Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity.
Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise.
Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine.
Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
Objectives: Our main objectives are to reveal the pregnancy and neonatal impacts of COVID-19 infection and to compare it to the results that are reported in the literature.
Methods and materials: The characteristics of the admitted pregnant patients COVID-19 positive with their initial presentation, course at the hospital, and short term follow-up are exposed. Correlation of the age and gestational age with the severity of the disease was calculated.
Results: Thirty five COVID-19 positive pregnant patients presented between the beginning of March and the end of April 2020. From 5 weeks till 41 weeks of gestation, all trimesters were included. The mean of age is 32 and the BMI equal 28.2. Associated comorbidities included not only diabetes and hypertension but also PCOS. The symptomatology was considered mild in most of the cases. The distribution of the symptoms included cough in 86%. 10 out of 35 delivered and cesarean was performed in 50% of the cases. The mean length of stay is 6 days. Neither maternal nor neonatal deaths occurred. There is a significant correlation between the age of the patient and the severity of the disease but this is not the case with gestational age.
Conclusion: Our results were comparable to the literature in terms of initial presentation, associated comorbidities and the length of stay. Despite the fact that the cesarean rate was high, it was far below that of the literature. More data is still needed about COVID-19 in pregnancy.
The coronavirus pandemic has caused major changes in society around the world, especially in healthcare systems. Patients with various medical ailments and conditions who were scheduled to undergo elective treatments before the pandemic arrived, wonder now if they still should follow through with it.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in labor and delivery units in one of the epicentres of the West Coast.
Study Design: This was a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to labor and delivery from April 15, 2020-May 15, 2020 after implementation of a universal testing policy on Labor and Delivery.
Results: The prevalence of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the admitted labor and delivery population was 2.5%, of whom 87.5% were asymptomatic.
Conclusion: We present additional data on the prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant patients on the West Coast, which is much lower compared to other locales, possibly as a result of aggressive ‘shelter in place’ policy. Universal screening is insufficient to detect asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 and thus rapid, universal testing should be prioritized for labor and delivery units for the protection of patients and staff, and to better allocate appropriate resources.
1. 2.5% of 320 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.
2. 87.5% of positive patients were asymptomatic.
3. Universal testing on labor and delivery is necessary.
4. ‘Shelter-in-place’ policies reduced SARS-CoV-2.
Background: There is a huge global loss of lives due to COVID-19 pandemic, the primary epicentre of which is China, where the causative agent of the disease, SARS-CoV-2 was first emerged in December 2019. This study aims to explore the severity, in terms of case fatality rate (CFR), of COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: Data of ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic were retrieved from website of the WHO, and processed for the estimation of global (both including and excluding China) CFRs of COVID-19. CFRs were explored following the naive estimates, 14-day delay estimates, and linear regression model analysis, during January 25, 2020 to April 25, 2020, on weekly basis. To explore the current situation, in terms of CFR, data for the next 13 weeks (May 2, 2020 through July 25, 2020), were processed by naive and linear regression model analysis.
Results: Mean CFRs, in naive estimates, were 4.59% for the world including China, and 3.62% for the world excluding China. The 14-day delay estimates of CFRs were 15.6% globally, and 21.65% in countries outside China. Following statistical model, global (both including and excluding China) CFRs were 6.81%, by naive estimates, and ~13%, by 14-day delay estimates. Global CFRs of COVID-19 during May 2, 2020 to July 25, 2020, ranged 4.1% – 7.04%, by naive estimates, and by statistical regression analysis the CFR was 3.19%.
Conclusion and recommendations: The CFR might help estimate the need of up-to-date hospital supplies and other mitigation measures for COVID-19 ongoing pandemic, and therefore, instantaneous CFR estimations are recommended.
Pneumonia caused by the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease and the ongoing outbreak has been declared as a Pandemic by the World health organization. Pneumonia is a serious disease in pregnancy and requires prompt attention. Viral pneumonia has higher morbidity and mortality compared to bacterial pneumonia in pregnancy. All efforts are well exerted to understand the newly emerged disease features but still some areas are gray.
The treatment is primarily supportive with antivirals, steroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. Severe cases require intensive care monitoring with oxygen support, mechanical ventilation. Investigational therapies include convalescent plasma, cytokine release inhibitors and other immunomodulatory agents like interferons. The mortality appears driven by the presence of severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS) and organs failure.
COVID pandemic is a challenging and stressful socio-economic situation with widespread fear of infection, disease and death. In the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, studies are being conducted to ascertain the manifestation of disease in pregnant women and the fetal outcome.
The aim of our case series is to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, feto- maternal outcome of severe and critical COVID pneumonia in pregnant women in Latifa Hospital.
