Background: Literature on ACL injury is limited when assessing for the presence and interaction of multiple risk factors simultaneously. Identifying risk factor interaction may increase the impact of prevention programmes to target ACL injury reduction. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess ACL injured female athletes to identify which modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were present at the time of injury.
Method: Seventeen female athletes who had sustained a non-contact ACL injury were interviewed retrospectively to assess for the presence of reported risk factors for ACL injury.
Result: This retrospective analysis ACL injury cases highlighted a number of factors which were present with high frequency across this group of cases. All had non-contact ACL injury occurring during cutting or landing, which suggests a predisposing deficit in neuromuscular control. This poor neuromuscular control could be exacerbated by the presence of fatigue identified within the cohort. This poor control could be further influenced by the fact a majority of athletes had another significant injury in the 12 weeks prior to ACL injury. The restriction to training could have either decreased fatigue resistance, or potentially changed their movement pattern because of the method of injury management undertaken.
Conclusion: This case series provides insight into the interaction of risk factors for ACL injury in sportswomen, with the presence of another injury disrupting training, decreasing the athletes work capacity and fatigue resistance, being compounded perceived or actually elevated levels of fatigue, leading to the potential for abhorrent movement patterns and increased injury risk.
The considerable improvements in cardiac support systems technologies have not solved until now the problem of connecting the cardiac assistance devices (CAD) to external energy sources, which makes these Patients at risk of lethal infections and dependent on external batteries with few hours of autonomy. Authors illustrate and discuss the hemodynamic concepts and clinical that underlie the mechanics of the first not-motorized implantable cardiac assistance device (NICA).
A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of right-sided thoracic pain. The ECG showed inferior ST segment elevations. He has been treated with aspirin, clopidogrel, unfractionated heparin and tenecteplase, and his symptoms resolved after 30 minutes. About half an hour later, the patient developed again left-sided thoracic pain and the signs of an anterior myocardial ST-segment elevation infarction. 90 minutes after receiving the initial medications, the performed coronary angiography revealed a long dissection of a large ramus circumflexus. Furthermore, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded at about the mid-level. The left ventriculography showed a reduced ventricular function and a Stanford type A aortic dissection. Immediate patient transfer for emergency surgical intervention was arranged. However, ventricular fibrillation occurred during transport and he required endotracheal intubation and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Unfortunately, he died during further transport.
In a patient with massive thoracic pain of initially uncommon localization in combination with fluctuation of ST-segment elevations, aortic dissection should be seriously taken into the differential diagnosis as well as into therapeutic management decisions (in particular antiplatelet and thrombolytic therapy).
Permanent pacemaker implantation is conventionally done via upper limb veins. But in 1% - 6% cases, usual sub clavicular approach is either not possible or contraindicated due to complete occlusion of superior vena cava (SVC) or bilateral subclavian vein and/or bilateral implant site infection or thin skin . Alternative approaches are warranted, including leadless pacemaker or complex lead extraction techniques, before considering surgical epicardial lead placement as a last resort because it has own hazards. We report a patient with complete heart block, total SVC obstruction, and a previously implanted malfunctioning epicardial lead presenting with pacemaker end of life. In view of exhaustion of the surgical option and in a resource constrained situation for lead extraction or leadless pacemaker, transiliac endocardial pacemaker implantation was done and a repeat surgery was averted.
Learning objective: Complete venous occlusion is not very often encountered after pacemaker/ICD implantation. Apart from the risk of general anesthesia and invasive surgery, epicardial leads increase battery drain, and have a shorter operating life compared to an endocardial lead. The sparingly utilized iliac venous approach for permanent pacemaker implantation is a valuable, safe and minimally invasive alternative, when the conventional percutaneous access is unavailable, and surgery is undesirable or not possible.
Purpose: There are uncertainties about whether general or central obesity is the more important determinant for blood pressure and hypertension in young Chinese. We aim to investigate the association between adiposity measures and blood pressure and hypertension in young medical students.
Methods: A total of 380 medical students were recruited from the 2012 batch in the Clinical College of Dali University. Anthropometric measures and office blood pressure were measured. Blood pressure status was defined by Chinese hypertension guidelines and ACC/AHA 2017 hypertension guidelines, respectively. We examined the associations of adiposity measures (body weight, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], ponderal index [PI], body adiposity index (BAI) and conicity index [CI]) with blood pressure and hypertension by sex.
