Background: Experimentally-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness of large muscle groups is frequently used in as an injurious model of muscle pain. We wanted to develop an experimental model of DOMS to to mimic overuse injuries from sports where repeated finger flexion activity is vital such as rock climbing. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a ‘finger trigger device’ to induce DOMS in the fingers, hands, wrists and lower arms.
Methods: A convenient sample of six participants completed an experiment in which they undertook finger exercises to exhaustion after which measurements of pain, skin sensitivity to fine touch, forearm circumference and grip strength in the hand, wrist and forearm were taken from the experimental and contralateral non-exercised (control) arms.
Results: Pain intensity was greater in the experimental arm at rest and on movement when compared with the control arm up to 24 hours after exercise, although the location of pain varied between participants. Pressure pain threshold was significantly lower in the experimental arm compared with the control arm immediately after exercises locations close to the medial epicondyle but not at other locations. There were no statistical significant differences between affected and non-affected limbs for mechanical detection threshold, forearm circumference or grip strength.
Conclusion: Repetitive finger flexion exercises of the index finger by pulling a trigger against a resistance can induced DOMS. We are currently undertaking a more detailed characterization of sensory and motor changes following repetitive finger flexion activity using a larger sample.
Background: Current guidelines for diagnosis and management of heart failure (HF) rely on clinical findings and natriuretic peptide values, but evidence suggests that recently identified cardiac biomarkers may aid in early detection of HF and improve risk stratification. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of multiple biomarkers in patients with HF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
Methods: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI), N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), endothelin-1 (ET-1), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pMMP-9), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured using single-molecule counting technology in 200 patients with varying stages of HF. Plasma detection with cross-sectional associations of biomarkers across all HF stages, and advanced-therapy and transplant-free survival were assessed using multivariate analysis and Cox regression analyses, respectively.
Results: NTproBNP, pMMP-9, IL-6 were elevated in early, asymptomatic stages of HF, and increased with HF severity. Higher circulating levels of combined IL-6, NTproBNP, and cTnI predicted significantly worse survival at 1500-day follow-up. Cox regression analysis adjusted for ACC/AHA HF stages demonstrated that a higher concentration of IL-6 and cTnI conferred greater risks in terms of time to death, implantation of left ventricular assist device (LVAD), or heart transplantation.
Conclusion: Biomarkers of inflammation, LV remodeling, and myocardial injury were elevated in HF and increased with HF severity. Patients had a significantly higher risk of serious cardiac events if multiple biomarkers were elevated. These findings support measuring NTproBNP, cTnI and IL-6 among patients with HF and LVSD for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.
The development of reproducible rodent models of coronary microvascular disease (MVD) is essential for the early detection, treatment, and mechanism study of the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction and subsequent microthrombi in the coronary arterioles, two early events in clinical coronary MVD, could be reproduced by photochemical reaction (PCR) technology in mice hearts. After rose bengal (one of photosensitizers) was administrated systemically, a green light was locally used to activate the photosensitizer, inducing over-production of oxidative stress in the heart. Following PCR, animals demonstrated reproducible endothelial injury, occlusion in arterioles, focal ischemia, and infarct-let with preserved cardiac function. Our technique has proven to be a reliable and reproducible means of creating coronary MVD in mice. We believe that this is an ideal model for developing a novel molecular tracer for earlier detection of coronary MVD, for testing new anti-fibrinolytic drugs, and for investigating the complex pathophysiology of coronary MVD. The protocol for establishing this model takes about thirty to forty minutes.
Amyloidosis encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble abnormal amyloid aggregates, due to a failure in protein quality control. Cardiac amyloidosis is a disorder in which proteins misfold and deposit as amyloid ﬁbrils that inﬁltrate the myocardial extracellular space .
Transthyretin (ATTR) and light chain (AL) are the most frequent types of cardiac amyloidosis. Transthyretin is a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, it may be hereditary or acquired from either wild-type (ATTRwt) or mutant (ATTRm) amyloid . Cardiomyopathy is a common manifestation of ATTR amyloidosis with a particularly poor life expectancy of 2 to 6 years after diagnosis . Although considered rare, the prevalence of this serious disease is likely underestimated because symptoms can be non-specific, and diagnosis largely relies on amyloid detection in tissue biopsies.
