Ascites

Unilateral pleural effusion as the sole presentation of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)

Published on: 1st December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875582680

A 44-year-old G4P2+1 presented to the emergency department on the 10th day following embryo transfer (with two fresh, day 5, blastocysts transferred in a hospital abroad) with the complaints of difficulty breathing, chest discomfort and cough for one day. These symptoms increased on lying on her side and were not related to exertion. She also mentioned having had abdominal discomfort over the preceding few days. On taking a past history, the patient revealed that all her prior pregnancies were the result of IVF treatment and she suffered OHSS with each. Her first pregnancy was a triplet gestation through IVF and complicated by OHSS; followed by her second pregnancy which was an IVF twin gestation also complicated by OHSS with ascites requiring paracentesis. With her third IVF treatment she conceived, had OHSS and miscarried spontaneously. However, these IVF treatments and pregnancies were all managed abroad and no medical records were available. 
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An uncommon cause of isolated ascites: Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Published on: 26th April, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8163913595

Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) or Gelatinous Peritoneal Disease is a rare condition that refers to an anatomo-clinical entity characterized by ascites of variable abundance in the peritoneal cavity, viscous or mucinous, associated or not with neoplastic epithelial cells. It predominates in women. Diagnosis is guided by imaging and confirmed by histology. Prognosis is good in case of early management. We report the case of a male diagnosed with Pseudomyxoma peritonei revealed by isolated ascites.
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A rare case of giant ovarian serous cystadenoma presenting as psuedo-meigs syndrome

Published on: 18th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897949620

Meigs’ syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the presence of a benign fibroma of the ovary, ascites and pleural effusion. Other benign cysts of the ovary (such as struma ovarii, mucinous cystadenoma, serous cystadenoma and teratomas), leiomyoma of the uterus, and secondary metastatic tumours to ovary if associated with hydro thorax and ascites are referred to as ‘Pseudo-Meigs” syndrome. It very uncommon and diagnosis is made difficult by symptoms that usually mimic disseminated malignancy or tuberculosis. The gold standard treatment is laparotomy and, by definition of the syndrome, after tumor removal, the symptoms resolves and the patients become asymptomatic. We presented an 18 years old girl with giant ovarian serous cystadenoma with associated pseudo-meigs syndrome, successfully managed in a low resources setting.
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Palliative care approach to oncological patient – Main points

Published on: 31st March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8566861688

According to the World Health Organization definition, palliative care is an approach aimed at increasing the quality of life of patients and their relatives by addressing physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs and treating conditions early, such as pain while they are coming to terms with a life-threatening disease [1]. Palliative care services have started a rapid progress in developed countries such as Scandinavian countries, England and Canada since the beginning of 1990 [2]. Although palliative care cares for any patient who is in need of care, whether bed-bound or unable to look after themselves, one of the main area of interest is of course oncological patients and their relatives. Patients with advanced cancer, frequent sufferings from physical and psychological symptoms - primarily pain, reduced functional capacity, and reduced quality of life are in the scope of palliative care protocol [3]. The most common end-of-life symptoms and signs in palliative cancer patients are pain, anorexia, nausea, cachexia, weakness, dyspnea, ascites, anxiety, agitation, delirium, confusion and pressure sores. In order to achieve quality and continuous care in case management, a family doctor, specific branch specialist, nurse, dietician, psychologist, cleric, etc. should work together in a multidisciplinary approach and clinical guidelines and care protocols should be implemented [4]. However, it should be kept in mind that increasing the medication dose may not always be beneficial to the oncological patients in palliative services. The goal should always be maximum benefit with minimal tests and treatment. Palliative care does not aim to accelerate or postpone death; but it has many benefits in cancer patients and their relatives including the integration of the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of patient care into physical care, providing support for patients to live as active as possible until the last moment, improving the quality of life and the disease process, providing help and support in the grieving process [1,5]. Providing good care to advanced cancer patients requires that caregivers are educated and supported about their patients’ physical, psychological and social care needs. Balancing the physical and emotional needs of the caregivers will reduce the stress they experience, as well as increase the quality of life of their patients [6,7]. Professionalism in palliative care comes into play right at this point. There is no consensus in the medical world about by whom, when and to whom palliative care should be given. In this regard, the conflicts of opinion between specific branches such as anesthesia, internal medicine and neurology are inevitable. We think that the team leader should be a family physician or a palliative care specialist. The reason for this is the family medicine’s principles of core competencies including biopsycosocial, holistic, comprehensive approach and equal distance to specific branches. Of course when the palliative care specialist is the team leader the patient’s own family doctor still provides invaluable service because of his intimate and long-term knowledge about the patients. One key difference in some countries is that no distinction is being made between palliative and hospice care. Neither the insurance companies nor the state demands such classification because it doesn’t serve any practical purpose at the moment. However, in due time such distinction will be inevitable as one of the cost-cutting measure. Medical oncology will have to report about the expected survival of the cancer patients and it will further increase their workload given the exponential increase in cancer cases.
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A case report on Meigs’ syndrome and elevated serum CA-125: A rare case report