Aim of this work is to analyze the coronavirus viral surface properties related the pattern of electrical features.
This chemical physical property is relevant and crucial to set profile of diffusion, severity of disease, efficacy of therapeutic strategy and in order to search new way to fight COVID-19 and the NEW VARIANT.
The phenomena of immune evasion and the different pattern of efficacy towards variants of some vaccine or some antibodies combination produce the need to verify if considering the electrical feature of viral surface can be a right tool or not.
As result of this research it is possible to submit to the scientist that the viral surface properties and electrical feature can be an element to be considered in various preventive or treatment measure.
The specificity of action of some vaccine or antibodies seem to tell us that also the aspecific methods are useful.
A specific chemico physical factors can influence the electrical charges viral surface behavior.
Hpertonic saline solution, humidity, electrical charge barrier in mask are simply example of the effect.
That can be obtained action on viral surface chemico -physical properties.
Background: Like other viruses, the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) appears to be responsible for several autoimmune complications. The occurrence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia has been described in several case reports. This AIHA was also noticeable by the important number of blood transfusions required for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients. By investigating RBC coating autoantibodies, this article attempts to clarify the autoimmune aspect of the anemia in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Results: A large population of COVID-19 patients selected at Saint-Luc University Hospital showed an average of 44% DAT positivity. In this population, the intensive care patients were more prone to DAT positivity than the general ward patients (statistically significant result). The positive DAT appeared « transmissible » to other RBCs via COVID-19 DAT-positive patient’s plasma.
Conclusion: The strongest hypothesis explaining this observation is the targeting of cryptic antigens by autoantibodies in COVID-19 patients.
The onset of the pandemic has caused widespread concern about the rapid spread of the infection and serious concern about the lack of specific treatment for it. Calls and demands for strict compliance with sanitary and anti-epidemic measures, a sharp reduction in direct contacts and movements of people with the introduction of quarantine measures in large regions and even countries have become a familiar modern reality. All these efforts do not yet allow us to see and feel their positive results, and the next wave of infection destroys hopes for the likelihood of achieving rapid and complete success in the fight against this evil. At the same time, a detailed analysis of the material accumulated during this period allows us to identify the most problematic links in the process of diagnostics and providing care to such patients and to note the reasons that require priority solutions.
Covid-19 infection is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This has resulted in the present pandemic from which thousands of people have died including many front-line health care workers. Of the surgeons who have died from covid-19 it would appear that otorhinolaryngology surgeons have made the largest sacrifice (Figure 1) .
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which first appeared in China spread gradually all over the world within three months . China was the only country mainly affected by Covid-19 until February 2020, but from the beginning of March, the disease started to spread rapidly to South Korea. It reached Italy in the second week of March and the number of cases increased rapidly in Spain and other European countries in the third week of March then the virus crossed the Atlantic and entered into the United States and other countries in the Americas. WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic disease on 11th March 2020 . As of 23rd April 2020, there have been 2,645,785 confirmed cases of COVID-19, with 185,121 deaths and 726,827 recoveries . Slowly, Nepal is also into the scene of the COVID-19 affected countries.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic gives rise to a significant number of psychological consequences and health problems. The GP must recognize the feelings generated in their patients and address them. This task includes 4 areas: 1. Knowing and managing the epidemic of anxiety and fear in patients; 2. Assessing possible de-compensation of patients with previous mental problems; 3. Knowing and managing effects of quarantine and social distancing; and 4. Knowing and managing possible truncated mourning. The recommendations for GPs intervention are: 1) In the clinical interview (identify maladaptive thoughts and emotions; comprehensive health); 2) Health information (clear, evidence-based communication); 3) Health education (healthy behaviors); 4) Telecare (support, monitoring and attention over the phone, via WhatsApp or video calls); 5) Crisis interventions (psycho education, cognitive behavioral techniques or referral to specialist); 6) Bibliotherapy (free electronic copies for the public); 7) Special efforts directed at vulnerable populations (infected and sick patients, the elderly, with a compromised immune function and those living or receiving care in congregated settings and people with adverse medical, psychiatric or with substance use problems, their families and caregivers); 8) Psychosocial monitoring (stressors related to COVID-19: exposures to infected sources, infected family members, loss of loved ones and physical distancing, secondary adversities such as economic loss, psychosocial effects such as depression, anxiety, psychosomatic concerns, insomnia, increased use of substances and domestic violence, and vulnerability indicators such as pre-existing physical or psychological conditions); and 9) Follow-up of the “complicated” mourning (“accompaniment” and transmit compassion, love and affection).
