Epilepsy

Managing epileptic women in pregnancy

Published on: 2nd April, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8056332969

Epilepsy is commonly seen in women of reproductive age and it is affecting their reproductive and pregnancy outcomes in an adverse manner [1]. It has seen that there are increased numbers of maternal deaths of pregnant women with epilepsy than those who have no any epilepsy symptoms or episodes. In many studies the common outcome observed is spontaneous miscarriage, ante partum hemorrhage or early pre term deliveries. Malformation and congenital anomalies are quite common in new born of epileptic women and also those who are on some kind of anti-epileptic medicines like valproate sodium. Death or still birth of new born babies is another complication witnessed because of epilepsy in pregnant women [2].
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Advances in the use of GABAergic interneurons for the treatment of epilepsy

Published on: 4th September, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8333008407

Forebrain GABAergic neurons, the main inhibitory type of neuron in the cortex and hippocampus, represent a highly heterogeneous cell population that has been implicated in the predisposition to epilepsy and the onset of seizure. Earlier attempts to restore inhibition and reduce seizure in animal models of epilepsy have been carried out using embryonic basal forebrain tissue as source of immature GABAergic progenitors in cell-based therapies, with promising results. For therapeutic strategies this approach appears unrealistic, while the use of pluripotent stem cells to obtain immature GABAergic neurons opens new and promising avenues. Research on neural stem cells and pluripotent stem cells has greatly advanced and protocols have been established to efficiently direct progenitor cells to differentiate towards the GABAergic lineage. However, being highly heterogeneous, these neurons are difficult to be fully represented in vitro. Better knowledge on the expressed gene profiles, at single cell level, and the differentiation trajectory of these neurons will consent a more precise monitoring of the differentiation steps. Here we review the current literature about how to obtain and characterize genuine inhibitory neurons, how these can be grafted in animal models (and one day possibly in human) and which diseases could potentially be targeted and the efficiency of therapeutic outcome. The main obstacles that need to be overcome are: a) choice of an appropriate animal model, b) availability of human cells prone to GABA differentiation, c) the full representation of all IN subtypes, their proportions and their physiological activities, d) how to monitor them on the long-term after transplant.
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Diseases of the mental sphere revealed by the psychiatrist at contingent of patients of the consultative outpatient admission

Published on: 9th July, 2019

Introduction: The problem of protecting and strengthening the mental health of the population is the most important task of ensuring the socio-economic well-being of the Komi Republic (RK) as an integral part of the Russian Federation (RF), since it is a key resource for the development of a subarctic region. The aim of the work: was to characterize diseases of the mental sphere revealed by the psychiatrist at contingent of patients of the consultative outpatient admission at the 1State Autonomous Health Agency of the Republic of Komi “Consultative and Diagnostic Center of the Republic of Komi” (SAHA RK “CDC”) of the subarctic territory. Materials and methods: The analysis of a continuous sample of 6255 patients of the psychiatrist of the consultative department in 2015-2017 was carried out. on the basis of medical records. Analysis methods included: analytical and statistical. The control group consisted of a continuous sample of 5,356 psychiatric patients in 2010–2012. The depth of the study was 8 years. Discussion: Trends in changes in demographic indicators, including gender and age, in the structure of patients of a psychiatrist in an outpatient consultative procedure are considered. Indicators of the identified pathology of the mental sphere, including the first identified and pathology in patients suffering from epilepsy in comparison with the control group are given. Attention is paid to the organizational and methodological work of an outpatient counseling psychiatrist on the targeted identification by internists of signs of mental pathology in patients referred to a diagnostic center with somatic diseases. Priorities for the improvement of specialized advisory (including psychiatric) assistance to the population of the RK and ensuring its quality were identified. Conclusions: 1. The psychiatrist of the advisory department in 2015-2017. 6255 people were accepted (889 more than in the control group of 2010-2012). The increase was 16.78%. Primary patients account for 64.38% of the total number of people who applied to a psychiatrist (4027 people). 2. In the structure of the psychiatric pathology of the outpatient psychiatric appointment, the proportion of organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (F00-F09) is 47.9±0.6%; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (F40-F49) - 39.6±0.6%; mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances (F10-F19) - 3.5±0.2%; mood disorders (affective disorders) (F30-F39) - 2.8±0.2%. 3. The most frequently detected pathologies in patients with epilepsy are: 1) Mild cognitive impairment; 2) Personality disorders; 3) Organic emotionally labile (asthenic) disorders. Their share annually accounts for 71.5%-75.8% of all types of nosological forms. The fourth and fifth ranking places are taken by: 4) Organic anxiety disorders; 5) Non-psychotic depressive disorders. Rarely diagnoses are established: “Organic Amnesia Syndrome” and “Dementia”. 4. Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders prevail in the structure of newly discovered mental disorders; neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (up to 87.7%). Mental and behavioral disorders associated with the use of psychoactive substances and mood disorders (affective disorders) do not exceed 8.4%.
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Aripiprazole-induced seizures in children with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy

Published on: 31st January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8530277855

