Background: Knowledge of pulmonary complications (PCs) in children after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited; most data are from adult studies.
Case: We describe a 8 year old girl with high risk acute myeloid leukemia who developed graft versus host disease (GVHD) on Day 20, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia on Day 50 and Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) on Day 170 after allo-HSCT.
Discussion: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a rare noninfectious PCs that can be idiopathic or have several risk factors as a secondary causes, such as viral respiratory infections, drugs, GVHD and allo-HSCT. Viral respiratory infections and alloimmune lung syndromes have been reported in a few patients who have undergone transplantation.
Conclusion: Transplant physicians should be kept in mind for the development of alloimmune lung syndrome in the form of COP following CMV pneumonia in patients after allo- HSCT
Mark Taubert, Lorenz Weidhase, Sirak Petros and Henrik Rueffert*
Published on: 17th October, 2018
A 64-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to progressive dypnoea for the past week, combined with fever and type 1 respiratory failure. White blood cell count and procalcitonin level were normal. The Chest X-ray showed bilateral disseminated pulmonary infiltrates. Within the next 24 hours the patient developed a severe ARDS. A first diagnostic work-up for typical and atypical pathogens as well as serological tests for CMV, RSV, HIV and HSV were negative. Analysis of a second bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed Pneumocystis jiroveci DNA. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and off label use with caspofungin. The cause of the infection was a six week treatment with dexamethasone. The patient developed a toxic epidermal necrolysis during further course, but completely recovered.
Pneumonia with Pneumocystis jirovecii must also be taken into account in non-HIV patients, whenever there are any indications that cellular immunity may be depressed.
Introduction and aim: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is the most common type of this disease during childhood. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common histopathological lesion (80 – 90%) of INS in children and about 90% of patients are steroid responsive, while congenital nephrotic syndrome is disorder that may be caused by several diseases. Intrauterine infections, especially CMV infection, have frequently been incriminated as etiological factors of secondary CNS. The aim of this research was to evaluate the frequency of CMV infection children with active nephrotic syndrome in our pediatric nephrology unit
Patients and methods: This descriptive (cross sectional) study was conducted in pediatric nephrology unit, Zagazig University Hospitals and included 60 patients WITH NS in activity; Participants were subjected to, Full history taking, Clinical examination; general & local, Routine laboratory investigations and Serum samples were tested for HCMV specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) using ELISA Kit.
Results: We found 100% of cases were IgG positive and 7/60 cases were IgM positive, There were no statistically significant differences between IgM positive-patients vs IgM-negative patients according to age, sex and first attack or relapsed NS, There were statistically significant differences between IgM positive-patients vs IgM-negative patients in blood laboratory data in decreases in HB (P=0.024) and serum urea nitrogen (P=0.04)
Conclusion: We concluded that serofrequency of cytomegalovirus infection in pediatric nephrology unit, Zagazig university hospitals during follow-up was 12% for cmv IgM and 100% for cmv IgG at ns children patients
An isolate of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was obtained from naturally infected squash fruits were grown in Abees region, Alexandria governorate. Disease symptoms were Showing mosaic, yellowing and blistering and absis symptoms. The identification was based on the symptoms developed on diagnostic hosts and serological reactions with antisera to cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV-2) and ZYMV. Squash fruit isolate of ZYMV was transmitted by Aphis gossypii, Aphis neri and Myzus persicae in non-persistent manner. The virus was purified by ultra-centrifugation and PEG. The purified virus had an ultraviolet absorption spectrum typical of a nucleoprotein with A260/280 and A280/260 being 1.1 and 0.91 respectively. The yield of purified virus was 1.62 mg/100g infected leaf tissues. Specific antiserum was prepared and found to have a titer of 1:409600 as determined by indirect ELISA.
