Ascites

Unilateral pleural effusion as the sole presentation of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)

Published on: 3rd December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8875582680

A 44-year-old G4P2+1 presented to the emergency department on the 10th day following embryo transfer (with two fresh, day 5, blastocysts transferred in a hospital abroad) with the complaints of difficulty breathing, chest discomfort and cough for one day. These symptoms increased on lying on her side and were not related to exertion. She also mentioned having had abdominal discomfort over the preceding few days. On taking a past history, the patient revealed that all her prior pregnancies were the result of IVF treatment and she suffered OHSS with each. Her first pregnancy was a triplet gestation through IVF and complicated by OHSS; followed by her second pregnancy which was an IVF twin gestation also complicated by OHSS with ascites requiring paracentesis. With her third IVF treatment she conceived, had OHSS and miscarried spontaneously. However, these IVF treatments and pregnancies were all managed abroad and no medical records were available. 
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An uncommon cause of isolated ascites: Pseudomyxoma peritonei

Published on: 26th April, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8163913595

Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) or Gelatinous Peritoneal Disease is a rare condition that refers to an anatomo-clinical entity characterized by ascites of variable abundance in the peritoneal cavity, viscous or mucinous, associated or not with neoplastic epithelial cells. It predominates in women. Diagnosis is guided by imaging and confirmed by histology. Prognosis is good in case of early management. We report the case of a male diagnosed with Pseudomyxoma peritonei revealed by isolated ascites.
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A rare case of giant ovarian serous cystadenoma presenting as psuedo-meigs syndrome

Published on: 18th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897949620

Meigs’ syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the presence of a benign fibroma of the ovary, ascites and pleural effusion. Other benign cysts of the ovary (such as struma ovarii, mucinous cystadenoma, serous cystadenoma and teratomas), leiomyoma of the uterus, and secondary metastatic tumours to ovary if associated with hydro thorax and ascites are referred to as ‘Pseudo-Meigs” syndrome. It very uncommon and diagnosis is made difficult by symptoms that usually mimic disseminated malignancy or tuberculosis. The gold standard treatment is laparotomy and, by definition of the syndrome, after tumor removal, the symptoms resolves and the patients become asymptomatic. We presented an 18 years old girl with giant ovarian serous cystadenoma with associated pseudo-meigs syndrome, successfully managed in a low resources setting.
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Palliative care approach to oncological patient – Main points

Published on: 31st March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8566861688

According to the World Health Organization definition, palliative care is an approach aimed at increasing the quality of life of patients and their relatives by addressing physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs and treating conditions early, such as pain while they are coming to terms with a life-threatening disease [1]. Palliative care services have started a rapid progress in developed countries such as Scandinavian countries, England and Canada since the beginning of 1990 [2]. Although palliative care cares for any patient who is in need of care, whether bed-bound or unable to look after themselves, one of the main area of interest is of course oncological patients and their relatives. Patients with advanced cancer, frequent sufferings from physical and psychological symptoms - primarily pain, reduced functional capacity, and reduced quality of life are in the scope of palliative care protocol [3]. The most common end-of-life symptoms and signs in palliative cancer patients are pain, anorexia, nausea, cachexia, weakness, dyspnea, ascites, anxiety, agitation, delirium, confusion and pressure sores. In order to achieve quality and continuous care in case management, a family doctor, specific branch specialist, nurse, dietician, psychologist, cleric, etc. should work together in a multidisciplinary approach and clinical guidelines and care protocols should be implemented [4]. However, it should be kept in mind that increasing the medication dose may not always be beneficial to the oncological patients in palliative services. The goal should always be maximum benefit with minimal tests and treatment. Palliative care does not aim to accelerate or postpone death; but it has many benefits in cancer patients and their relatives including the integration of the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of patient care into physical care, providing support for patients to live as active as possible until the last moment, improving the quality of life and the disease process, providing help and support in the grieving process [1,5]. Providing good care to advanced cancer patients requires that caregivers are educated and supported about their patients’ physical, psychological and social care needs. Balancing the physical and emotional needs of the caregivers will reduce the stress they experience, as well as increase the quality of life of their patients [6,7]. Professionalism in palliative care comes into play right at this point. There is no consensus in the medical world about by whom, when and to whom palliative care should be given. In this regard, the conflicts of opinion between specific branches such as anesthesia, internal medicine and neurology are inevitable. We think that the team leader should be a family physician or a palliative care specialist. The reason for this is the family medicine’s principles of core competencies including biopsycosocial, holistic, comprehensive approach and equal distance to specific branches. Of course when the palliative care specialist is the team leader the patient’s own family doctor still provides invaluable service because of his intimate and long-term knowledge about the patients. One key difference in some countries is that no distinction is being made between palliative and hospice care. Neither the insurance companies nor the state demands such classification because it doesn’t serve any practical purpose at the moment. However, in due time such distinction will be inevitable as one of the cost-cutting measure. Medical oncology will have to report about the expected survival of the cancer patients and it will further increase their workload given the exponential increase in cancer cases.
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A case report on Meigs’ syndrome and elevated serum CA-125: A rare case report

