Purpose: Medical coverage of the 29th “Tour du Faso” primarily aimed to report the experience of the medical coverage of the 2016 International Cycling Tour of Burkina Faso.
Methods: This is a prospective study of the medical coverage of the 2016 International Cycling Tour of Burkina Faso.
Results: During the 12 days of medical coverage, 216 consultations were recorded. The complaints were diversified. From simple asthenia to severe malaria. There were cases of indigestion, gastroenteritis and food allergies.
Conclusion: The medical coverage of a cycling competition requires knowledge of the discipline, expertise in sport and emergency medicine.
This study was aimed at producing a high nutritious food that will meet the nutritional requirements of consumers. Blends of malted red sorghum and defatted soybeans flour were processed and the resulting flours were formulated at ratios of 100:00; 95:5; 90:10 and 80:20 (malted red sorghum: defatted soybeans flour). The resulting products were subjected to antinutrients and minerals properties determination. The results obtained showed that the antinutrients decreased linearly with increase in the mineral elements. Antinutrients in the blends decreased from 2.25-1.80mg/g (oxalate); 2.45-2.16mg/g (phytate); 14.16-9.26g/100g (Alkaloids); 2.12-1.69/100g (saponin) and 0.18-0.13mg/g (Tannin). A percentage increase of 12.6% (sodium); 10.8% (calcium); 9.5% (potassium); 3.7% (magnesium) and 14.1% (Iron) was recorded as the quantity of defatted soybeans flour increased in the blends. The low levels of antinutrients in the blends produced make them safe and suitable for human consumption. Substitution of malted red sorghum with 20% defatted soybean flour showed a remarkable improvement in the mineral contents of the diets
Malnutrition is the largest risk factor caused by inadequate nutrition that leads to childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as inadequate growth and development. Infants are at increased risk of malnutrition by six months, when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet their nutritional requirements. However the factors associated with nutritional status of infants after 6 months of age have received little attention in pastoralist communities of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the complementary foods of infants and young children (6-23 months) in Gode town of Kebele 01. The prevalences of wasting, stunting and underweight among infants and young children were 6.1%, 56.1%, 10.0% reespectively. Undernutrition is a public health problem among infants and young children in Gode town of Kebele 01. Breastfeeding was slightly positive associated with lower chances of wasting at r=0.61, p= 0.01 and underweight at r=0.331, p=0.01. While diarrheal disease was associated with higher chances of wasting and underweight. Initiation of complementary food was slightly positive association with wasting at r=0.179, p=0.05.
Noodles are strips or strands cut from a sheet of dough made from flour, water and either common salt or a mixture of alkaline salt. Noodles consumption represents about 40% of the total wheat flour which are mainly consumed by school children. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat. Utilization of locally available, inexpensive materials like cocoyam that can substitute a part of wheat flour without adversely affecting the acceptability of the product will be a product development. This study therefore studied the chemical composition and organoleptic properties of instant noodles from the blend of wheat and cocoyam starch. Cocoyam starch was substituted into wheat flour at 20, 40, 60 & 80%. Analysis revealed higher carbohydrate (63.50-70.05)%, moisture (4.54-5.07)% and vitamin A (10.01-30.47) mg/100g, B1 (11.43-32.15) mg/100g but lower protein (4.56-8.79)%, phosphorus (0.34-0.52)%, calcium (1.83-0.98)%, iron (0.15-0.32) % and ash (1.19-3.20)%. The composite noodles revealed higher carbohydrate and mineral but lower protein than the commercial noodles. The sensory analysis revealed that 20% cocoyam compared favourably with the commercial noodles in terms of all the sensory attributes evaluated. This shows the possibility of producing noodles from cocoyam tubers which serves as novel food. This will further help to promote and improve utilization of cocoyam tuber.