Objectives: Cardioembolic etiology is a frequent source of ischemic stroke. Echocardiogram is the mainstay of cardioembolic source detection with regard to plan secondary stroke management, however it remains unclear how often clinically actionable findings are provided hereby. In addition, it is uncertain whether echocardiography should be performed transthoracic or transesophageal (TEE). In a monocenter study, we evaluated the frequency of pathological findings from TEE evaluation in patients with ischemic stroke with suspected cardioembolic and cryptogenic source and determined whether there was an associated adjustment in the prescribed administration of antithrombotic therapy.
Materials and Methods: Over a 21-month period (2012-2013), we enrolled 143 patients in a prospective monocenter study (mean age ± standard deviation, 70 ± 12 years; females, 44.1%) who were admitted to the Department of Neurology at the University of Lübeck due to ischemic stroke and who underwent TEE due to supposed cardiac embolism. We assessed the presence of atrial fibrillation; days from admission to TEE; and TEE findings, including atrial septal aneurysm, thrombogenic aortic arch, valve failure, presence of left atrial thrombus, and patent foramen ovale. Demografic information and medical history were drawn from patient records and the hospital information system.
Results: On average, TEE was performed 4 days after admission to the hospital. Left atrial thrombus was detected in 3 patients (2.1%), patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 27 (18.9%), atrial septum aneurysm in 17 (11.9%), and thrombogenic aortic arch in 29 (20.3%). Findings from TEE were commonly associated with therapeutic adjustment; antiplatelet therapy increased from 30.1% to 80.4%, oral anticoagulation therapy increased from 2.8% to 27.3%.
Conclusion: Findings from TEE for the evaluation of ischemic stroke lead to frequent adjustment of prior antithrombotic therapy, antiplatelet as well as anticoagulation.
Introduction: Bland, White and Garland syndrome is a coronary anomaly with high mortality without treatment. Its clinical presentation is varied which makes epidemiological documentation difficult. Echocardiography is a useful non-invasive tool for diagnosis.
Objective: To determine the echocardiographic variables that lead to the diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome and their clinical relevance.
Material: Observational, prospective and cross-sectional study in 31 patients of the “William Soler” Pediatric Cardiocenter, from 2005 to 2018. To check the association of echocardiographic variables with the diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome, an effectiveness study was carried out that included the analysis of the incidence of echocardiographic variables that lead to the diagnosis of this entity. The clinical relevance was estimated according to the minimum importance limit. The statistical validation of the research results adopted a significance level of less than 5% (p < 0.05).
Results: The variables that facilitate the echocardiographic diagnosis of Bland, White and Garland syndrome were the echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous connection and the reversed flow in the anomalous left coronary artery. These echocardiographic measures have clinical relevance according to the quantification of risk estimators (incidence) the echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous connection, RR 39.00 and the reversed flow in the anomalous coronary artery, RR 26.31. LIM´s calculation value amounted to 6.31 and coincided with the risk estimators (incidence).
Conclusion: The echocardiographic visualization of the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary arterial trunk and the detection of the local intracoronary reversed flow instituted as factors to be considered for the effective diagnosis of the disease. The documentation of the diagnostic aspects of the syndrome through echocardiography contains high statistical value and clinical relevance.
Canine Distemper have become a major concern within the veterinary clinical work. Thus, the appearance of many cases of canine distemper in adult animals with their vaccination plan up to date has alarmed veterinarians. Many cases of canine distemper have become a major concern within the clinical veterinary task. The purpose of this work was to detect the gene of hemagglutinin of the virus canine distemper, by using the Polymerase Chain Reaction associated with Reverse transcription (RT-PCR), as confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of disease. For this, peripheral blood samples of animals were used clinically patients and were grouped according to their date of extraction and using vaccines commercial as control.
The results allow to demonstrate a high sensitivity of the technique, besides allowing the use of samples up to seven days of storage at 4°C, despite the fragility of RNA viral.
Detection of canine distemper virus haemagglutinin gene in field samples and its high sensitivity, suggests studying its use as a diagnostic tool complementary to the clinical diagnosis of canine distemper in our country.