Published on: 24th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9038781665

Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian neoplasia presents along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1% of ovarian neoplasia can present as Meigs syndrome. Patients with Meigs’ syndrome and elevated serum CA-125 are not frequently reported. We report a case of a 50-year-old women who presented with shortness of breath, cough, weight loss of one and half month duration. Chest radiograph of the patient with clinical examination of patient confirms pleural effusion as cause of progressive shortness of breath. The presence of a pelvic mass and elevated serum CA-125, which raised the possibility of malignancy. After complete resection of tumor, the pathologic reports confirmed a benign ovarian neoplasia. We highlight the importance of suspicion, careful general examination, radiological assessment and histological tests to confirm the diagnosis of Meigs’ syndrome.
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Hepato-Pulmonary syndrome and Porto-Pulmonary Hypertension: Rare combination cause of Hypoxemia in patient with end-stage renal failure on Hemodialysis and hepatitis C Induced Decompensated Cirrhosis

Published on: 18th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7347072392

The case is that of 83 year-old African American man with hypertension, hepatitis C induced decompensated cirrhosis with ascites, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis, fluid overload with peripheral edema and chronic hypotension. The patient was referred to the dialysis access center of Pittsburgh, PA for evaluation of his prolonged bleeding from the left upper arm brachial-basilic arterial-venous fistula (BBAVF).
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Prognosis factors for dengue shock syndrome in children

Published on: 15th October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9305460101

Background: Varied clinical manifestations, complex pathogenesis, and different viral serotypes make it difficult to predict the course of dengue disease. Many studies have been conducted on the prognostic factors for the occurrence of dengue shock syndrome (SSD), but all use the 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Aim: This study aims to determine the prognostic factors for the occurrence of SSD based on WHO guidelines in 2011. Method: Retrospective study using medical record data of pediatric patients aged 0 to <18 years with a diagnosis of dengue fever dengue (DHF), SSD, and expanded dengue syndrome (EDS) that meet WHO criteria in 2011 at the reputable database from 2017 to December 2020. Independent variables, namely gender, age, nutritional status, secondary dengue infection, leukopenia, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatomegaly, and plasma leakage. Shock is the dependent variable. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression analysis. Results: Subjects who met the study criteria were 145 patients, 52 (35.8%) of whom had SSD. Five of 52 SSD patients went into shock during hospitalization. The bivariate analysis yielded significant factors including, malnutrition, overnutrition and obesity, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemoconcentration, ascites, leukocytes 5,000 mm 3, encephalopathy, enzyme elevation heart, and overload. The results of multivariate analysis showed that hemoconcentration variables and elevated liver enzymes were factors of SSD Prognosis. Conclusion: Hemoconcentration and elevated liver enzymes are prognostic factors for SSD. 
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Stomach cancer: epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects at the Kara Teaching Hospital, Togo

Published on: 16th March, 2022

Objective: To report our experience in the management of gastric cancers at the Kara University Hospital (Togo).Materials and methods: This was a retrospective and prospective study which was conducted from January 1, 2018, to July 31, 2021, in the general surgery and hepato-gastroenterology department of the Kara University Hospital (Togo). This study involved all patients treated for gastric cancer during the study period at CHU Kara (Togo).Results: We recorded 32 gastric cancers out of the 218 cases of cancer diagnosed during the study period. We had 20 men and 12 women with a sex ratio (M/F = 1.7). The average age was 58 years with the extremes ranging from 17 to 85 years. The pattern of the consultation was dominated by epigastralgia (100%) and deterioration in general condition (100%). Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsies was performed in all our patients. The antral localization was the most found in 62.5% of cases. The most common macroscopic appearance was ulcers-budding (90.6%) and the dominant histological type was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (87.5%). The extension assessment found liver metastasis in 10 cases, multiple regional lymphadenopathies of the hepatic pedicle and celiac trunk in 26 cases, ascites related to peritoneal carcinomatosis in 26 cases. Therapeutically, a 4/5 gastrectomy with D1 dissection was performed in 6 cases; gastrojejunal anastomosis in one case and palliative treatment in 25 cases. Survival at 1 year is 50% (3 patients) among operated patients. All the other patients (78.1%) who received palliative treatment all died within 3 months.Conclusion: Improving the prognosis of stomach cancer like other cancers requires early diagnosis to perform a gastrectomy, the only guarantee of long survival.
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Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and Fox A1 in epithelial ovarian cancer

