C-ANCA as well as elevated ANCA-PR3 serologies. A subsequent kidney biopsy demonstrated pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis that was consistent with GPA and the patient was started immediately on combination immunosuppressive therapy, plasmapheresis, and hemodialysis.
GPA’s clinical and radiological presentation can mimic other common conditions such as pneumonia, malignancy, bacterial sinusitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and urinary tract infection. Because of this, a high level of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and treatment to alter the high mortality rate in this disease entity. All forms of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) should be in the differential diagnosis for all patients presenting with multiorgan system involvement particularly in individuals with pulmonary and renal manifesations.
Ms X is a 34 year old para 1 woman who presented at 26+5 weeks’ gestation with fever, neurological symptoms and history of a viral illness. She was treated empirically for bacterial meningitis and transferred to a tertiary maternity hospital. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for enteroviral ribonucleic acid (RNA), confirming viral meningitis. Ms X improved clinically and was discharged after six days. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of meningitis in pregnancy. Thorough history, examination and workup is vital for timely treatment. Prognosis in viral meningitis is excellent with no clear adverse fetal or neonatal outcomes.
A 60-year-old female patient presented with typical anginal pain on exertion and relieved by rest for about one month. Percutaneous coronary angiography was done and showed an abnormal left circumflex coronary artery connecting to intercostal artery. Embolization of that abnormal connection was done successfully and the patient discharged from hospital after 24 hours. This case shows a new form of coronary steal syndrome. This cause could be missed if not put under the differential diagnosis of typical anginal pain with normal coronary arteries.
Permanent pacemaker implantation is conventionally done via upper limb veins. But in 1% - 6% cases, usual sub clavicular approach is either not possible or contraindicated due to complete occlusion of superior vena cava (SVC) or bilateral subclavian vein and/or bilateral implant site infection or thin skin . Alternative approaches are warranted, including leadless pacemaker or complex lead extraction techniques, before considering surgical epicardial lead placement as a last resort because it has own hazards. We report a patient with complete heart block, total SVC obstruction, and a previously implanted malfunctioning epicardial lead presenting with pacemaker end of life. In view of exhaustion of the surgical option and in a resource constrained situation for lead extraction or leadless pacemaker, transiliac endocardial pacemaker implantation was done and a repeat surgery was averted.
Learning objective: Complete venous occlusion is not very often encountered after pacemaker/ICD implantation. Apart from the risk of general anesthesia and invasive surgery, epicardial leads increase battery drain, and have a shorter operating life compared to an endocardial lead. The sparingly utilized iliac venous approach for permanent pacemaker implantation is a valuable, safe and minimally invasive alternative, when the conventional percutaneous access is unavailable, and surgery is undesirable or not possible.
Physicists are generally trained in the Standard Model of Physics (SMP). This implies that they perceive and account for only 3 dimensions of space in a moment in time (3S-1t) (a 4-dimensional [4D] model). However, applying the SMP, more than fifty significant conundrums have arisen that are unexplained or incomplete. Explaining these within the SMP 4D fabric led to hypothesizing a ‘fifth force’, most recently the hypothetical ‘X17 particle’. We propose this hypothetical X17 may better be explained by a 9-dimensional model (9D) with gimmel. Our model, the Neppe-Close Triadic Dimensional Vortical Paradigm (TDVP) has amplified the ‘physics’ from 4 dimensions to 9D, specifically first postulating and then further demonstrating mathematically—starting with derivations of the Cabibbo angle—that 9 dimensions must exist. Moreover, this data is empirically demonstrated because the neutron, proton and electron mass-energy-gimmel equivalence in the Triadic Rotational Units of Equivalence (TRUE) as part of the TDVP model, exactly corresponds with the normalized data for the mass-energy equivalence volumetric data for these particles in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. This data shows definitively that we exist in a 9-dimensional finite, quantized, volumetric, spinning reality. This is, furthermore, embedded in an infinite continuity (9D+). Mathematically, applying this 9D+ model definitively requires an extra third component that is massless and energyless (‘gimmel’). Without gimmel, no particle in the universe would be stable. TDVP unifies nature because the same laws apply across the quantum, macro-world and cosmological reality. Our 4D experience is simply the physical component of 9D+ existence.