Published on: 24th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9038781665

Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian neoplasia presents along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1% of ovarian neoplasia can present as Meigs syndrome. Patients with Meigs’ syndrome and elevated serum CA-125 are not frequently reported. We report a case of a 50-year-old women who presented with shortness of breath, cough, weight loss of one and half month duration. Chest radiograph of the patient with clinical examination of patient confirms pleural effusion as cause of progressive shortness of breath. The presence of a pelvic mass and elevated serum CA-125, which raised the possibility of malignancy. After complete resection of tumor, the pathologic reports confirmed a benign ovarian neoplasia. We highlight the importance of suspicion, careful general examination, radiological assessment and histological tests to confirm the diagnosis of Meigs’ syndrome.
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Hepato-Pulmonary syndrome and Porto-Pulmonary Hypertension: Rare combination cause of Hypoxemia in patient with end-stage renal failure on Hemodialysis and hepatitis C Induced Decompensated Cirrhosis

Published on: 18th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347072392

The case is that of 83 year-old African American man with hypertension, hepatitis C induced decompensated cirrhosis with ascites, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis, fluid overload with peripheral edema and chronic hypotension. The patient was referred to the dialysis access center of Pittsburgh, PA for evaluation of his prolonged bleeding from the left upper arm brachial-basilic arterial-venous fistula (BBAVF).
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Prognosis factors for dengue shock syndrome in children

Published on: 15th October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9305460101

Background: Varied clinical manifestations, complex pathogenesis, and different viral serotypes make it difficult to predict the course of dengue disease. Many studies have been conducted on the prognostic factors for the occurrence of dengue shock syndrome (SSD), but all use the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Aim: This study aims to determine the prognostic factors for the occurrence of SSD based on WHO guidelines in 2011. Method: Retrospective study using medical record data of pediatric patients aged 0 to <18 years with a diagnosis of dengue fever dengue (DHF), SSD, and expanded dengue syndrome (EDS) that meet WHO criteria in 2011 at the reputable database from 2017 to December 2020. Independent variables, namely gender, age, nutritional status, secondary dengue infection, leukopenia, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatomegaly, and plasma leakage. Shock is the dependent variable. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression analysis. Results: Subjects who met the study criteria were 145 patients, 52 (35.8%) of whom had SSD. Five of 52 SSD patients went into shock during hospitalization. The bivariate analysis yielded significant factors including, malnutrition, overnutrition and obesity, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemoconcentration, ascites, leukocytes 5,000 mm 3, encephalopathy, enzyme elevation heart, and overload. The results of multivariate analysis showed that hemoconcentration variables and elevated liver enzymes were factors of SSD Prognosis. Conclusion: Hemoconcentration and elevated liver enzymes are prognostic factors for SSD. 
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