Published on: 20th May, 2022

Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the fifth cause of cancer mortality in females. There were an estimated 300,000 new cases of OC diagnosed worldwide in 2018, corresponding to 3.4% of all cancer cases among women. The high mortality rate of OC attributed to asymptomatic growth of the tumor leads to its diagnosis at advanced stages. About 85% - 90% of OC are epithelial including serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. Aim: To study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of FOXA1 and p53 in epithelial OC and its association with prognostic indicators such as age, tumor size, stage, grade, and histological type.Materials and methods: The study included 52 cases with EOC from the pathology department, faculty of medicine, Aswan, and Sohag Universities, in the period from January 2017 to December 2019. This study involved 52 patients with OC and a median age of 53 years. Different histological types were included as 37 serous, 12 mucinous, 1 case endometroid 2 cases clear cell OC. The study cases were classified into 22 Grade I, 16 Grade II, and 20 Grade III. About 22 cases were at stage I, 9 at stage II, 11 at stage III, and 10 at stage IV. Tissue sections were stained using the IHC technique with FOX A1 at a dilution of 1:100 and p53 at 1:100. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found between FOX A1 expression and advanced patient's age, high grade, advanced stage, ruptured capsule, and ascites, regardless of tumor laterality. No significant association was found between p53 immunoexpression and the same clinic-pathological parameters although p53 was associated with serious type. Conclusion: FOXA1 immunoexpression in EOC is considered a poor prognostic factor in EOC. FOXA1 could be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker in EOC.
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Idiopathic ascites following caesarean section: A case report

Published on: 1st November, 2022

Ms X is a 40-year-old gravida 12, para 2+9 woman, who was admitted for an elective caesarean section at 38 weeks gestation following the previous two caesarean sections. Ms X had abdominal distension and generalised abdominal tenderness in the postoperative period. On investigation, she was found to have an elevated white cell count (WCC), C - Reactive Protein (CRP) and creatinine with free fluid in the abdomen on imaging but there was no evidence of perforation of any visceral organ. Ms X was treated conservatively for sepsis, an Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and post-operative ileus and her symptoms gradually resolved. This is a case of idiopathic ascites post caesarean delivery with no clear cause.
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Meigs syndrome: About an uncommon case report

Published on: 6th January, 2023

Background: Ovarian fibroma is a very unusual epithelial tumor representing less than 1% of all ovarian tumors. It can be asymptomatic and discovered during surgery or be associated with a pleural effusion preferentially located on the right side and a more or less abundant free ascites in the framework of the so-called Meigs syndrome. The challenge of management then lies in distinguishing benign from malignant since clinically, radiologically, and biologically everything points towards malignant which requires radical surgical treatment. We report here the case of a 69-year-old postmenopausal patient with a clinical form of Meigs' syndrome that strongly suggested ovarian cancer.Case presentation: We hereby report here the case of a 69-year-old patient, menopausal, gravida 4 para 3 with 3 live children delivered vaginally and one miscarriage. She presented with ascites, hydrothorax, and a solid tumor of the ovary. Serum CA 125 and HE 4 levels were very high. ROMA score was highly suggestive of malignancy. A hysterectomy with adnexectomy was performed. It was only the histological evidence of ovarian fibroma and the rapid resolution of its effusions that confirmed Meigs syndrome.Conclusion: Meigs syndrome is an anatomical-clinical entity that associates a benign tumor of the ovary, ascites, and hydrothorax. Highly elevated CA 125 and HE-4 tumor markers often point clinicians toward a malignant tumor and compel radical surgical treatment. This case report reminds us once again that only histology confirms the diagnosis of cancer.
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A Perplexing Case of Genito-urinary Tuberculosis in an 83-Year-Old Woman with Increased Levels of Tumor Markers: A Case Report