Summary Amplification: At all levels, there is the consistent application of a 9-Dimensional quantized finite reality embedded within an infinite continuity. The application of gimmel specifically requires applying the 9-dimensional model and is based on necessary mathematical calculations not only at the quantal level (where the fifty plus unsolved, unexplained or contradictory conundrums can be explained somewhat, and there is no longer ‘quantum weirdness’), but at the macroscale level with more gimmel in the life elements (which, additionally, are consistently all cubic multiples of 108 cubed), as well as cosmologically, where the correlations with proportionate Dark Matter and Dark Energy are overwhelming. Moreover, these 9-dimensional plus factors together with Triadic Rotational Units of Equivalence (TRUE) and gimmel, allow numerous solutions that couldn’t otherwise be solved. For example, importantly, applying the simple mathematics of TRUE, we can demonstrate why gluons, while adequate in 4D, are impossible applying 9D. These solutions are simpler because we have markedly adapted George Spencer-Brown’s ‘Laws of Form’ to applying a new method of mathematical calculation, Edward Close’s ‘Calculus of Distinctions’ (COD) which recognizes quantal limits and that the nature of finite reality is quantized and volumetric. The COD includes distinguishing between content, extent, and impact. We emphasize the pioneering works of Wolfgang Pauli with his multidimensional model and his ‘Pauli Exclusion Principle’, Alfred Whitehead with ‘Process Philosophy’ and his ‘Principia Mathematica’ (with Bertrand Russell), Georg Cantor with Set Theory, and Roger Penrose with spinors and twistors. TDVP is a prime example of our broad new specialty of ‘Dimensional Biopsychophysics’ (DBP). DBP extends physics, consciousness, and the biopsychosocial to extra dimensions and applies mathematics empirically. Like Max Tegmark, we recognize the key role of mathematics as fundamental in nature, not just for application in calculation and operations.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes with various treatment options.
Objective: To compare the efficacy and effect on pregnancy outcome of Metronidazole and Clindamycin in women with bacterial vaginosis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Methodology: Randomized controlled study of 136 pregnant women diagnosed with BV at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. A structured proforma was used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and other relevant data. Treatment was with either oral Metronidazole or oral Clindamycin for seven days. A secondary test and evaluation of the effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes were determined. Data analysis was done using the SPSS statistical package version 22.0
Results: BV prevalence was 23%, with similar cure rates with both medications. The failure rates of clindamycin and metronidazole were 10.4% and 13% respectively (p = 0.639). The mean gestational age at delivery in the metronidazole treated group was 38.67 weeks ± 1.69 compared to 38.68 weeks ± 1.64 in the oral clindamycin group (p = 0.96). Pre-labour rupture of membranes and preterm delivery rates with both medications were similar (p = 0.73; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-4.9) and (p = 0.73; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-4.9) respectively.
Conclusion: Both medications have comparable efficacy and similar pregnancy outcomes in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in low-risk asymptomatic pregnant Nigerian women and thus can be used interchangeably.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Common manifestations of asthma include wheezing, chest tightness, cough, shortness of breath. Diagnosis of asthma requires clinical documentation of respiratory symptoms, exacerbation of symptoms following exposure to triggers, as well as demonstration of expiratory airflow obstruction. Wheeze is a continuous sound, lasting longer than 0.25 s that is produced by oscillation of opposing airway walls [1,2]. Wheezing, although a typical symptom of asthma, can also be caused by other diseases. Apart from asthma, wheezing can be due to extra-thoracic upper airway obstruction, intrathoracic upper airway obstruction, lower airway obstruction.
Benign multimodal goiter is a common disease, that rarely causes upper airway obstruction. Retrosternal goiter should be taken into account the differential diagnosis of upper airway obstruction . The respiratory symptoms of a retrosternal goiter may be masked for years due to the slow growth of the goiter. Patients commonly complain of respiratory symptoms if tracheal diameter is narrowed more than 50% from the normal size. Respiratory symptoms may be suddenly precipitated by spontaneous or traumatically induced bleeding into the substernal goiter, as well as by tracheal infections . Clinical management of this condition is really challenging. Diagnosis is also not straightforward, as clinical suspicion is needed. There are cases of retrosternal goiter mimicking asthma that remain undiagnosed for many years. Retrosternal goiter should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of patients diagnosed as suffering from asthma, and presenting no improvement despite medical therapy. In addition, it should be taken into account that sudden gland enlargement due to hormonal changes might lead to life threatening upper airway obstruction with clinical picture similar to bronchial asthma attack . In a recent very interesting case report, the authors present a case of a pregnant woman in the second trimester who presented with an acute airway obstruction due to the enlargement of a retrosternal goiter .
