inoculation

Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus a green plague-Current status of available drug and new potential targets

Published on: 14th June, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9124811236

Pigeonpea is one of the important legume crops with high protein content and nutritional traits. It has enormous potency for its widespread adoption by farming communities. It is affected by various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. In the context, of biotic stresses Sterility mosaic disease (SMD) is one of the severe diseases in pigeonpea which ultimately lead to the drastic yield loss. The virus belongs to the genus Emaravirus, family- Fimoviridae. SMD is associated with two diverse types of Emaravirus, Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus1 (PPSMV-1) and Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2). It is transmitted by the mite (Aceria cajani), mainly environmental contributing to the feasibility for the mites for the inoculation of the virus. The SMD is mainly governed by two genes SV1 that includes the dominant allele and serves as an inhibitory action on the resistance of the SV2. Methods for identification of the virus include RT-PCR, DIBA and ELISA using alkaline phosphatase or penicillinase. To control SMV disease farmers generally adopted intercropping methods. There are few potential drugs have been identified for the administration of the disease such as 0.1% Fenazaquin, Dicofol, Imidacloripid, Carbosulfan; Spiromesifin includes the inhibition of the mite inoculation on the pigeonpea plant. The present review describes compressive and systematic insights on SMV protein targets and potential drugs that could be utilized as the presumed drug targets for the finding of true drugs against the SMD in pigeonpea.
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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a plant growth promoting bacteria with the interaction with of grass salt Distichlis palmeri (Vasey) under field conditions, in desert of Sonora, Mexico

Published on: 2nd October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7900050235

The halophyte Distichlis palmeri (Vasey) is a plant resource with high potential to be harvested in the coastal areas of northwestern Mexico; enlarge the knowledge and domestication for its incursion into the agricultural sector, plays an important role for arid areas with saline intrusion problems. However, its productivity depends on the supplementary supply of nitrogen, as well as other essential macro and micronutrients. The microorganisms considered beneficial are an alternative to chemical fertilization, highlighting those Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB). In the present study, the inoculation of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B.a.) as a halobacterium PGPB was evaluated to know the response in seeds of Distichlis spicatai obtained from natural population from colorado river in Delta north of the Gulf of California. Wild seed was collected and germinated previously inoculated with B. a., and sowed in germinated beds. Later, seedlings were planted under field and salinity conditions in the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora. Three treatments were examined (T1: B.a., T2: Chemical fertilization, T3: Negative control), with four repetitions each treatment. Each repetition consisted of experimental plots of 5 x 5 m, with a separation of 1 m between them. The harvest was carried out 600 days after sowing. The results indicate that treatments inoculated with halobacteria B.a., showed significant results in crude protein, non-protein nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, as well as spike length and number of seeds. The results obtained suggests the feasibility of biofertilizers where biomass and seed production are significant compared to non-inoculated controls.
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Serological and molecular characterization of two seed born cowpea mosaic Comovirus isolates affecting cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L.) in northern Egypt

Published on: 1st October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8282686936

Cowpea plants naturally infected with cowpea mosaic comovirus (CPMV) showed different mosaic, mottle, dwarfing, and vain clearing symptoms. Diseased plants were ollected from certain locations of Alexandria and El-Beheira governorates during the growing seasons from 2011 to 2012. CPMV was detected in infected sap at 8 to 24 days after inoculation by DBIA, indirect ELISA and tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA). Chlorotic local lesions were observed on Chenopodium amaranticolor in infectivity test. By using indirect ELISA and DBIA, CPMV were detected in infected plant sap of serial dilutions up to 1: 400. The incidence of CPMV in 21 day old cowpea seedlings grown from infected seeds was determined by ELISA and positive detection of virus antigen reached 65%. Nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA and DBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. Results revealed that both faces of nitrocellulose membrane and canson paper could be used as solid carriers in TBIA for detection of CPMV in infected plant tissues. According to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of CPMV infected plant; the amplified product was approximately 800bp of partial coat protein gene. The nucleotide sequences accession number were LN606585 and LN606586. The phylogenetic tree was generated using sequences of CPMV isolates with the other CPMV records from GenBank.
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Optimization of the fermentation process, characterization and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides produced from Azotobacter As101