Published on: 5th December, 2023

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant global health problem, and extrapulmonary TB can present with no specific clinical or radiographic findings. Genito-urinary TB is often associated with elevated tumor markers and can be misdiagnosed as ovarian/fallopian tube carcinomas, especially in elderly female patients, as genitourinary TB commonly affects women of reproductive age.Objective: We present a rare case of genito-urinary TB in an elderly female patient who was initially misdiagnosed with ovarian cancer with metastasis.Case presentation: An 83-year-old woman with a medical history of diabetes and hypertension presented with complaints of abdominal distension. Diagnostic imaging revealed lesions in the ovaries and omentum and tumor markers were elevated, leading to a suspicion of ovarian cancer with metastases to the omentum. The patient underwent a diagnostic laparotomy and surgical removal of ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the lesion of the greater omentum. However, no malignancy was found during the morphological evaluation. Further histopathological examination confirmed the final diagnosis of genito-urinary tuberculosis, and the patient received anti-TB drugs. The postoperative period was uneventful, and tumor marker levels decreased.Conclusion: As the clinical presentation of genito-urinary TB can mimic ovarian cancer, a histopathological examination should be performed for differential diagnosis, thereby reducing the possibility of inaccurate treatment. This case report highlights the importance of considering genito-urinary TB as a differential diagnosis in elderly female patients presenting with elevated tumor markers, abdominal distension, and suspected genital malignancy. It is crucial to carefully evaluate these cases and explore the possibility of genital TB as an alternative diagnosis, given the overlapping clinical presentation. This highlights the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic approach that includes considering TB in addition to malignancy, even in the context of elderly female patients.
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Renal Lymphangiectasia: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

Published on: 10th May, 2024

Renal lymphangiectasia, a rare lymphatic disorder, manifests as cystic infiltration in the perirenal and para-pyelic space due to lymphatic drainage defects. Diagnosis hinges on imaging modalities like ultrasound, CT, and MRI. However, lack of awareness can lead to confusion with other renal cystic pathologies. Here, we present a case of renal lymphangiectasia in a child, detailing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The patient, a 2-year-old and 2-month-old girl from a consanguineous marriage, presented with persistent abdominal distension. Clinical examination revealed growth retardation and normal blood pressure but abdominal distension with dullness. Lab investigations indicated acute renal failure with non-nephrotic proteinuria. Radiologically, renal lymphangiectasia was confirmed by ultrasound showing microcysts and perirenal cystic lesions with ascites, corroborated by MRI and CT scans. Treatment involved nephroprotective therapy and diuretics for ascites. Surgical intervention was necessitated due to cyst size and compressive nature, involving iterative punctures, marsupialization, and percutaneous drainage. Postoperatively, recurrent ascites temporarily worsened renal function but returned to baseline afterward. renal lymphangiectasia necessitates careful management due to its potential to progress to chronic renal failure. The prognosis depends on factors like initial proteinuria severity, treatment response, and complication management. Personalized approaches are pivotal in its diagnosis and management.
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Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis-optimizing Medical Management: Whether we need a Liver Transplant

Published on: 9th July, 2024

Severe alcoholic hepatitis is an ethical and clinical conundrum, wherein a liver transplant is often recommended. The adequacy of medical treatment versus the risk of recidivism after transplant is often debated. Complete recovery in 26 of 27 patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis was observed, and hence the data was retrospectively analysed.Methods: 27 patients, with severe alcoholic hepatitis, with Maddrey's discriminant function between 59.7 to 165.2 (mean 107.53), from June 2017 to May 2022, were followed up for between 11 months to 6 years. INR ranged from 1.99 to 3.7 (mean 2.709), and bilirubin was between 7.6 to 37.01, (mean 20.859). 8 patients had pre-existing liver cirrhosis. All patients received probiotics, nutritional support, physical rehabilitation, saturated fat (clarified butter/ desi ghee) supplementation, and anti-oxidant support. At 90 days, total bilirubin improved to between 1.0 to 6.8 (mean 2.625). ALT (Alanine Transaminase/ SGPT) ranged from 65 to 550 (mean ALT – 197); and AST (Aspartate Transaminase / SGOT) ranged from 58 to 810 (mean AST – 271.51). Both the AST and ALT were near normal after 90 days. One patient died due to bacterial pneumonia and sepsis; the remaining 26 patients made a complete recovery. All patients including those with diagnosed liver cirrhosis, had complete resolution of their ascites, and near-normal liver function. At the last outpatient visit, none had ascites, edema, or encephalopathy, and had normal albumin levels and INR values. Conclusion: Probiotics, nutrition, a saturated fat diet, and exercise; all have shown benefits in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis when tested individually. Concomitant use of all the above has not been reported in the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis. The role of nutrition alone versus the contribution of nutritional deficiencies and the role of gut-derived endotoxemia need to be studied in detail. How to identify patients who need a transplant, if it is needed at all, remains a challenge.
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