Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity.
Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise.
Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine.
Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
Introduction: One of the major complications among COVID-19 patients include cardiac arrhythmias. Commonest arrhythmia is sinus tachycardia which is usually associated with palpitation causing discomfort to patients. In this study, we present a comparative study of use of Ivabradine vs. Carvedilol for sinus tachycardia in post-COVID-19 infected patients.
Method: 50 consecutive recovered COVID-19 patients with sinus tachycardia were included in this open labelled RCT. 25 patients received Ivabradine and remaining 25 received Carvedilol. Single therapy non-responders were treated with Ivabradine with Atorvastatin.
Results: The mean age of all patients is 48.8±7.66 years (Males 49.5 ± 7.21 years; Females 47.68 ± 8.23 years). The mean heart rate (MHR) of all patients is 125.52 ± 9.07/min (Males 125.67 ± 8.78/min; Females 125.26 ± 9.5/min). After five days of single drug therapy the mean drop in the heart rate was 35.04 ± 10.55/min (Males 34.41 ± 9.71/min; Females 36.05 ± 11.72/min), resulting in 27.88 ± 8.11% (Males 27.38 ± 7.56%; Females 28.69 ± 8.89%) reduction in MHR. Among the two groups, the Carvedilol group showed improvement of MHR in 14(56%) patients; whereas in Ivabradine group 18(72%) patients improved out of 25 patients each (p: 0.2385). In the Carvedilol group the MHR reduced from 128.6 ± 8.44 to 95.68 ± 10.63 (p < 0.001), which is statistically significant; similarly, the Ivabradine group showed a MHR from 122.44 ± 8.62 to 85.28 ± 10.52 (p < 0.001). The monotherapy therapy non-responders were treated with dual-therapy of (Ivabradine + Atorvastatin).
Discussion: Ivabradine is more effective in controlling heart rate compared to Carvedilol. Also, Ivabradine group scores very well in ‘patient-satisfaction’ with regards to symptom (palpitation) relief.
Conclusion: The COVID-19 sequelae of sinus tachycardia can be better controlled with Ivabradine when compared to Carvedilol.
Oral cavity is the gateway of the human body, and also provides vital clues of our systemic health. Here in this COVID-19 pandemic, oral manifestations such as dysgeusia, ulcers, xerostomia are noticed and are an an important predictors of this viral disease. This short review describes the oral manifestations of this new disease.
Background: Oral cancer accounts for 30% of all types of cancer in India. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment but due to the recent outbreak of COVID-19, there is a partial or complete disruption of health services in the country. The initial delay in the treatment was due to cancellations of planned surgeries as per government regulations and reduction in public transportation. In the latter half of the initial relaxation of the lockdown, we formulated our institutional protocol for the surgical treatment of oral cancer patients. On admission, all patients were kept in isolated wards followed by RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction) testing on the same day. RT-PCR negative patients are subjected to HRCT Thorax (High-resolution Computer Tomography). This ensured the safety of health care workers, patients, and patient attendees. Keeping this in mind, we did an observational study on the role of HRCT in the pre-operative screening of asymptomatic oral cancer patients.
Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 150 patients was done. HRCT reporting was done by two experienced senior radiologists of the Department of Radiology at our hospital.
Results: The number of patients under the CO-RADS 1 category was 121 and CO-RADS 2 category was 29, according to CO-RADS classification. The results of RT-PCR and HRCT were compared and there was a 100% positive correlation between RT-PCR and HRCT Thorax.
Conclusion: Our study supported the use of HRCT Thorax as a diagnostic tool in pre-operative screening of oral cancer patients for COVID 19, particularly in RT-PCR negative cases.
Objectives: Our main objectives are to reveal the pregnancy and neonatal impacts of COVID-19 infection and to compare it to the results that are reported in the literature.
Methods and materials: The characteristics of the admitted pregnant patients COVID-19 positive with their initial presentation, course at the hospital, and short term follow-up are exposed. Correlation of the age and gestational age with the severity of the disease was calculated.
Results: Thirty five COVID-19 positive pregnant patients presented between the beginning of March and the end of April 2020. From 5 weeks till 41 weeks of gestation, all trimesters were included. The mean of age is 32 and the BMI equal 28.2. Associated comorbidities included not only diabetes and hypertension but also PCOS. The symptomatology was considered mild in most of the cases. The distribution of the symptoms included cough in 86%. 10 out of 35 delivered and cesarean was performed in 50% of the cases. The mean length of stay is 6 days. Neither maternal nor neonatal deaths occurred. There is a significant correlation between the age of the patient and the severity of the disease but this is not the case with gestational age.