The seasonal nature of most fruits available in the market coupled with inadequate storage and processing facilities has limited their consumption by majority of the people in the country. Jams made from fruits are good bread spread rather than any other food products because they serve as adequate balance diet and it contains antioxidant such as vitamin C and A which play an important role in preventing cancer, cardiovascular problem and improvement of eyesight. Pawpaw and watermelon fruits have been reported to be nutritive and high in antioxidant properties that can scavenge free radicals, thereby improving the antioxidant status of the body. It is therefore deemed fit to produce jam from these perishable commodities in other to make them available all through the year and as well as adding to varieties of food products. The aqueous extracts of watermelon with pawpaw juice were processed into jam and the physicochemical properties of the jam samples were analysed. The resulting jam samples showed moisture content ranging between 30.60-35.30%, protein 0.40-0.80%, fat 0.20-0.40%, ash 1.20-1.70%, crude fibre 0.10-0.30%, carbohydrate 62.10-67.16%, β-carotene 610-1350µg/100g and ascorbic acid 9.60-15.40mg/100g. The jam samples were found to be very nutritive and high in antimicrobial and antioxidant properties that can scavenge free radicals, thereby can improve the antioxidant status of the body. Sensory evaluation tests showed that the samples were acceptable and compared favourably with the commercial imported brand while sample AA had the highest preference in all the sensory attributes evaluated by the panellists. Microbiological examination also showed that the jam samples had total plate count ranging from 4.10x101 to 2.00 x101 cfu/g, yeast and mould count ranged from 2.10x101 to 1.00 x101cfu/g with no observable coliform count.
The consumption of dietary herbs and supplements may be associated with several physiological consequences including, but not limited to disturbances of acid-base homeostasis, minerals and electrolytes wasting, gastrointestinal disturbances as well as hemodynamic changes. Plants food based nutritional studies are important for assessing the effect of plants on human health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in acid-base status and electrolyte homeostasis following the consumption of lemongrass tea. The acute and sub-chronic effects of infusions prepared from 2, 4, and 8g lemongrass leaf powder on serum and urinary pH, and electrolytes levels were assessed in 105 subjects using an interventional study design. The results post-treatment were compared with baseline values.
Plasma pH decreased from baseline value of 7.37 ± 0.02 to 7.20 ± 0.03, and 7.30 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively for participants treated with infusion prepared from 2g of lemongrass leaf powder. For those treated with infusion prepared from 4g of lemongrass leaf powder, plasma pH decreased from baseline value of 7.35 ± 0.02 to 7.22 ± 0.02 and 7.29 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively.
Treatment with infusion prepared from 8g of lemongrass leaf powder caused a decrease in plasma pH from baseline value of 7.38 ± 0.02 to 7.15 ± 0.02 and 7.18 ± 0.02 at days 10 and 30 respectively. Corresponding changes in urinary pH were also observed. Furthermore, at days 10 and 30, plasma protein concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.05) in subjects treated with infusion prepared from 8g lemongrass leaf extract. There were also significant increases (p < 0.05) in urinary volume, urination frequency, and urinary electrolytes levels within the same period.
The consumption of lemongrass tea may be associated with changes in acid-base balance and electrolyte homeostasis due to its varied biological constituents and their activities
The study aimed to identify possible environmental risk factors for breast cancer among women in Gaza Strip and conducted in 2010. A case- control study design was used with face to face interviews by structured questionnaire with breast cancer patient women as well as healthy women. Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the collected data. The study population was 288 women, 144 were women with breast cancer (cases) and 144 were healthy women (controls) with response rate 100% for cases as well as controls. The study was carried out in the two main hospitals in Gaza Strip (El-Shifa and European Gaza) and on cases who had a regular follow up in each hospital, while controls have been chosen from women who had no history of breast cancer by mammogram or by self-examination. In this study the main statistically significant risk factors were; marital status, educational status, physical trauma on breast, medication for infertility treatment, eating red meat 500g or more weekly, eating canned food, eating chicken skin, eating raw and cooked vegetables, using oils with saturated fats in cooking, living in or beside a farm, dealing with crops with naked hands, working in a farm during pesticides application or during 24 hours of pesticides application, cleaning pesticides’ equipment, living with people working in a farm or a agricultural field, and application of pesticides personally. In contrary, no statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls in relation to area of residency, exposure to X-ray in the past, having radiation therapy, getting contraceptive pills, using hair dyes, using anti-deodorant underarm, using facial cosmetics, using hair removal ointment, washing vegetables and fruits, buying and transporting pesticides, and wearing protective tools during pesticides mixing and application.