Goiters are the more common masses of the superior mediastinum [6,7]. Commonly, retrosternal goiter is due to the extension in the thorax of a cervical goiter. However, rarely, it may represent primary disease due to the growth of ectopic thyroid tissue. In addition, retrosternal goiter may develop in patient submitted to thyroidectomy due to cervical multinodular goiter . Although retrosternal goiters are commonly asymptomatic, symptoms may include dyspnea, stridor, hoarseness, dysphagia, superior vena cava syndrome, transient ischemic attacks, cerebral edema, Horner’s syndrome, and thyrotoxicosis . Diagnosis could be verified by neck and chest radiography, thorax CT and MRI. Chest radiography commonly shows a widened mediastinum with a superior mediastinal mass causing compression of the trachea as well as deviation of the trachea to the right. Mediastinal computed tomography reveals a mass that is extension of the thyroid gland. The presence of respiratory symptoms in a patient with retrosternal goiter is an indication for surgery. The majority of retrosternal goiters can be approached through a cervical approach [9,10].
Statement of problem: Provisional restorations play a critical role in the success of restorative treatment so they must maintain their integrity in the oral environment throughout the diagnostic and restorative phases.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the hardness of four different materials used fabrication of interim restoration.
Material and methods: Ten samples with dimensions of 10mmx10mmx2mm were fabricated from four interim materials (DPI, Tempron, Protemp 4 and Transcan). Hardness of samples was measured using Fischer scope hardness tester.
Result: The highest mean hardness was found in Heat polymerizing acrylic resin group. ANOVA test indicated F value to be 2201.01 which was highly significant (p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Heat polymerizing resin and bisacrylics may be considered in a long term provisional fixed prosthesis.
Background: Inflammation is associated with enhanced cardiovascular risk profile and increased cardiovascular mortality in end-stage kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Mechanisms of activated acute phase reaction in patients on chronic hemodialysis remain to be identified. As successful treatment of the inflammatory condition in these patients may improve long-term survival, we studied potential changes in different inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in end-stage kidney disease patients after a mid-week hemodialysis session.
Methods: Inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk (cystatin-C, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, pentraxin-3, serum amyloid-A) and atherogenic plasma lipoproteins (Lipoprotein(a), cholesterol low and high density lipoproteins) were studied in 21 end-stage kidney disease patients previously and after a mid-week hemodialysis session.
Results: We found a significant reduction in serum levels of low molecular weight molecules: cystatin-C (5.56 to 1.85 mg/L, 66.73%, p < 0.001), homocysteine (22.85 to 13.25 µmol/L, 42.01%, p < 0.001) and procalcitonin (0.788 to 0.457 ng/mL, 42.01%, p < 0.001). Large molecules as C-reactive protein (9.70 to 9.90 mg/L, 2.06%, p = 0.022) and pentraxin-3 (1.67 to 4.28 ng/mL, 156%, p < 0.001) increased, but serum amyloid-A decreased (15.90 to 12.70 mg/L, 20.13%, p < 0.05). There was no change in Lipoprotein (a) levels.
Conclusion: Pentraxin-3 was a more specific inflammatory vascular marker than C-reactive protein, and the best inflammatory marker associated with hemodialysis. Homocysteine, procalcitonin and the other small proteins could be released and removed during hemodialysis session. Further studies are needed to understand the behavior and significance of these markers after successive hemodialysis.
We hypothesize that, with elevated cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pressure, cerebral micro-vascular obstruction and congestion may occur despite (subdural) large-vein pressures being normal. Smaller veins emptying into these larger, dura-enveloped veins are not immune to the compressive effects of elevated CSF pressure and a “Starling Resistor” mechanism might explain why elevated CSF pressures collapse these smaller veins. This small cerebral venous starling resistor compression mechanism may be the final common pathway for many patients suffering from increased CSF pressures and might also be an important contributor to impaired focal venous drainage presenting as a headache with normal venous sinus pressures.
A case study on Jakob Erdheim-Chester disease.
Jakob Erdheim, pathologist, collector, scientist and educator was born in 1874 in Galicia and received his medical degree from the University of Vienna in 1900. He became interested in pathology and joined the Pathology Institute of the Municipal Hospital (Lainz) of Vienna
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Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
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Department of Neurosurgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong