Background: Previous studies highlighted the negative effect of premature progesterone elevation (PE) during IVF cycles on the cycle outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of progesterone level on hCG day (P4) in the prediction of IVF/ICSI cycles’ outcome.
Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, all fresh cycles of 256 patients who underwent IVF or ICSI cycles in 2017 at reproductive endocrinology & infertility unit/ Obg/Gyn department at King Abdulaziz Medical city, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were followed up. They were started on gonadotropin medications for ovarian hyperstimulation, followed by serial transvaginal U/S and serum estrogen levels each visit. Patients having 2 or more 18mm follicles were triggered by hCG 10,000 IU and ovum pickup was done 34-36 hrs after. Data were collected on patients’ characteristics [age, BMI infertility type], cycles’ characteristics [number of follicles and endometrium thickness on hCG day, P4 and estrogen levels], rates of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Receiver operating characteristic curve was applied to determine the cut-off of P4 that corresponds with a negative pregnancy test. Logistic regression analysis was used and significance was considered at p - value of ≤0.05.
Results: Pregnancy rate in the study sample was 36.7%. The mean P4 level in cycles with negative pregnancy tests was significantly higher than the mean in cycles with positive tests (p = 0.018). After adjusting for confounders, significant negative association between P4 and pregnancy rate was evident (p < 0.03). The optimum trade-off of P4 for prediction of a negative pregnancy test was 1.5nmol/L. This cut-off level had a 59% sensitivity, 51% specificity and 68% positive predictive value and 10% & 15% absolute and relative risk reductions respectively. Cycles with mean P4 of ≥1.5nmol/L were significantly associated with primary infertility (p = 0.011), lower mean BMI (p = 0.009) higher mean estrogen level (p < 0.001), lower live birth rate (p = 0.048), higher abortion rate (p = 0.039), and higher ovarian hyperstimulation rate (p = 0.027).
Conclusion: Premature elevation of progesterone level on the hCG day in IVF/ICSI cycles may have adversely impacted the pregnancy rate and pregnancy outcome. The cutoff point of 1.5nmol/L for this P4 was not valid in predicting pregnancy outcomes.
Aim and objectives: Endometrial Window of Implantation (WOI) is open in the midsecretory phase wherein the markers of invasion and cell adhesion are manifested .The primary objective was to find out the predictive value of Endometrial thickness and profile as a prognostic factors for embryo transfers during ART.
Materials and Methods: Endometrial thickness assessment was performed with grey scale ultrasound on the day of transfer just before thawing the embryos in patients undergoing Frozen embryo transfer cycle after endometrial preparation.
Results: The mean age and standard deviation of study population was is 33.26+5.95.Out of 69 patients there was clinical pregnancy in 33 patients , miscarriage in 10 patients and ongoing pregnacy in 23 patients. So the implantation rate was 47.83% (33/69), early miscarriage rate (pregnancy ending before 12 weeks) was 14.49%(10/69) and the ongoing pregnancy rate was 33.33% (23/69). Endometrial thickness < 6 mm had comparable implantation rates but low ongoing pregnancy rates.
Conclusion: The ultrasound morphological and vascular grading of endometrial thickness and vascularity is useful to synchronise Day 5 embryo transfer and window and implantation thereby minimizing the loss of good embryos in nonreceptive endometrium.
One of the factors of assisted reproduction technology (ART) success is an adequate growth and development of endometrium. At the end of follicular phase of menstrual cycle endometrium reaches its greatest thickness. It is believed that there is a critical limit of endometrial thickness beyond which the implantation of embryo is unlikely or impossible [1-5]. In practice of ART programs ultrasound measurement of endometrial thickness is used to evaluate uterine lining growth. Scientific literature is debatable as to what thickness of endometrium should be considered optimal, some researchers emphasize the negative impact of “thin endometrium” on the success of ART programs [1-12], while others do not agree [6,7,9]. Nevertheless, when endometrial thickness in ART program does not exceed 6 mm the chance of pregnancy occurring is very low (Kumbak B, et al. 2009).
The role of human papillomavirus infection as etiological factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer is well established. However, the presence of this virus is not sufficient condition for developing of cervical cancer. Currently, the contribution of other viral, environmental and host cofactors in triggering of this neoplasm is being investigated. Some metabolic risk factors have been associated with the development of several gynecological cancers such as endometrium, ovary and cervix. However, the mechanisms through which these factors contribute to carcinogenesis are complex and not fully elucidated. Few interventions regarding host metabolic factors have been performed on women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Some specific treatments and or changes in lifestyles could be carried out to avoid or delay progression to this kind of cancer. This paper aims to enlarge and update this topic based on the article ¨Association between components of the metabolic syndrome and degree of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in Cuban women¨, with emphasis on possible mechanisms that explain the link between central adiposity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with risk of premalignant lesions and cervical cancer.
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