Results: In 380 subjects (women 66.6%, mean age 21.5 years), the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2) was 2.1%, and the prevalence of hypertension was 2.6% (≥ 140/90 mmHg) and 24.5% (≥ 130/80 mmHg), respectively. In correlation analyses and multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, most adiposity measures of central obesity were significantly associated with blood pressure in men, while in women, either adiposity measures of central or general obesity were associated with blood pressure. The predictive power of adiposity measures for hypertension was generally low in men. However, adiposity measures of either general obesity or central obesity were predictive for hypertension defined by Chinese hypertension guidelines in women.
Conclusion: There are gender-specific associations of central and general obesity with blood pressure and hypertension in young Chinese medical students.
Pregnancy is a happy stage in life of every woman, but at the same time it is a rather difficult period, since pregnancy represents a serious strain on the body. In the body of a woman during this period there are significant physiological changes that ensure the correct development of the fetus, prepare the body for the upcoming delivery. In this difficult period, the burden on all organs and systems of the woman’s body is significantly increased. Especially often suffer joints; there is a risk of permanent pain, the development of diseases or exacerbation of existing diseases. One of the most common problems is Temporomandibular Dysfunction or Disorder (TMD) which many women face, but still hasn’t been explained.
Tilmicosin (TMC) is a semi synthetic macrolide antibiotic of tylosin derivatives commonly used by veterinaries, has been shown to reveal beneficial pharmacological activities. In the current study, the potential wound healing activity, Anti-oxidant effect (ulcer and hepatoprotective) were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic (central and peripheral), hypnotic and antispasmodic activity were also screened. This study included adult both sexes of rats (200-250 gm), mice (20-25 gm) and adult rabbits. Experimental wound was induced on the anterior-dorsal side of each rat whereas, ulcer induced by ethanol causing mucosal damage in rats. The oral anti-inflammatory induced through formalin producing edema, antipyretic (Brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia) and analgesic (writhing test, hot plate method, tail immersion method) while hypnotic effects induced through thiopental sodium. Anti-spasmodic effect on isolated organs (intestinal and uterine muscles) using new method of Modular Single Chamber Organ Bath were carried out on experimental animals. Tilmicosin antibiotic at different two doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg b.wt., has an important role in treatment of ulcer (cytoprotective effect) and improvement the wound healing processes besides anti-inflammatory, analgesics, and anti-pyretic effects. Tilmicosin revealed also hypnotic and intestinal anti-spasmodic effects but showed Pharmacovigilence hepatotoxic effect through the histopathological studies which revealed sever hepatic damage especially at larger dose.
Hyperglyceridemia induced pancreatitis in pregnancy accounts for 4% of all cases of acute pancreatitis. Though rare, hypertriglyceridemia induced pancreatitis may lead to fatal maternal and fetal complications, even maternal death. Its management during pregnancy remains a challenge for many physicians. Management options are limited in pregnancy. In the refractory cases, management options and timing of delivery is debatable. Here we report a case of hyperglyceridemia induced pancreatitis and the challenges faced in the management.
Background & Objectives: Fluoride releasing bonding agents can help the orthodontist to minimize enamel demineralization independent of patient cooperation. This in vivo study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) on reducing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets and confirm the superior caries-preventive effect of RMGIC by assessing the mutans streptococci (S. mutans) in plaque samples in vitro.
Methods: 60 subjects (aged 14-20 years) scheduled to have premolar extractions as part of the orthodontic treatment plan were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 each (group 1: the brackets were bonded on the teeth using light cure composite resin and group 2: the brackets were bonded using RMGIC). Plaque scores (modification of plaque index by Silness and Loe) were recorded and plaque samples were collected before bonding, one week and one month after bonding. S.mutans colonies were recorded from the plaque samples inoculated on MSB agar plates, incubated under 95% N2 and 5% CO2 for 48 hours at 370C in a CO2 jar. After 1 month, the right maxillary and mandibular first premolars were debonded, extracted and depth of enamel demineralization area was estimated using polarized light microscope.
Results: After statistical analysis, a significantly higher mean depth of demineralized lesions was noticed in group 1 as compared to group 2. A significant difference between occlusal and gingival depth was seen only in group 2, thus illustrating a wedge effect. In group 1, a statistically significant increase in the mean colony forming units (CFU) of S.mutans has been noticed at different time intervals whereas in group2, a significant increase was observed only at 1month. Unlike at 1 month, a statistically significant difference in mean CFU between group 1 and group 2 has been observed at 1 week (P<0.05).
Conclusions: Enamel lesions adjacent to the bracket base on teeth bonded with the RMGIC were smaller than those on teeth bonded with a composite resin. The high “burst effect” of fluoride release for the first few days of RMGIC after bonding is confirmed by statistically significant reduction in CFU counts of S. mutans in plaque.
Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) includes the spectrum of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta. It is a major cause of obstetric hemorrhage. Caesarean section is main risk factor for MAP. Ultrasound scan is highly sensitive method for MAP diagnosis and sometime Magnetic resonance image is of choice. Early diagnosis timed elective planned intervention after preparation under skillful multidisciplinary team improve the outcome and minimize the morbidity. Caesarean hysterectomy, major arteries ligation, arteries embolization and leave the placenta in-situ all are choices of management. Use of Methotrexate for the placenta in-situ in MAP is still debatable. We present a case of MAP in which placenta left in- situ followed by multiple Methotrexate injection during postpartum with good outcome and acceptability.
Background: The effect of salpingectomy on ovarian response is a matter of debate. Due to conflicting data, alternative techniques were developed to perform salpingectomy for treatment of hydrosalpinges in infertile patients. This study aims to evaluate the effect of salpingectomy on ovarian response after stimulation with gonadotropins.
Methods: In a retrospective analysis, one hundred fifty-seven patients with tubal infertility were divided into three groups according to their surgical histories: bilateral salpingectomy (BS group); unilateral salpingectomy (US group); and no history of salpingectomy (NS group). Ovarian response and IVF outcomes were compared between groups by analysis of variance. Prognostic factors for ovarian response were estimated by linear regression models.
Results: In the BS group, the total numbers of oocytes retrieved, and embryos obtained were significantly lower than those in the NS group (p = 0.02). Poor ovarian response was also more frequent in the BS group (p = 0.02). In the US group, follicle development was reduced on the operated side. This effect was more pronounced when salpingectomies were performed for hydrosalpinges than when performed for ectopic pregnancies, and significant decreases were observed in follicle recruitment (p = 0.005) and oocyte retrieval (p = 0.02) on the operated side.
Conclusion: Salpingectomy could have a minor negative effect on ovarian response. This is particularly true with bilateral salpingectomies, in which the ovarian blood supply could be disrupted, with no possible compensation by the contralateral side.
Context: Perioperative management of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery is challenging. Lacking standardized perioperative protocols, complication rates may be high. This retrospective study aims to quantify the incidence of significant blood pressure decreases on induction of anesthesia and intraoperative hypoxemia, before implementation of a standardized protocol designed for bariatric surgery.
Design: Retrospective, observational study.
Setting: A 250-bed county hospital in northern Sweden.
Subjects: 219 morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery between 2003 and 2008.
Main outcome measures: Incidence of systolic blood pressure (SAP) falls to less than 70% of the preoperative baseline during induction of anesthesia and incidence of perioperative hypoxemia.
Results: The incidence of confirmed SAP falls to below 70% of baseline at induction of anesthesia was 56.2% (n = 123/219). This incidence rose with increasing age (p < 0.001) but not with body mass index (BMI). 3.7% (n = 8/219) of cases were marked as difficult intubations. A transient period of hypoxemia was observed in 6.8% (n = 15/219) and was more common with increasing BMI (p = 0.005). Fourteen different drug combinations were used in the study population. Of those administered an induction anesthetic drug, 72.6% (n = 159/193) were given an overdose when calculated by lean body weight, but this did not correlate significantly to SAP falls (p = 0.468).
Conclusion: The incidence of a significant blood pressure fall upon induction of anesthesia was common. The incidence of airway and ventilation problems were low. Overdosing of anesthetics and excessive variation in applied anesthesia methods were found.
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and skills in pre-hospital care and emergency medicine of doctors, nurses and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT), who accompanied emergency patients in ambulances?
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the doctors, nurses, and EMT who accompanied emergency patients in ambulances to the National Hospital. All ambulances arriving from August to October 2008 (n=409) were screened. A self-administered questionnaire with 30 items was used to assess knowledge, attitudes, and skills. The knowledge was categorized into three levels, EMT-basic level, EMT-intermediate level, and EMT-paramedic level and the scores were converted into the percentages.
Results: The overall knowledge score on basic, intermediate and paramedic level were 57.5%, 42.9%, and 33.9% respectively. The knowledge on airway management (84.3%), bleeding control (82.9%), patient transport (71%) and first aids (61%) at the EMT-basic level were higher, however oxygen administration (37.1%) and basic life support (38.6%), spinal immobilization (45.7%), traction splinting (47%) and triage (48.6%) were lower. For the EMT-intermediate level, knowledge on endotracheal intubation (41.4%) and initial cardiac drug therapy (44.3%) were low. For the EMT-paramedic level, the knowledge on the advanced respiratory support (53%), ECG interpretation (37%), pharmacology (13%) and paediatric life support (20%) were lower.