Purpose: Children with autism spectrum disorder are at an increased risk for developing seizures, which can be triggered by classical antipsychotics. Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that has a safer drug profile. The objective is to present the experience with seizure control in autistic children who are placed on Aripiprazole. Methods: Series of consecutive autistic children with comorbid epilepsy treated with Aripiprazole were identified prospectively over a 3-year period. Monthly follow up by one pediatric neurologist was performed to document seizure control. Results: 56 autistic children with comorbid epilepsy were placed on Aripiprazole. Most children (59%) were seizure free for at least 6 months. The initial Aripiprazole dose was 5 mg in all patients. Follow up ranged between 5-8 months (mean 6.9). A total of 5 (9%) children developed seizure provocation (3/5) or worsening seizure control (2/5). There were 3 males and 2 females with ages ranging between 6-11.5 years (mean 8.5). Three of these children had a previous history of seizure worsening with other antipsychotic drugs (respiridone in 2 and haloperidol in 1). One child with seizure provocation developed status epilepticus 5 days after introducing Aripiprazole that required intensive care admission. The drug was stopped in all 5 children with no long-term effects. Conclusion: Seizure provocation or worsening seizure control is not uncommon following the introduction of Aripiprazole in autistic children with controlled epilepsy. Although the risk is low, parents should be warned and advised on what to do, particularly in the first month of therapy.
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To legalize cannabis in Ghana or not to legalize? Reviewing the pharmacological evidence

Published on: 10th December, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9267251578

Background: Although illegal, Ghana has a long history of cannabis use. With changing perceptions, advocacy for legalization has increased globally. This study exams pharmacological evidence on the prospects and challenges of decriminalization and /or legalization of cannabis in Ghana. Results: Cannabis and cannabinoids are a “pharmacological enigma” with unique ability to activate at least 3 of the 4 drug receptor super families. This include; inotropic Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), metabotropic Cannabinoid Receptors (CB) and nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptors (PPAR). Cannabinoid receptors also dimerize with other receptors creating distinctly new signaling pathways. Cannabis and cannabinoids show good anti- nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant anti-emetogenic activity and variable anticonvulsant activity. It can play important role in palliative care, some rare intractable epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cachexia and Opioid Use Disorder. Cannabis precipitates psychosis in individuals with underlying genetic susceptibility. Chronic cannabis use alter the neurobiology of adolescent brain, predisposing them to amotivational syndrome characterized by depersonalization and inhibited motivation for goal directed behavior. Cannabis is also a “gateway drug”; ushering users to “harder” substances of abuse and reinstating extinguished drug seeking behaviours. The recent tramadol abuse in Ghana may have been precipitated by previous and concurrent cannabis use. Furthermore, Ghana’s cannabis may have a higher propensity to induce detrimental effects because of preferential accumulation the psychotropic delta-9-Tetrathydrocannabinol as a result of the high tropical temperature and humidity. Conclusion: There is not sufficient pharmacological evidence supporting criminalization of medical cannabis in Ghana. However, the same evidence does not support legalization of recreational cannabis.
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Rural adolescent health: Issues, behaviors and self-reported awareness

Published on: 22nd April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8582318282

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the health status of rural adolescents and young adults in the United States through a comprehensive review of detailed health information, behavior and health awareness. The disparity in health awareness between rural and non-rural residents compared and evaluated. Methods: Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes were combined with respondent-level data from the Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to classify individuals as rural/non-rural residents. Health characteristics and perceived health awareness was tested for statistically significant differences using ANOVA. Differences in weight perception accuracy was compared for systematic differences controlling for self-selection into rural areas using a two-stage logistic selection model. Findings: Analysis revealed that rural residents have a higher incidence of major health conditions including epilepsy, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and diabetes. Additionally, they have a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviors including drinking and drug use. Rural residents are less likely to be insured, but more likely to be overweight or obese. While rural adolescents are more likely to mis-classify their body weight, this misclassification is a result of the higher incidence of overweight rather than the residential location. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of chronic conditions combined with the income and education levels suggests the rural environment is a unique and potentially challenging context for adolescent health. Improving rural adolescent health will require innovative solutions appropriate for rural environments and changes in individual health literacy. Solutions must be multisectoral, engaging education, economic development, and other community perspectives to establish key drivers for health equity.
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Epilepsy due to Neurocysticercosis: Analysis of a Hospital Cohort

Published on: 24th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8799421474

Introduction: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common helminthic infection of the nervous system that occurs when humans become intermediate hosts in the life cycle of the pig tapeworm (Taenia solium) after ingesting its eggs. The objective of this study was to analyze socio-demographic, clinical and paraclinical features of patients with NCC in Lubumbashi, DRC. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 2 years within the Neuropsychiatric Center of Lubumbashi. Socio-demographic, clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic features were studied. Results: A total of 18 patients with NCC were listed. Epilepsy was found in 72.2% (13/18) of the cases. The mean age of the patients was 30.2 ± 13.5 years; males accounted for 61.2% of the cases. 84.6% were consumers of pork. Generalized epilepsy was found in 84.6% of the cases and hypereosinophilia in 38% of the cases. On the neuroimaging, the parietal location of lesions represented 92.3%; calcifications were the type of lesion in 53.8% of the cases and 69.2% of the cases presented lesions in the 4th evolutionary stage. Electroencephalogram was normal in 84.4% of the cases. Phenobarbital was the antiepileptic drug used in 69.3%; albendazole and prednisone were used in 53.9% of the cases. Conclusion: This study shows that NCC is one of the causes of epilepsy in Lubumbashi. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are the most common form of presentation and calcified parenchymal lesions are the most common radiological feature of NCC. So, any patient with acute onset of afebrile seizure should be screened for NCC provided other common causes been ruled out.
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