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which originated in China spread progressively all over the world . On 11th March 2020 WHO declared COVID-19 outbreaks as a pandemic . As of 22nd May 2020, there have been more than 5.3 million confirmed cases of COVID-19, with more than 340 thousand deaths and more than 2.2 million recovered . Slowly, South Asia is also entering the ranks of COVID-19 affected regions. This region comprises more than 21% of the world’s population which remains vulnerable to COVID-19 .
WHO declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, to be a pandemic on March 12, 2020. In Morocco, the first case was reported in March 2nd 2020. The mental health of general population, medical and nursing staff especially has been greatly challenged.
The aim of the present article is to explore the stress status of medical and nursing staff associated with exposure to the COVID-19.
The medical staff was asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire anonymously. In University Hospital Mohamed VI, in Marrakesh, Morocco. During May 2020.
In total, 120 valid questionnaires were collected. Among them, there were 57 residents (47,5%), 30 internes (25%), 22 nurses (19%) and others: medicine students and technical staff. The age was between 23 and 60 years. 15% of professional lived alone, 85% with their family, 74% lived with an old person or with a person having a chronic disease.
In our study: the severity of symptoms in 36% of the asked professional, deaths among health professionals in 15%, death of a family member in 14%, the rapid spread of pandemic in 90%, the lack of knowledge in 83%, and finally contamination risk especially if comorbidity associated in 2%.
Further risk factors: feelings of being inadequately supported by the hospital in 42%, fear of taking home infection to family members or others in 80%, being isolated, feelings of uncertainty and social stigmatization in 43%.
The psychological presentation was the nightmare 19 in %, the insomnia in 48%, the somatization in 18%, the irritability in 22%, the aggressiveness in 14%, the nervousness in 70% and the drowsiness in 5%.
During the vulnerability of the individual’s conditions during and after the COVID-19, psychological intervention should be done and a mental health support for the health professional.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had affected both developed and developing countries too. The first case in Nepal was confirmed on 23 January 2020. It was also the first recorded case of COVID-19 in South Asia. Nepal reported its first COVID-19 death on May 16. At the end of October, the number of death stood 937 and 1126 on 9 November. In September and October, deaths doubled, and with winter setting in, fatalities may skyrocket. Among the total CP cases in Nepal nearly 50% are from the Capital Kathmandu. So, Kathmandy is the new epicenter of COVID-19 in Nepal. There are no proper community-based isolation centres and ICU beds are also still limited. Due to increasing trend of COVID-19 cases and death people have fear of psychological stress. A study shows at least one symptom of psychological distress whereas 32% suffered from two or more symptoms of psychological distress such as restlessness, fearfulness, anxiety and worry and sadness. Despite limited resources, the government’s major challenges are early diagnosis, management of confirmed cases, contact tracing, and implementing some public health measures to reduce the infection’s transmissibility.
Background: An infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus called COVID-19 has raged across the world since December 2019. The novel coronavirus first appeared in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to Asia and now many countries around the world are affected by the epidemic. The deaths of many patients, including medical staff, caused social panic, media attention, and high attention from governments and world organizations. Today, with the joint efforts of the government, the doctors and all walks of life, the epidemic in Hubei Province has been brought under control, preventing its spread from affecting the lives of the people. Because of its rapid spread and serious consequences, this sudden novel coronary pneumonia epidemic has become an important social hot spot event. Through the analysis of the novel coronary pneumonia epidemic situation, we can also have a better understanding of sudden infectious diseases in the future, so that we can take more effective response measures, establish a truly predictable and provide reliable and sufficient information for prevention and control model.
Methods: We establish different models according to the different developments of the epidemic situation, different time points, and different response measures taken by the government. To be specific, during the period of 2020.1.23-2020.2.7, the traditional SIR model is adopted; during the period of 2020.2.8-2020.3.30, according to the scientific research results, it was considered that the novel coronary pneumonia has a latent period, so in the later phase of epidemic development, the government has effectively isolated patients, thus we adopt the SEIQR model accordingly. During the period of 2020.3.31-2020.5.16, because more asymptomatic infected people were found, we use the SEIQLR model to fit. Finally, through a SEIR simulator, considering the susceptible number, the latent number, the infected number, the cured number, death number and other factors, we simulate the change of various numbers of people from the beginning to the next 180 days of novel coronary pneumonia.
Findings: The results based on the analysis of differential equations and kinetic models show that through the prediction of the model established in the first phase, the epidemic situation of novel coronary pneumonia in Hubei Province was controlled at the end of March, which is in line with the actual situation. The rest of Hubei province, except for Wuhan, lifted control of the departure channel from 0:00 am on March 25, and Wuhan was also unblocked on April 8. Through the establishment of the second-phase model, it is found that the epidemic situation will reach its peak in mid-February. For example, the quarantine admission of the hospital declined after mid-February, which is inseparable from the measures to build square cabin hospitals in early February so that more and more patients can be admitted. The model established in the third phase shows that the epidemic had been completely controlled by the end of May, which is also in line with the reality. Because in mid-May, the Wuhan government conducted a nucleic acid test on all the citizens to screen for asymptomatic infected persons to fundamentally control the spread of novel coronary pneumonia.