Conclusion: Our results were comparable to the literature in terms of initial presentation, associated comorbidities and the length of stay. Despite the fact that the cesarean rate was high, it was far below that of the literature. More data is still needed about COVID-19 in pregnancy.
Bone metastases in cancer patients are highly painful and decrease the quality of life for these group of population. Covid-19 pandemia is a global challenging issue that mostly affect the patients with immune suppression or having comorbid diseases older than 65 years old. The palliation and management of bone metastases varies from single dose to several fractionation. The main goal of this article is to decide that short or long term fit for the cancer patients with bone metastasis in the Covid-19 era. We reviewed the topic about the short course and long term radiotherapy in the patients with painful bone metastases via novel literature.
This review was conducted for the objective of assessing causes of COVID-19 pandemic impacts on life animals and dairy product processing industry of the world. Since its outbreak in Wuhan town of China, the newly emerged strains of corona virus COVID-19 causes incredible crisis both on life animal and its product especially dairy industry of the globe. During the outbreak of the virus, majority of the world people were stayed home to prevent the spread of the diseases. At that time, the wildlife found in the zoo were exposed to diseases and missed human attention, global wildlife trade was spotlighted and wildlife was running… wild. For the reason of COVID-19 pandemic, many schools and restaurants which received dairy product from dairy producers and cooperatives were shutdown. Due to schools and restaurant shutter, milk supply chain was disrupted. For this moment milk demand and supply was decreased, huge volume of milk was dumped, mode of milk trade was changed, market and farm prices was fluctuated, import- export route was interrupted and Farm workforce absenteeism were some of the challenges cases dairy industry crisis. Trade law modification, provision of financial assistance for dairy industry and farmers, and expansion of export route were the measures taken by concerned bodies to save dairy industry from corona virus crisis. Therefore, COVID-19 pandemic is the disaster diseases which causes social and economic crisis on dairy producers of the world. So, to save wildlife and dairy industry from corona virus crisis, global solidarity prevention is mandatory.
The coronavirus pandemic has caused major changes in society around the world, especially in healthcare systems. Patients with various medical ailments and conditions who were scheduled to undergo elective treatments before the pandemic arrived, wonder now if they still should follow through with it.
Background: There is a huge global loss of lives due to COVID-19 pandemic, the primary epicentre of which is China, where the causative agent of the disease, SARS-CoV-2 was first emerged in December 2019. This study aims to explore the severity, in terms of case fatality rate (CFR), of COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: Data of ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic were retrieved from website of the WHO, and processed for the estimation of global (both including and excluding China) CFRs of COVID-19. CFRs were explored following the naive estimates, 14-day delay estimates, and linear regression model analysis, during January 25, 2020 to April 25, 2020, on weekly basis. To explore the current situation, in terms of CFR, data for the next 13 weeks (May 2, 2020 through July 25, 2020), were processed by naive and linear regression model analysis.
Results: Mean CFRs, in naive estimates, were 4.59% for the world including China, and 3.62% for the world excluding China. The 14-day delay estimates of CFRs were 15.6% globally, and 21.65% in countries outside China. Following statistical model, global (both including and excluding China) CFRs were 6.81%, by naive estimates, and ~13%, by 14-day delay estimates. Global CFRs of COVID-19 during May 2, 2020 to July 25, 2020, ranged 4.1% – 7.04%, by naive estimates, and by statistical regression analysis the CFR was 3.19%.
Conclusion and recommendations: The CFR might help estimate the need of up-to-date hospital supplies and other mitigation measures for COVID-19 ongoing pandemic, and therefore, instantaneous CFR estimations are recommended.
Pneumonia caused by the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease and the ongoing outbreak has been declared as a Pandemic by the World health organization. Pneumonia is a serious disease in pregnancy and requires prompt attention. Viral pneumonia has higher morbidity and mortality compared to bacterial pneumonia in pregnancy. All efforts are well exerted to understand the newly emerged disease features but still some areas are gray.
The treatment is primarily supportive with antivirals, steroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. Severe cases require intensive care monitoring with oxygen support, mechanical ventilation. Investigational therapies include convalescent plasma, cytokine release inhibitors and other immunomodulatory agents like interferons. The mortality appears driven by the presence of severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS) and organs failure.
COVID pandemic is a challenging and stressful socio-economic situation with widespread fear of infection, disease and death. In the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, studies are being conducted to ascertain the manifestation of disease in pregnant women and the fetal outcome.