Worldwide, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infection is a highly prevalent disease with high morbidity and mortality. CDV causes a multisystemic disease in a wide range of hosts including 9 families of mammals among them some primates, cetaceans and numerous carnivores. It presents a high tropism for lymphoid, neurological and epithelial tissue, leading to an infection of almost all systems, so the clinical signs observed are very varied. The diagnosis is made based on the clinical presentation of the disease, which considers a variety of signs and must be confirmed by a laboratory diagnostic method. The molecular technique called Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to characterize viral strains based on the basis of genetic differences on the hemagglutinin (H) gene of CDV has allowed the identification of 14 circulating lineages in the world. Two lineages, namely the America-1 and the Europe-1/South America-1 have been described in Chile. The goal of this work was to implement a multiplex RT-PCR protocol, which was built on the in silico design of primers based on the H gene nucleotide sequences stored in the Genbank® database. This method was capable of detecting the previously described two circulating genetic lineages of CDV in a differential way providing a supporting diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies in the country. These results suggest that the primers described here are extremely selective for the above-mentioned lineages. In addition, our initial screening indicated that most analyzed clinical samples corresponded to the America-1 lineage, stressing the need for a continuous surveillance in order to properly address the prevalence of both lineages in Chile.
Oral cancer has a tendency to be detected at late stage which is detrimental to the patients because of its high mortality and morbidity rates (survival rate 15-50% ). The incidence of oral cancer worldwide is approximately 3% of all malignancies, thus creating a significant worldwide health problem .
Objective: In end stage renal disease, the synthesis of vitamin D is disturbed.Hyperparathyroidism is one of the key factors in the pathogenesis of many of the complications of dialysis mainly bone and cardiovascular complications.Aim:This study aimed at assessing vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms BsmIand FokI in Egyptian patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis and the assosciation of these polymorphisms with cardiovascular complications and hyperparathyroidism among these patients.
Methods: One hundred subjects, recruited from Medical Research Institute, from March to July 2014, divided into two main groups; the control group which included thirty apparently healthy subjects and the patients group which included seventy patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis with median 4 years. To all studied subjects, detailed history was taken, thorough physical examination, carotid intima media thickness, presence of plaques and ECG ischemic changes. Laboratory investigations included serum levels of: glucouse, urea, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoproteins, calcium, phosphorus, and CRP as well as plasma PTH level. For molecular studies, the detection of BsmI and FokI polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR / RFLP) technique.
Results: 1.No statistically significant difference could be detected in both BsmI and FokI gene polymorphisms between the hemodialysis patients and the controls, suggesting that the development of ESRD had no relation with either VDR BsmI or FokI gene polymorphisms.2.No statistically significant difference were found in these polymorphisms between the hemodialysis patients with or without cardiovascular complications or between patients with PTH level less or more than 300 pg/ml. These results suggest that the development of cardiovascular complications and secondary hyperparathyroidism among Egyptian patients on maintenance haemodialysis cannot be attributed to these two gene polymorphisms.
Conclusion: No association could be found between the variant alleles of BsmI and FokI gene polymorphisms and the development of ESRD, cardiovascular complications and secondary hyperparathyroidism among the studied samples of Egyptian patients on maintenance haemodialysis.
The study was conducted in Ilu and Waliso districs of South West Shoa Zone to investigate the perception of dairy cattle producers on oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination services. A total of 122 respondents (38 from Ilu and 84 from Waliso districts) owning at least one lactating cow and participated in synchronization program were randomly selected and interviewed individually by using semi- structured questionnaire. Both primary and secondary data were used to generate reliable information on the intended topic. All collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical package version 20 and the output was presented by descriptive statistics such as percentage and mean values in inform of graphs. Most of the respondents (67.15%) indicated that their satisfaction level towards synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. Only few of them reported being satisfied as (medium-13.45%, good - 12.35% and very good - 7.05%). This might be because of shortage of feed, silent heat, poor performance of the inseminator and low awareness of farmers on the technology. From the study it was also noted that the overall percentage (26.22%) of calving rate to oestrus synchronization and mass artificial insemination was low. This might be due to heat detection problem (36%); A.I technician efficiency (29.25%), absence of A.I technician (23.9%) and distance of A.I center (10.25%). Therefore, the skill and knowledge based training should be given for both the farmers and implementers to enhance perception and adoption of the technology.