Published on: 20th December, 2022

Azotobacter was selectively isolated and purified from the soil samples of Xinjiang Salt Lake Scenic spot, the fermentation technology of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by Azotobacter was optimized, and the antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides (EPS) was studied. The bacteria were isolated and purified from the soil samples by the scribing method and the 16SrRNA gene was used for molecular identification. The carbon source, fermentation time, inoculation amount and pH of target bacteria in the exopolysaccharides (EPS) fermentation process were optimized through single-factor experiments and their antioxidant activity was measured. Eight types of Azotobacter were isolated and purified from the soil samples of Salt Lake scenic spot. Among them, As101, which showed 99.58% homology with Azotobacter salinestris, was selected as the target strain. Through single-factor experiments which used exopolysaccharides (EPS) yield and exopolysaccharides content as indexes, the optimal conditions for the As101 fermentation process were determined as follows: fermentation temperature 35, fermentation time 96h, pH 7 and mannitol as carbon source. Exopolysaccharides content from Azotobacter salinestris  was 61.35% and the yield was 6.34 g/L. The results of the exopolysaccharides (EPS) antioxidant activity experiment under optimal conditions showed that As101 EPS had excellent scavenging ability against DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and hydroxyl free radical, with IC50 values of 6.11 mg/ml, 2.42 mg/ml and 9.57 mg/ml, respectively. As101 with high yield and high exopolysaccharides content was isolated from saline soil in a special environment of Xinjiang, and the EPS obtained showed excellent antioxidant activity. The Azotobacter found in this study would provide the material basis for further opening up the adsorption of exopolysaccharides on heavy metals and the improvement of saline-alkali soil and contribute to further understanding of the structure and other activities of exopolysaccharides derived from Azotobacter.
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Rare Presentation of Chromoblastomycosis Due to Multiple Simultaneous Inoculations: A Case Report

Published on: 7th August, 2023

Chronic infectious, granulomatous and suppurative dermatosis, classified among the subcutaneous mycoses, prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions and caused by the traumatic implantation of dematiaceous fungal species, where the presence of muriform bodies is an expression of the causal agent in the grafted tissue, are characteristic of chromoblastomycosis. Considered the second implantation mycosis in the world, it manifests itself with slow and progressive growth lesions of exophytic and verrucous plaques and black dots on the surface.The disease is considered a neglected and occupational disease, which occurs mainly among agricultural workers, coconut and babassu harvesters, lumberjacks, and traders of agricultural products. It is important to highlight that people at risk of contracting chromoblastomycosis work in tropical countries, where the temperature can be above 40 °C in summer, and generally refuse to wear protective equipment during the day (shoes, gloves, clothes, etc.), although they know that this type of prophylactic measure can prevent different types of diseases. These vulnerable people often live in low-income countries and sometimes live far from medical services and, once infected, do not seek medical attention. We report below an exuberant and unusual case due to multiple simultaneous inoculations on the back after the patient suffered an accidental fall while working on his farm. The diagnosis was established by direct mycological examination, histopathological examination, culture, microculture, and MALDI-TOF MS analysis that identified the agent of the Fonsecaea pedrosoi.
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Nitrogen Fixation and Yield of Common Bean Varieties in Response to Shade and Inoculation of Common Bean

Published on: 29th December, 2023

Light is not only a primary energy source, but it is also one of the environmental factors that affect plant growth and development. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is commonly produced in association with maize as subordinate intercrops in the Sidama region. Under such a production system, the shade effect may limit the photosynthetic and nitrogen-fixing capacity of common beans. The objective of the current study was to assess how inoculation and shade affect the ability to fix nitrogen and yield components of common beans. Three common bean varieties (Hawassa dume, Nassir, and Ibbado), two shade levels (open and 25% shade) as well as two levels of inoculation (uninoculated and inoculated) were used for these purposes. The experiment was set up in factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) in four replications. In this experiment, Rhizobium inoculation and shade significantly (p < 0.05) affected the number of pods plant-1 and the number of seeds pod-1. The inoculated treatment produced the maximum number of pods plant-1 (14.02) and the lowest number of pods plant-1 (10.95) was obtained from uninoculated treatments. The results also showed that the inoculated Hawassa dume variety from the open treatments derived the maximum percentage of N from N2 fixation, whereas the non-inoculated Ibbado variety from the 25% shade treatments derived the lowest percentage of N. Common bean grown on full light had significantly greater N content than shade.
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