The aim of our case series is to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, feto- maternal outcome of severe and critical COVID pneumonia in pregnant women in Latifa Hospital.
Emergency medical care in palliative patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to provide a consistent treatment for stable patients that should be consistent with the goals and benefits, the perspective of these patients, but avoiding palliative patients with a poor prognosis that is unlikely to survive. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world around 8.8 million deaths a year. Worldwide, about 7-10 million patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, recently there has been a significant increase in the number of cases diagnosed with cancer. About 70% of cancer deaths are in low- and middle-income countries. The goals of emergency medical care based on the criteria of BLS and ACLS, that is should be done “Do not do resuscitation, do not intubate but continue medical treatment excluding endotracheal intubation without prospects for the patient, but offering BLS only treatment concentrated symptomatic. ED is often the only place that can provide the necessary medical interventions (e.g., intravenous fluids or pain management medications. Medications as well as immediate access to advanced diagnostic tests when needed such as CT, RM and other diagnostic and treatment procedures.
Cystoisosporiasis (formerly isosporiasis) is caused by Cystoisospora belli (erstwhile named Isospora belli) is encountered globally, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Cystoisosporiasis is a human intestinal disease whose etiology is the parasite Cystoisospora belli with infection frequent in immunocompromised subjects, principally HIV-infected and AIDS patients. This coccidium parasite infects the epithelial cells and lining of the villi of the small and large intestines. C. belli is the least frequent of the three intestinal coccidia, viz: Cryptosporidium, microsporidium and C. belli which perturb humans. The clinical presentation of cystoisosporiasis gives a semblance of inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as other gastrointestinal symptoms, nausea, vomiting and diarhoea found in COVID-19, AIDS and HIV-infected patients. Research has not presented comorbid features of COVID-19 and cystoisosporiasis. The oocytes of C. belli are visualizable microscopically on wet mounts via bright-field, differential interference contrast (DIC) and epifluorescence. Trimethoprin sulfamethoxazole constitute the normal treatment of choice. C. belli,HIV-infected/AIDS and COVID-19 patients have clinicopathological correlates necessary to elucidate comorbidities and mechanisms of the diseases.
This article presents an overview of information regarding Acanthamoeba keratitis per epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, clinical manifestations, risk factors, environmental implications, diagnosis, treatment and management as well as COVID-19 characteristics which may be taken into cognizance for suspected infected patients, researchers and ophthalmologic practitioners. Acanthamoeba spp. is pathogenetically ubiquitous in nature. Acanthamoeba keratitis is considerably an ocular-threatening and debilitating keratitis that exhibits contumacious characteristics which hinder or impede treatment or management. At inception, Acanthamoeba generally depicts atypical clinical features which are frequently misdiagnosed as other microbial keratitis. Fundamentally, it constitutes a rare corneal infection of which the aetiologic agent is the protozoon Acanthamoeba spp. in contact lens wearers, presenting features of severe ophthalmic distress, blurred vision, blepharospasm, ocular excoriation, extraneous entity sensation and photophobia culminating in aberrant visual functionality. These are perspicuously due to retarded prompt and adequate treatment and management. Personal and environmental hygiene, especially on the hands, face and ocular areas as advised for the COVID-19 protocol could prevent contamination and dissemination of Acanthamoeba keratitis infection. The differentiating relatedness of Acanthamoeba keratitis, COVID-19 ophthalmologic infections and other ocular problems may not have been clearly elucidated.
Aim of this work is to analyze the coronavirus viral surface properties related the pattern of electrical features.
This chemical physical property is relevant and crucial to set profile of diffusion, severity of disease, efficacy of therapeutic strategy and in order to search new way to fight COVID-19 and the NEW VARIANT.
The phenomena of immune evasion and the different pattern of efficacy towards variants of some vaccine or some antibodies combination produce the need to verify if considering the electrical feature of viral surface can be a right tool or not.
As result of this research it is possible to submit to the scientist that the viral surface properties and electrical feature can be an element to be considered in various preventive or treatment measure.
The specificity of action of some vaccine or antibodies seem to tell us that also the aspecific methods are useful.
A specific chemico physical factors can influence the electrical charges viral surface behavior.
Hpertonic saline solution, humidity, electrical charge barrier in mask are simply example of the effect.
That can be obtained action on viral surface chemico -physical properties.
Acute pulmonary damage and vascular coagulopathy appear to be frequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection relation to corona-virus. The inflammatory process accompanying the infection and excessive coagulation state is one of the most important causes of patient loss.