Most staff showed positive attitudes towards the need of basic knowledge in pre-hospital care (97.1%, n=34), need for proper training (97.1%, n=34) and cost for pre-hospital care (77.1%, n=27), while they showed relatively negative attitudes towards the outcome of pre-hospital care (74.3%, n=26).
For the required skills for advanced life support, most of the staff showed skills in IV cannulation (71.4%, n=25) and IV drug administration (71.4%, n=25) however less skills were shown cricothyroidotomy (22.9%, n=8), pleural drainage (25.7%, n=9) and laryngoscopy and intubation (31.4%, n=11).
Conclusion: The knowledge at the EMT-basic level was average and intermediate and paramedic levels were lower than average. The attitudes were generally positive. However they lacked some specific skills.
Ischemic heart disease may occur in isolation, or in combination with the pathological process of vascular ageing, arteriosclerosis. These two conditions have differing impacts on the haemodynamic changes in response to anaesthesia and surgery. Hypertension is not a feature of ischemic heart disease, and vice versa, but where the two conditions co-exist, hypertension aggravates and accelerates the pathological processes of ischemic heart disease. Patients older than 40 yrs. presenting for anaesthesia and surgery must therefore be considered at risk of any combination of these three conditions. Anaesthetic techniques must also be chosen to minimize haemodynamic changes which in the normal healthy patient cause no serious morbidity, but which, in the patient with ischemic heart disease, can lead to serious morbidity or death. Here we report a 70 years old (BMI of 23.3) elderly, hypertensive Male patient with ischemic heart disease with previous MI (EF of 40% - 5%) undergoing elective Inguinal hernia repair. We Opted Spinal anesthesia over General anaesthesia as it should be an asset in cardiac patients undergoing non-cardiac lower abdominal surgeries to reduce preload and after load, stress response, coagulation responses, improves coronary perfusion, provides better postoperative analgesia, reduces incidence of perioperative MI, maintains myocardial oxygen supply demand ratio and avoids harmful effects of GA such as hypotention due to intravenous induction drugs, tachycardia and hypertension due to pressor response during direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the complications including infection and mortality associated with enteral and parenteral nutrition on patients in the ICU of a university hospital.
In this study, a total of 100 patients who were under follow-up in the ICU for two years were examined. In our study, demographic characteristics, the reason for admission, comorbidity, initial ICU laboratory values, morbidity and mortality during the follow-up period of the patients who only received enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) were evaluated, and the results between two were compared as well as evaluating the complications within the groups.
The comparison of the reason for admission between the EN and PN groups showed that surgical reasons were significantly higher in the PN group. Nosocomial infections, the presence of infection and the development of sepsis were significantly higher in the EN group. The 28-day mortality rate was higher in the PN group compared to the EN group. The length of stay in the ICU and on mechanical ventilation was longer in the EN group. There was no significant difference in the 28-day mortality, readmission to the ICU and repeated endotracheal intubation between the two groups.
Because there is no statistical difference between EN and PN groups in point of infection and mortality, we conclude that the length of stay in the ICU and reason for admission play a more crucial role in the development of infection and on mortality rather than enteral or parenteral nutrition route.
Enzyme-modified cheeses are concentrated cheese flavors produced enzymatically from dairy substrates in order to provide an intense source of cheese flavor with broad applications. Lighvan cheese is an Iranian traditional cheese with a pleasant taste and flavor generated after ripening. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to use commercial enzymes to produce enzyme-modified Lighvan cheese made from unripened and immature cheese. In this study, Neutrase (0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.2%) and Flavourzyme (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) were added to the base mixture. The resulting mixture was stored in an incubator for 24, 72, and 96 h to provide intense cheese flavor. Sensory evaluations of all samples in terms of bitterness, flavor, taste, and general acceptance were also carried out.
The results of the sensory evaluations revealed no significant difference between most of the samples in terms of bitterness, flavor, taste, and general acceptance with respect to the incubation duration and the type and level of the commercial enzymes (p ≤ 0.05). However, the effect of the different concentrations of Flavourzyme on the cheese texture was significant after 24, 72, and 96 h of incubation (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the effects of the different concentrations of Neutrase on the cheese texture were significant after 96 h of incubation (p ≤ 0.05). Finally, the effect of different concentrations of Flavourzyme on the general acceptance of the samples was significant following 24, 72, and 96 h of incubation (p ≤ 0.05). In general, considering the flavor, taste, texture and general acceptance scores of the enzyme-modified Lighvan cheese samples, the best sample was the sample produced by using 0.1% Neutrase and 0.1% Flavourzyme mixture.