During the last three decades, there has been an interesting debate on the intake of A1 ‘like” milk and incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically predisposed individuals. The epidemiological, ecological and case-control studies have concrete pieces of evidences in favor of the hypothesis that is further supported by animal trials in mice and rat and in vitro trials on cell lines. But on the other hand, European Food Safety Authority reported that there isn’t sufficient data to draw a final recommendation at this stage in terms of contradictory results, lack of cause-effect relationship and being a mere suggestive evidence . However, the report itself states that these studies are strong enough to formulate a concrete hypothesis and further research is needed to confirm the same. Keeping in view the published data in favor of the hypothesis and the counter-arguments, it is suggested that further research with well-designed animal and in vitro trials with intact proteins and peptides is needed to fully confirm the hypothesis. Until the issue is fully resolved, it’s the personal choice of the individuals at risk to T1D (genetically predisposed) to either remove A1 “like” or increase the A2 “like” milk from their diet.
A mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease; COVID-19, has led to tremendous global health and economy damages. This virus could be dampened through home use of fermented bio food material. Fermented millet flour (ibyer) is an indigenous non-alcoholic gruel made from cereals either (maize, sorghum and millet). It is prepared by cooking reconstituted cereal flour or wet milled paste with water. In this study, fermented millet fl our supplemented with ginger powder blends were formulated in the ratio 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 for the production of gruel. The blends were subjected to feeding trial experiment using wistar albino rat. Results analysis revealed that Serum cholesterol was less than 200 mg/dl. The fasting blood glucose was also within the recommended range (67.7 - 125.0 mg/dl). The biochemical parameters were within recommended range, total serum protein ranged from 5.82-7.06 g/L, Alanine aminotransferase ranged from 28.53 to 41.13 iu/L, Aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 28.50 to 48.66 iu/L. The albino rats showed slight increase in body weight throughout the experimental period, ranging from 78.67 -103.80 g. The experiment shows that the diet did not have any adverse effect on the experimental animals and were within the recommended range hence a good anti diabetic blend and has excellent biochemical profile properties for homes use.
We present below a mechanistic molecular approach for development of Anti-Inflammatory biomarkers of Probiotic Bacteria in Fermented Foods. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote human health by counteracting the noxious toxic gut microflora in human intestine, by modulating of the tight junctions, and by increasing mucin production, enforcing intestinal epithelial cell barrier function, modifying microbial community within the gut intestinal disorders, and improving immune responses associated with chronic inflammation in experimental animal models, collectively enhancing human health. Cytokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages are regulated by probiotics through key signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated kinases, resulting in alleviation of several disorders such as allergies, diabetes, obesity, heart diseases and cancer. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression by inhibiting gene translation. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches in cell lines and mice models to study effects of probiotic conditional media and heat-killed bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory effect to elucidate the mechanisms by which probiotics affect signaling pathways, and by using global cytokine and microRNA gene expression analyses arrroaches to develop biomarkers for studying different pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, and using statistical approaches to analyse the data, we show that cytokines and miRNAs have an essential role in regulation of cancerous and inflammatory bathways. This mechanistic approach will result in developing specific disease biomarkers for the early diagnosis of certain pathogenic states, as well as evaluating the effect of different dietary componenents on developed biomarkers in health states that will promote and enhance human health. Comparing the concordance of the in vitro to the in vivo research findings will confirm the correspondence of both approaches to each other. Moreover, this study will have a major public health relevance in elucidating the role of miRNAs and their targets in inflammation, paving the way to diagnosing and treating of pathogenic human disease stages.
Background: Skin diseases is a common worldwide problem. It affected every aspect of patients’ quality of life (QOL) mainly physically, socially and psychologically.
Objectives: to assess the impact of skin disorders on patients’ quality of life and to identify factors associated with it.
Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatient dermatology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. A random sample of 145 patients with acne, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD) were interviewed using DLQI questionnaire during their scheduled follow-up appointments at dermatology clinic.
Main outcome measure: Self-reported patients’ QOL due to their skin diseases.
Results and discussion: Out of three skin diseases psoriasis patients had the highest prevalence (39.3%) followed by AD (34.5%) and acne (26.2%). Patients’ QOL was highly influenced by their skin conditions especially on working/schooling domain. Furthermore, several factors were identified, namely age, working environment, concurrent skin diseases, usage of supplement for skin diseases and type of food as aggravating factors—that may influence patients’ QOL. QOL among females and younger adults was found to be more significantly influenced as compared to males and elderly. With respect to working environment, those who had both indoor and outdoor working environment showed the highest impact of their skin conditions on their QOL. Single patients were more influenced by their skin conditions when compared to those who are married, however it was not significant.
Conclusion: Our findings revealed skin disease had negatively impacted individual QOL with different level of aspects. Among the three diseases, AD patients had the worst impact on QOL. Significant predictors of QOL did not relate solely to skin diseases but also other factors such as type of food and working environment.
The present study aimed to investigate and identify the association between the intake of allium vegetables and colorectal cancer (CRC) in population. A hospital‐based matched case‐control study was conducted between June 2009 and November 2011 in three hospitals. Eight hundred thirty three consecutively recruited cases of CRC were frequency matched to 833 controls by age (within 2.5 years of difference), sex, and residence area (rural/urban). Demographic and dietary information were collected via face‐to‐face interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression.
Background: Prevalence of malnutrition in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients is due to their lower appetite level. Diabetic patients experience polyphagia. Hence it is necessary to understand the impact of diabetes on the nutritional status of CKD patient.
Aim: To compare the nutritious status between the CKD patients with and without diabetes.
Objectives: To find out the impact of diabetes on the nutritional status of CKD patients.
Method and Materials: A prospective random sampling method was adopted to select the subjects. Eighty CKD patients were divided equally into two groups. Tool which has been used to collect the data was SOAP format.
Results: While comparing BMI between group 1(CKD without diabetes) and group 2(CKD with diabetes) it was noticed that the percentage of normal nourished subjects in group 2 were greater than that of group1. About 63% and 25% of subjects with CKD in group1 had normal BMI and grade 1 undernourished respectively. In group 2, about 75% and 10% of patients had normal BMI and grade 1 over nourished respectively. About 80% of subjects in group 2 were on insulin treatment. About 88% of subjects in group1 were anorexic and about 55% and 25% of subjects in group 2 had polyphagia and normal appetite respectively. The difference in the energy and protein intake between the two groups was statistically significant at p<0.01 level.
Conclusions: It can be concluded from the above study that a better nutritional status was found in the CKD patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) than the CKD patients without DM which may be due to their normal appetite/ polyphagia, hence allowing a better food intake among group2 subjects. Weight gain in CKD with DM patients may be due to increase in fat mass which is subsequent to lipogenic effect of insulin.
Obesity is a major contributor to ill health and numerous comorbidities globally. Recent studies suggest that addictive-like tendencies toward foods, especially highly processed foods, contribute to this epidemic. Therefore, interventions used to treat substance-use disorders may be effective for treating overweight/obese patients with food addiction (based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale, version 2.0). This pilot study evaluated four interventions, selected because of their effectiveness in the treatment of substance-use disorders [motivational interviewing, pharmacotherapy (naltrexone-bupropion), pharmacotherapy with motivational interviewing, information control (diet and physical activity instruction)], in overweight/obese individuals with and without food addiction. The food addiction construct identified a distinctive subset of overweight/obese individuals. Through one month, response to interventions differed between food addiction phenotypes with those who were positive for food addiction showing similar or less response to the interventions than those who were negative for the trait. This suggests that individuals with addictive-like tendencies toward food may require longer and more intensive intervention to achieve their goals. The greatest changes in biometric measures occurred between baseline and 1 month during which time participants were attending weekly intervention sessions. Across all groups, those who attended more sessions (dose) was correlated with a reduction in body mass index.
The isolation of phytase using Pichia Pastoris under methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction technique was investigated. The biological activity of extracellular phytase after optimization with co-substrates induction in 4 liters fermentor (NBS) increased to 13250 U/ml. This led to a 509 fold increases in comparison to the other type of phytase. This effect was studied via induction with sorbitol/methanol in fermentation by Pichia Pastoris GS115 (Mut+) at 20 °C. The interference of by products; methylal, hexamine and (S)-(+)-1,2-propanediol with release of phytase in Pichia Pastoris under methanol induction were detected and cannot be repressed by methanol induction alone. The TLC was used for glycerin analysis under methanol/sorbitol induction and the results were lesser compare to that obtained during phytase production under methanol induction alone. This work showed the higher expression of heterologous proteins and by fed batch fermentation; the expression identified an advantage of producing a significant activity of phytase.