Alanna N Gillespie, Richard Saffery, Andrew J Daley, Gregory Waller, Bowon Kim, Melissa Wake, Anna Czajko and Valerie Sung*
Published on: 16th June, 2023
Targeted screening for Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Deaf and Hard of Hearing (DHH) children is now internationally recommended. With newborn genomic screening for DHH children a future possibility, the commercially-available human genomic DNA collection kit (ORACollect, Oragene OCR-100) could enable one single sample to screen for CMV and genetic causes of deafness at scale with minimal additional costs. Our pilot study validated ORACollect against Copan FLOQswabs® (gold standard clinical procedure) for detecting CMV using 15 sets of saliva samples from 14 infants/children, comparing CMV PCR results using different testing protocols. ORACollect stored at room temperature had high sensitivity (up to 89%), specificity (up to 80%) and percent agreement (up to 86%) in detecting CMV DNA compared to FLOQswabs®. This suggests that ORACollect is an appropriate alternative to FLOQswabs® for collecting viral CMV DNA for PCR testing, independent of the DNA extraction approach. This could be revolutionary in facilitating dual genomic and viral screening in newborns and would enable CMV screening in non-tertiary hospital settings where laboratory facilities are not available.
Zahra Zahid Piracha, Syed Shayan Gilani, Muhammad Nouman Tariq, Umar Saeed*, Muhammad Shahmeer Fida Rana, Muqaddas Fatima, Azka Sohail, Umer Ali Abbasi, Faizan Faisal, Mubeen Ur Rehman, Maliha Maheen, Madeeha Rasool, Misbah Ghazal, Seneen Noor and Elyee
Published on: 23rd November, 2023
The intricate interplay between viral infections and cardiovascular complications has garnered significant attention from 2018 to 2023. Extensive research during this period has unveiled substantial connections between various viruses and cardiovascular diseases. Notable examples include Cytomegalovirus (CMV), coxsackievirus, influenza, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as well as coxsackievirus A and B, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and parvovirus B19. These viruses exert diverse influences on cardiovascular health through various pathways, contributing to endothelial dysfunction, inflicting direct damage on cardiac tissue, and triggering inflammatory responses. The intricate interplay between viral infections and cardiovascular health underscores the importance of considering viral pathogens within the framework of cardiovascular disease development, clinical management practices, and future research initiatives. This systematic review comprehensively scrutinizes the cardiovascular impacts stemming from various viral infections, casting a revealing light on their underlying mechanisms and associated clinical implications. These valuable insights can guide clinical management strategies, preventive measures and further investigations into the complex connection between viral infections and cardiovascular diseases, emphasizing the necessity for ongoing research and vigilance in comprehending and managing these pathogen-induced cardiac manifestations.
S Testa, S Faranghi, S Mazzitelli, GB Beretta, G Di Pietro, G Renisi and Antonella Petaccia*
Published on: 24th November, 2023
A fever of unknown origin (FUO) in children is usually described as a fever of at least 8 days duration with no apparent diagnosis after initial investigations, including taking medical history and preliminary laboratory assessment. Infectious diseases are the most common cause of FUO, followed by rheumatologic and neoplastic conditions. In this report, we present a case of a 15-year-old Caucasian boy with a silent past medical history, who presented at our Pediatric ER department with a three-day history of fever, fatigue, and abdominal pain with diarrhoea. Initial laboratory testing and microbiological work-up were non-significant. At hospital admission, a broad infectious diagnostic work-up was pursued, including serologies and polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) for CMV, EBV, HAV, Parvovirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Adenovirus, all negative. Given mild splenomegaly and linfadenopathy, systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (s-JIA) was suspected, as well as Multi-inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), but the patient did not meet their main diagnostic criteria. Malignancy was ruled out by a negative bone marrow fine-needle aspiration cytology and whole-body PET-CT scan. On hospital day 8, Brucella was identified on a new set of blood cultures and a combined antibiotic therapy was started with IV Gentamicin plus per os Doxycycline. The patient’s general conditions rapidly improved, and both fever and diarrhoea resolved. A reassessment of the patient’s medical history before discharge revealed exposure to unpasteurized soft cheese in the weeks prior to the onset of symptoms. This case underlines the importance of taking a complete medical history, as well as a full diagnostic work-up to unveil unusual infectious etiologies behind FUO. After the preliminary negative microbiological tests, a connective tissue disease was ruled out (i.e. lack of cutaneous or articular involvement), as well as malignancy, which led to a closer evaluation for infection and the diagnosis of Brucellosis.
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