Botulism is the disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins. It is produced by an obligate anaerobic bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. There is no immuno-detection system available in the world for the detection of C. botulinum. Secretory proteins of cooked meat media grown C. botulinum type B were extracted by TCA precipitation method. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against secretory proteins. Cytokine profiling of secretory proteins were done. An immunodetection system was developed to detect the C. botulinum type B using Secretory proteins of C. botulinum type B.
Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi. It is of major concern in tropical regions of the world. Highest episodes of typhoid fever occur in Asia i.e.93%. Early diagnosis of the disease is mandatory to lower the mortality rate associated with it as well as to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance by Salmonella typhi. Research work was conducted in Immunology Department of the Children’s Hospital, Lahore for the period of one year including a total of 60 patients suspected of having typhoid fever. Serum samples of these patients were tested for typhidot IgG and IgM antibodies as well as for the antibodies against TO and TH antigens using Widal test. Of the total 60 patients, 10 (16.7%) were positive for both typhidot IgG and IgM, 16 (26.7%) were positive for typhidot IgM, 3 (5%) were Positive for typhidot IgG and 31 (51.66%) were negative for both typhidot IgG and IgM. Reading the results of Widal test, 8 (13.33%) were positive for Widal TO and TH antigens, 3 (5%) were positive for Widal TO antigen, 19 (31.7%) were positive for Widal TH antigen and 30 (50%) were negative for Widal TO and TH antigens. IgM is positive at the early stage of acute typhoid fever, IgM along with IgG positive means the middle stage of acute illness. The detection of only IgG cannot discriminate between acute and convalescent phases as it can stay in the serum for at least 2 years or more. The typhidot test is much helpful for the rapid diagnosis of typhoid fever as compared to Widal test which is still being used in some set ups in poor countries, although has become mostly obsolete. By testing the rise of IgM and IgG antibodies against Salmonella typhi, we can detect the infection at early and late stages, respectively
Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation play a key role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy; Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase, when BH4 is reduced to dihydrobiopterin (BH2), endothelial dysfunction is induced.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the levels of biopterins with albuminuria in type-2 diabetic hypertensive patients.
Methods: We studied 30 hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients in whom biopterins levels were measured by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Additionally, 24 h urinary albumin excretion was also measured (nephelometry). The levels of biopterins and albuminuria were correlated with the Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results: We did not find a significantly correlation between biopterins levels and albuminuria, However, we found a significantly inverse correlation (R= -0.498, p<0.005) between the BH4/BH2 ratio and albuminuria.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the BH4/BH2 ratio instead of biopterins levels may be a marker of nephropathy in hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are a common event in secondary glioblastoma multiforme and lower-grade adult infiltrative astrocytomas and independently confer a better prognosis [1,2]. These are highly conserved mutations during glioma progression and thus also a useful diagnostic marker amenable to modern molecular sequencing methods. These mutations can even be detected in sites distant from the primary tumour. We use an illustrative case of a patient with radiologically suspected recurrent astrocytoma and negative histology, but positive IDH-mutated tumour DNA detected within CSF. Our results demonstrated the usefulness of liquid biopsy for recurrent glioma within the context of equivocal or negative histopathological results, whilst also showing the ability to detect a de-novo IDH-2 mutation not present in the previous resection. Building on this ‘proof-of-concept’ result, we also take the opportunity to briefly review the current literature describing the various liquid biopsy substrates available to diagnose infiltrative gliomas, namely the study of circulating tumour DNA, circulating tumour cells, and extracellular vesicles. We outline the current challenges and prospects of liquid biopsies in these tumours and suggest that more studies are required to overcome these challenges and harness the potential benefits of liquid biopsies in guiding our management of gliomas
Introduction: Chronic endometritis (CE) is a common cause of infertility in asymptomatic patients and its diagnosis and treatments improved assisted reproduction technique outcome in most of the specialized centers. Diagnosis of CE in endometrial biopsy by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain is hard to identify chronic inflammatory cells from the stroma and the use of plasma cells-specific stains is helpful.
Aim of the work: Evaluation of the use of CD138 in the identification of plasma cells in endometrial biopsy of patients with previous IVF trial failure.
Material and methods: Hysteroscopic and curettage endometrial biopsies from fifty-five females with previous IVF trial failure were stained with H&E and CD138 immunostaining for detection of plasma cells.
Results: Plasma cells were identified in 52.7% of cases by H&E and in 6/55 by CD138 immunostaining. CD138 is more sensitive in detecting plasma cells in endometrial biopsy than H&E stain. There was a significant statistical correlation between CE and abnormal uterine bleeding, abortion and primary infertility (p > 0.5).