A 78-year-old man, known case of, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension presented with fever, dry cough and dyspnea of five-day duration. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and was admitted to the intensive care unit as a case of severe COVID -19 pneumonia. Evaluation revealed raised inflammatory markers CRP: 92.2 mg/ml, LDH: 556 IU/L, Ferritin: 286 ng/ml, D-dimer: 3716 ng/ml. On day 9 of illness, he developed numbness, pain and discoloration of right hand.
Following the COVID-19 proliferation beyond China’s borders at the beginning of 2020, containment measures have been taken by different countries around the globe. Citizens were forced to stay at home. Specifically, on March 19th, the Argentine Government decided to implement the “Social, preventive and mandatory isolation”, strategy that unfortunately impacts on the lifestyle, the practise of physical activity and on the nutritional aspect of the population. The aim of this study was analize eating habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 lockdown on the 9 de Julio city, Bs. As., Argentina. The survey was conducted using Google Form. The questionnaire was divided into different sections: sociodemographic data, eating habits, physical activity and concepts and emotions associated with isolation. The research reached 287 responses with a medium socioeconomic level. During isolation, the frequency of purchases decreased. It was observed an increase in the consumption of pasta, bread and cakes. Concerning the physical activity, approximately 70% declared to train before the COVID-19 lockdown, decreased by 13% during the lockdown. Other activities conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown; the most mentioned were cleaning the house, cooking, watching television, series and movies. A percentage greater than 50% of the surveyed population associated the situation of lockdown with positive emotions (share with my family, stay at home); while only 24% associate it with negative emotions (anxiety, anguish, fear). It is expected that most habits will return to normal, however, it would be interesting to know which of those developed, adopted and implemented during lockdown will remain in the new normality.
COVID-19 is a mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease that has leaded to a tremendous global pandemic wide spreading throughout nations of all continents with successive waves of high morbidities and mortalities. However, several independent vaccine production projects are working ahead for combatting the pandemic, but it is obvious they cannot create a sufficient umbrella that could protect billions of humans in a short term. Indeed, the current approved protocols including frequent cleaning of hands, social distancing and covering face mask are disappointing for their claimed capabilities to efficiently control of the pandemic. As they failed to highlight the critical determining role of air refreshing into indoors that 90 percent of infected people at least involved in enclosed spaces. Instead, Outdoor Access Approach (OAA) can be promising according veterinary medical successful experiences in control of air-borne contagious diseases as control of highly pathogenic avian influenza to become a global pandemic (One Health integration). Along with the above-mentioned protocols. Adaptation of all aspects of ordinary life activities in human societies to guarantee an efficient fresh air flow into enclosed spaces and prevention of the most dangerous air stagnation in them is the core stone of the OAA. This article discusses practical suggestions to attain such situation which can provide a kind of symbiosis with COVID-19` infection major threatening.
A mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease; COVID-19, has led to tremendous global health and economy damages. This virus could be dampened through home use of fermented bio food material. Fermented millet flour (ibyer) is an indigenous non-alcoholic gruel made from cereals either (maize, sorghum and millet). It is prepared by cooking reconstituted cereal flour or wet milled paste with water. In this study, fermented millet fl our supplemented with ginger powder blends were formulated in the ratio 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 for the production of gruel. The blends were subjected to feeding trial experiment using wistar albino rat. Results analysis revealed that Serum cholesterol was less than 200 mg/dl. The fasting blood glucose was also within the recommended range (67.7 - 125.0 mg/dl). The biochemical parameters were within recommended range, total serum protein ranged from 5.82-7.06 g/L, Alanine aminotransferase ranged from 28.53 to 41.13 iu/L, Aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 28.50 to 48.66 iu/L. The albino rats showed slight increase in body weight throughout the experimental period, ranging from 78.67 -103.80 g. The experiment shows that the diet did not have any adverse effect on the experimental animals and were within the recommended range hence a good anti diabetic blend and has excellent biochemical profile properties for homes use.
The pandemic of COVID-19 has adversely affected the world in many aspects. The health and economic sectors suffer most of the repercussions of this disease. The search for a cure for this rapidly spreading virus which is causing massive life losses worldwide requires clear understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this virus so as to develop pinpointed targeted therapies rather than relying mainly on supportive care measures and drug repurposing to fight this life-threatening virus infection.
Neutrophils, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and NETosis are not well studied not only in COVID-19, but also in coroviruses in general. The review will shed lights on the functions of neutrophils, NETs, and NETosis in various infectious complications as well as in sepsis and acute lung conditions in an attempt to understand their actual roles and in order to help in designing targeted therapies in the near future.
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