Plant derived products including sorbitol have been used as alternative medicines for the therapeutic treatment of various diseases, food supplements and could be used in many manufacturing processes. It serves as a culture media for bacteria, and helps to distinguish the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 from its most other strains. Cells growing on methanol require high oxygen consumption. Sorbitol was used as an alternative cheap co-feeding for the production of proteins and is a non-repressing carbon source for AOX1 promoter with no effect on the level of r-protein at its induction phase. This report describes the isolation of phytase using Pichia Pastoris under methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction techniques, and sorbitol showed to be a promising co-substrate, as it could enhance both cell growth and targeted protein productivity. This co-feeding and fed-batch induction technique was used for recombinant phytase production in a small and large scale production and the metabolites were analyzed.
The etiology of abdominal obesity is multifactorial and has environmental factors as its most expressive risk factors. This study cross-sectional analyzed the association of abdominal fatness with physical inactivity and food inadequacy of 1,557 subjects, both genders, over 35yrs. old, enrolled in an ongoing epidemiological study. Waist circumference (WC) was the primary variable and demographic, social-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data, were the co-variables. NCEP-ATP III, WHO, IPAQ-long (version 8) and Healthy Eating Index were used for functional definition of variables. Furthermore, longitudinal data from 50 subjects in an exercise protocol for 10 week receiving either regular diet (G1, n=22) or 30g fiber adequacy (G2; =28), were analyzed. The performed statistical analyses used software SAS for Windows, version 9.1 with p=0.05. In a predominantly female sample (74%), 76% aging 35-60yrs, 64% completed elementary school, 73% were living in a low income household, 77.5% overweight. The 62.5% presenting altered WC values were predominantly older, presented higher body fatness, and were consuming low variety-poor quality diet rich in fat (mainly saturated) and lower in fruit. WC correlated negatively with fruit intake and aerobic capacity (VO2max) but only carbohydrate (positive) and fruit intake (negative) were considered independent risk factors for abdominal obesity. In the longitudinal study, both G1 and G2 groups were similar at baseline and G1 maintained the anthropometry values throughout the experiment. Conversely, G2 decreased total body (4%) and WC (7%) fatness, reducing severe obesity by 16%, minimally affecting overweight and eutrophic rates. G2 presented 211% increase in fiber intake and 150% increase in plasma beta-carotene (colorful-fiber marker). Thus, in conclusion, recommended dietary fiber intake (increased fruit and low CHO intake) and physical activity would be the recommended changes against abdominal obesity and, by associating both physical exercises and dietary fiber there was indeed a decrease in abdominal fatness and obesity, predominantly at its higher grade.
The patient with an oncological disease presents a series of discomforts related to the psychological sphere such as depression, pain, sense of usefulness, anger, but also inconveniences related to food sphere. Neoplastic disease interferes with eating behaviour for several reasons. The communication of the diagnosis can create a state of anorexia as a result of the shock; certain tumours of the gastrointestinal tract-gold (mouth, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, but also pancreas and liver) are directly responsible for the possible alteration of food intake; alteration in eating behaviour may be secondary to the main therapeutic treatments. The link between food and cancer is not only evident in case of disease, but also in case of prevention, in fact a growing number of studies indicates more an more clearly the close correlation between a healthy diet and prevention of oncological diseases although at present time it is not still possible to give definitive results. The diagnosis of a person is like a melody in which some notes are repeated but their combination is almost infinite, because each person has different eating needs, as well as different psychological needs, and the starting point for a good professional must necessarily be a ‘customized’ diagnosis. This ‘diagnosis of well-being’, tailor-made for each person, involves professionals in both the food and psychological and behavioural sectors, since the individual needs have to be evaluated globally.
Finally, the professionals of human behaviour in food consumption, and the chemical and science processing experts, have the duty not to limit themselves to a single refusal against the use of certain foods, but framing the phenomenon in a wider perspective and, as experts of human health, to propose alternatives.
Background: The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended.