Conclusion: Diagnosis of CE is helpful in infertility patients with IVF trial failure to improve the outcome of the maneuver. CD138 is more sensitive for plasma cells specially in endometrial biopsies than H&E.
Objective: To observe the predominance of fetal anomalies in pregnant women in a multi-centric setting.
Methods: This prospective observational study included 20225 pregnant women who came for antenatal care in University Hospital and fetal medicine units from 2016 to 2019. Fetal anatomical scanning was done for all participants.
Results: One hundred eighty-three cases had fetal congenital anomalies, yielding a prevalence of around 0.9%. Third of cases had positive consanguinity, this increased in cases of skeletal and thoracic anomalies. The presence of past history of anomalies was evident in 8.2% mostly with skeletal and heart anomalies. History of drug intake was only verified in 1.6% of cases. Sixty-three women out of 183 (34.4%) were diagnosed to have anomalies in fetal nervous system.
Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis are recommended for early detection of congenital anomalies and counselling.
The industrial production and use of chromium have grown considerably during the past five decades. Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial samples are identical to 0.01%. Among the dominant species of chromium, the trivalent form widely occurs in nature in chromite ores which is extremely immobilized especially in water bodies. Samples were mixtures of separated chromium isotopes and the calibration was made with the same species as those used in the measurements. The method had simplified the conversion of the ores to chromyl fluoride since the element could be readily separated as lead chromate from the leaching of chromite-sodium peroxide fusions. Isotope assay of chromyl fluoride under certain conditions was measured and the measurements of chromium isotopic anomalies ratios and isotope abundance of the chromite ores have been assessed. These provided sufficient quantitative mass spectrometric data, which were analyzed to calculate the abundance and the mean atomic mass of the questioned isotopes. Based on the high mass spectroscopy stability and the correction factors, the results were of good precision (incl. negligible systematic errors normally associated to inter-laboratory discrepancies) and the Cr isotopes availability (52Cr > 53Cr > 50Cr > 54Cr) was in conjunction with other classical tools such as oxygen isotopes. This paper is important for paleoecological, environmental, archeological, forensic, and nuclear researchers.
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is a costly and burdensome public health concern. Delayed recognition and treatment of CKD may predispose patients to unfavorable future outcomes and burden the healthcare services. The early detection of disease via screening programs is widely recommended. The present study is a hospital camp-based screening for detecting patients with chronic kidney disease in Varanasi from 2014-18.
Methods: The study subjects constituted 436 apparently healthy adults (age ≥18 years) of Varanasi. Information on socio-demographic profile, personal characteristics and clinical investigations were recorded. Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis was applied to find the significant predictors of chronic kidney disease.
Results: Median age of the study subjects was 40.5 years. There were 39.7% males and 60.3% females. Chronic kidney disease was found in 23.9% subjects. Underweight, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking status and higher creatinine levels came out as significant predictors of chronic kidney disease.
Conclusion: We screened apparently healthy individuals and found very high percentages of chronic kidney disease and its predictors. Henceforth, understanding the preventable and modifiable risk factors of chronic kidney disease becomes a prerequisite to intervene before risk populations reaches to irreversible stages of adverse future outcomes.
Background: In sickle cell anemia (SCA), compromise of the renal vasculature due to sickled red cells has been recognized.
Objectives: To assess the renal function and blood pressure pattern in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) presenting in a tertiary institution.
Method: A cross-sectional study of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) over six months involving the use of questionnaires, general physical examination, blood pressure, investigations for haemoglobin genotype, urinalysis, serum creatinine, screening for hepatitis B and HIV.
Results: 51 children with SCA were seen. The prevalence of impaired renal function as defined by reduced eGFR <90mL/min/1.73m2 in this study was 27.5%, previous hospital admission and blood transfusion were associated with reduction in eGFR but blood pressure did not have significant correlation with the eGFR. The overall mean age at diagnosis of SCA was 4.09 ± 3.33 (years).
Conclusion: Impaired renal function is a major comorbid condition in children with SCA. In countries/locations where there is no newborn screening for sickle cell disease, diagnosis is delayed, thus detecting impaired renal function may be delayed, therefore the need for early detection and management is imperative.Introduction
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