Introduction: Uterine rupture is one of the peripartum complications, which cause nearly about one out of thirteen maternal deaths. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of mortality among women with uterine rupture in referral hospitals of Lubumbashi, in the south east part of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from December 1st, 2012 to 31st, 2016 on uterine rupture. During the study selected 158 women were included by using exhaustive sampling method. Data were checked, coded and analyzed into STATA version 12. Chi-square test was used to identify the predictors of maternal and perinatal mortalities in women with uterine rupture and 95% Confidence Interval of odds ratio at p - value less than 0.05 was taken as a significance level.
Results: The overall prevalence of uterine rupture was 0.49%. The average age of the patients was 29.5 ± 6.2 years and 71.52% of them were between 20 and 34 years old; more than 60% had a parity ≥4 (average parity: 4.7 ± 2.5). 81.17% of the cases had a fully ruptured uterus and 51.17% of the uterine ruptures were located in the lower segment. Repair of the pregnant ruptured uterus was performed in 93.04% of the cases and hysterectomy in 5.06%. Maternal and perinatal mortalities were 8.86% and 72.04% respectively. Regarding maternal mortality, no parameter showed a significant association with maternal death. As for perinatal mortality, parity ≥4, complete rupture and segmento-corporeal lesion were significantly associated with perinatal death (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Uterine rupture remains one of the causes of maternal and perinatal mortality in Lubumbashi. The place occupied by uterine ruptures in obstetric activity requires joint and urgent action by all stakeholders in the health system in order to combat this scourge, witness to poor quality obstetric care.
Emergency medical care in palliative patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to provide a consistent treatment for stable patients that should be consistent with the goals and benefits, the perspective of these patients, but avoiding palliative patients with a poor prognosis that is unlikely to survive. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world around 8.8 million deaths a year. Worldwide, about 7-10 million patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, recently there has been a significant increase in the number of cases diagnosed with cancer. About 70% of cancer deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. The goals of emergency medical care based on the criteria of BLS and ACLS, that is should be done “Do not do resuscitation, do not intubate but continue medical treatment excluding endotracheal intubation without prospects for the patient, but offering BLS only treatment concentrated symptomatic. ED is often the only place that can provide the necessary medical interventions (e.g., intravenous fluids or pain management medications. Medications as well as immediate access to advanced diagnostic tests when needed such as CT, RM and other diagnostic and treatment procedures.
The quality characteristics of selected black gram varieties viz., VBN 5, VBN 7, ADT 3, T9 and CO 6 and were evaluated for their suitability for the preparation of thick pancake. The foaming stability and foaming capacity were found to be maximum in VBN 5, CO 6 and T9. Maximum rise in volume was recorded in CO 6 (149 ml) followed by VBN 5 (148 ml) and T9 (147 ml) which is an indication good quality of thick pancake. Thick pancake prepared using 5 black gram varieties were analyzed for the physicochemical and microbial load. The texture profile viz., springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and gumminess was evaluated for VBN 5, CO 6, T9 and VBN 7 respectively. The protein content was higher in thick pancake prepared from VBN 5 (25.47/100 g) compared to CO 6 (24.66 g/100g). Among the selected varieties, CO 6, T9 and VBN 5 had good batter content, texture, and microstructure and were found to be most suitable for thick pancake preparation.
During the last three decades, there has been an interesting debate on the intake of A1 ‘like” milk and incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically predisposed individuals. The epidemiological, ecological and case-control studies have concrete pieces of evidences in favor of the hypothesis that is further supported by animal trials in mice and rat and in vitro trials on cell lines. But on the other hand, European Food Safety Authority reported that there isn’t sufficient data to draw a final recommendation at this stage in terms of contradictory results, lack of cause-effect relationship and being a mere suggestive evidence . However, the report itself states that these studies are strong enough to formulate a concrete hypothesis and further research is needed to confirm the same. Keeping in view the published data in favor of the hypothesis and the counter-arguments, it is suggested that further research with well-designed animal and in vitro trials with intact proteins and peptides is needed to fully confirm the hypothesis. Until the issue is fully resolved, it’s the personal choice of the individuals at risk to T1D (genetically predisposed) to either remove A1 “like” or increase the A2 “like” milk from their diet.
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