Aim: To clarify and figure out food habits and different lifestyle pattern among a sample of Palestinian women attending the nutrition center in the Gaza Strip.
Methods: A cross-sectional study involved 116 women were randomly chosen by purposive census sampling. They aged 25 to 60 years with a diagnosis of obesity. The data collected by interview questionnaire that included social factors, lifestyle habits, and health/disease history.
Results: Age group variable has distributed significantly (p=0.024), (31.0%) of morbid obese were ≥35 years group compared to (13.5%) of morbid obese amongst the younger group. The higher intakes of legumes (OR: 2.134, P=0.003), nuts (OR: 3.917, P=0.019), eggs (OR: 6.840, P=0.009), fast foods (OR: 4.461, P=0.005), and soda drinks (OR: 2.230, P=0.004) were the risk factors linked to the increased risk of morbid obesity. Moreover, the higher intakes of legumes (OR: 8.439, P=0.011), eggs (OR: 6.900, P=0.041), chips (OR: 5.049, P=0.012), sugar (OR: 2.068, P=0.011), and fast foods (OR: 3.029, P=0.025) are risk factors of chronic diseases.
Conclusion: The study identified several lifestyle factors and improper dietary habits associated with obesity among women in Gaza city. There is a great need to change these habits to avoid the increased risk of obesity. Gene-environment interaction can explain the high incidence of obesity. A national plan of action to overcome obesity is urgently needed to reduce its economic and health burden
The childhood obesity is increased more than three folds in last two decades in developed world. There is nutritional transition seen in the developing world including India. The westernization in diet of the Indian population along with prosperity brings the brunt of overweight and obesity. This has future implications of liver diseases, heart diseases, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance; malignancies. Mumbai is the prosperous city and an economical capital of India. Also, the rampant use junk food, common outdoor eating’s, no grounds to play for children make the high likelihood that the prevalence of obesity to be higher than rest of the country.
It can profoundly affect children’s physical health, social, and emotional well-being and self-esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child.
One of the best strategies to reduce childhood obesity is to improve the eating and exercise habits of the entire family. Treating and preventing childhood obesity helps protect the child’s health and has tremendous impact on child’s Physical and academic performance.
And hence we at Aastha Bariatrics took initiative and launched ECHO... for a change (‘E’radicating ‘C’Hild ‘H’ood ‘O’besity), a pan Mumbai campaign against childhood obesity.
This campaign was done in 15 high schools across Mumbai, which covered in total of 9000 students.
The effect of acute administration of ethanol extract of F. thoningii on anxiety and fear in Swiss white mice was studied. 30 adult Swiss white mice of both sexes were randomly divided in to three groups of 10 mice each. Group1 served as the control and was administered normal saline only. Group 2 (low dose group) was administered 10mg/kg ethanol extract of the F. thoningii, while group 3 (high dose group) was given 20mg/kg of the same extract. All animals were allowed food and water ad libitum. Neurobehavioral parameter was assessed using the light/dark transition box. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for variability within and among groups. Results were expressed as Mean ±SEM (standard error of the mean) and probability level p<0.05 was accepted as significant. The result showed that the frequency of transition in the light/dark transition box was significantly increased in the test groups (p<0.05; p<0.01).Similarly, the Light Box Duration was also significantly increased (p<0.01) in the low and high dose groups respectively. However, the Dark box duration was significantly decreased (p<0.05; p<0.01) in the low and high dose groups compared to control. This index showed a decreased level of anxiety and fear in the test groups. This was followed by a corresponding trend of decreased frequency of stretch attend posture and duration of freezing in the light/dark transition box (p<0.01; p<0.001) compared to the control. Summarily, acute administration of ethanol extract of F. thonningii causes calmness and sedation in moderate and high doses. It is therefore likely that it reduces aggression. If the result from this finding is extrapolated to humans, F. thoningii could be used to reduce anxiety disorders.
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Ivano- Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine
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BS, PharmD., MBA, CPHIMS, FHIMSS, Adjunct Professor, Global Healthcare Management, MCPHS University, Chief Strategy Offi cer, MedicaSoft, Senior Advisor, National Health IT (NHIT) Collaborative for Underserved, New York HIMSS, National Liaison, Health 2.0 Boston, Past Chair, Chair Innovation, USA
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Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
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