Interpretation: Hubei Province, as the center of the initial outbreak of novel coronary pneumonia, people were forced to be isolated at home during the Spring Festival, the most important Chinese holiday, and the whole society was in a state of suspension of work and study. The Chinese government had taken many measures in response to the epidemic, such as shutting down the city, vigorously building square cabin hospitals, and prohibiting people from gathering. At the beginning of May this year, the epidemic in Hubei Province was finally effectively controlled. For ordinary citizens, we should not cause unnecessary panic about the unknown novel coronavirus. Instead, we should fully understand and be familiar with this virus. In addition to the relevant medical knowledge, we should also understand the spread of infectious diseases through appropriate mathematical models. By mathematical models, we can understand the degree of harm of infectious diseases, when to control it, how to stop it, and use scientific views to reveal the original face of the novel coronavirus to the public without causing social panic.
Background: An outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the performance of the Wondfo® lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay that detect SARS-CoV-2- IgG, IgM antibodies (Wondfo® IC), using the results obtained by the fluorescence immunoassay test as reference diagnostic.
Material and methods: 97 serum specimens collected and analyzed by four independent laboratories of Sergipe/Brazil was used for validated the Wondfo® SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies test. The COVID-19 positive serum specimens were determined by fluorescence immunoassay technique, used as reference standard.
Results: An overall of 97 serum specimens show 39 (39/97) SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive specimens, 33 (33/97) SARS-CoV-2 IgM positive specimen and 25 non-reagent specimens (25/97). However, the Wondfo® IC assay detected only 9 (9/97) IgM/IgG positive specimen and 25 (25/97) no-reagent specimen. A weak correlation was found between the outcomes of the Wondfo® IC assay and fluorescence test. The accuracy between the two tests was 32.08%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Wondfo® IC assay were of 11.12%, 100%, 100% and 25.27%, respectively. Moreover, no false positive sample was determinate, whereas 88.89% of false negative results were found.
Conclusion: The Wondfo® IC test failed in providing a quick, valid, and reliable results and appears not to be a good alternative for clinical use in detecting pandemic coronavirus. However, if the limitations of the rapid test are known, some correction factors can be used in order to adjust the epidemiological data.
Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and premature deaths. Hypertension plays a striking role in mortality and morbidity in case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection; however, numerous studies have reported contradictory findings.
Objective: To assess the relationship of hypertensive disease and mortality of COVID-19 infection and to assess the sex and age differentials on the association.
Methods: We have conducted a systematic review of published literatures that identified the relationship between hypertension and mortality of COVID-19 infections. Nineteen articles were selected following structured inclusion and exclusion criteria for systematic review and analyses. A total of 21,684 hospital admitted COVID-19 patients were included in this review and meta-analysis from 19 studies. The studies covered the six months of the pandemic from December 2019 to May 2020.
Results: In the pooled analysis, the median age of patients was 58 years, and the proportion of male patients was 58.8%. In contrast, we estimated 33.26% of hypertensive and 19.16% of diabetes mellitus patients in the studies. Hypertension was found to be associated with COVID-19 mortality (“Risk ratio (RR) = 1.45, [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35 - 1.55]; I2 = 77.1%, p - value < 0.001”). The association in the meta-regression was affected by sex (p - value = 0.050). The association was found to be stronger in the studies with males ≥ 55% and age ≥ 55 years (“RR = 1.65, [95% CI: 1.52 - 1.78]; I2 = 77.1%, p - value < 0.001”) compared to male < 55% or age < 55 years (“RR = 1.11, [95% CI: 0.94 - 1.28]; I2 = 72.2%, p - value < 0.001”).
Conclusion: Hypertension was significantly strong associated with COVID-19 mortality which may account for the contradiction in the many studies. The association between hypertension and mortality was affected by sex and there were significantly higher fatalities among older male patients.
The novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV has become a bane to mankind and spread worldwide and infected many people. Thus, there is an urgent need of a cure for the severe pneumonia disease caused by this virus. In this study, In silico comparative analysis has been done for HIV protease inhibitors on coronavirus 3CLpro protein which has shown the major interactions and common amino acid residues involved in interactions. The amino acid interaction analysis has revealed two amino acids ARG4, LYS5 to be the major amino acids targets among selected ligands. The binding energy analysis has also revealed Cobicistat as one of these best suited ligand for 3CLpro.
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