Forensics

Awareness level on the role of forensic DNA database in criminal investigation in Nigeria: A case study of Benin city

Published on: 15th December, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872659590

Pieces of evidence have continued to emerge, demonstrating the extensive efficiency and effectiveness of the DNA database in assisting criminal investigations around the world. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the awareness level on the prominent role of Forensic DNA Database on Crime Investigation in Nigeria: a case study of Benin City. In conducting this research, a total of 458 questionnaires were distributed around Benin City between the periods of 12th January 2020 to 21st March 2020, with a particular focus on security agents and students. The questionnaire comprised of three main categories: Socio-demographic characteristics, Information about the National Forensic DNA Database, and Information about DNA evidence, and Nigeria Criminal Justice system. For the analysis of data collected; the statistical tool used was also Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 22 for windows. Responses were compared using chi-square and presented as counts and percentages. In determining the level of awareness, the following responses were obtained. Of the total population: 53.28% had no idea about forensics, 19.21% were uncertain and 27.54% knew about forensics. The same trend was observed with Forensic DNA profiling, 42.14% did not know, 22.27% were uncertain and 35.59% demonstrated good knowledge of Forensic DNA profiling. On the knowledge about the National Forensic DNA Database, 48.47% had no knowledge, 22.27% were uncertain and 29.26% were knowledgeable about it. The result of the present study revealed that the awareness level of the forensic DNA Database was found to be inadequate.
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Awareness level on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation in Nigeria

Published on: 15th October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9305467463

The main aim of forensic science is to gather intelligence to enable the judge to credible and logical decisions in the court by means of scientific approach through evaluation of evidence for the administration of justice, and country around the world now considers forensic methodology as the gold standard for criminal investigation. Therefore, the present study examined the level of awareness on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation in Nigeria. The design used in this study is the survey research design and the sample size of this study was a total of one hundred personnel of law enforcement and the judiciary. The study adopted descriptive statistics which involves the use of frequency and percentage. The result of the present study revealed that the participants were distributed socio-demographically as follows; there was an observable higher number of male participants (68%) relative to the female participants (32%), As per age distribution, a larger population of the participants were found to be > 40 years of age with 55%, and it was observed that age between 35-39 years ranked the least with 15%. On educational level, the result of the present study revealed that majority of the participants possesses a bachelor’s degree as the highest level of educational qualification with 75% from a pool of 100% of participants. The present study further examined responses on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation, and the result revealed an inadequate level of awareness on the relevance of forensics in criminal investigation. Therefore, the study recommends that the Nigerian Police Force and the Judiciary should collaborate with Universities running programs on forensics for trainings.
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Genetic identification of three exhumed human remains at a hospital in Ghana: a forensic case report

Published on: 7th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9395224000

DNA identification is very important in cases of high decomposition of dead bodies, in which the bodies cannot be identified by physical means.To compare the results of DNA typing, it is necessary to have related subjects with which to perform comparative analyses. Such tests are normally performed by comparing DNA profiles from people known to be immediate family members of the presumptive victim, such as parents or children because they share half of their genetic material with the unidentified.We report on how DNA analysis was used to solve a case of mixed-up bodies at a local mortuary in Ghana, West Africa. Two families and three buried human remains were in contention in this case. The first body (E9) was buried three months before exhumation. The second body (E11) was buried two and a half months before exhumation whiles the third body (E10) was buried a month before exhumation. Exhibit E5 was taken from an alleged child of the deceased, E11. Toenails of the exhumed bodies were sampled by a pathologist and used for DNA extractions using the QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit. Profiles from relatives were generated for comparison purposes. All samples gave a quality amount of genomic DNA after quantification. DNA was amplified with a GlobalFiler PCR amplification kit. Profiles from relatives were generated for comparison purposes.The human remains (exhibit E11) cannot be excluded as the biological father of the child (exhibit E5) because they share common alleles at all 23 genetic loci. The applicable combined paternity index was 17218125604.492 assuming a prior probability of 0.5. The probability of paternity is 99.99999999%. Based on this relationship testing, one of the bodies was successfully identified and handed over to the family for re-burial.
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High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): A review

Published on: 20th June, 2022

Today HPLC is widely applied for separations and purifications in a variety of areas including pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, environmental, polymer and food industries. It is accomplished by injection of a small amount of liquid sample into a moving stream of liquid (called the mobile phase) that passes through a column packed with particles of the stationary phase. The separation of a mixture into its components depends on different degrees of retention of each component in the column. HPLC is just one type of liquid chromatography, meaning the mobile phase is a liquid. Reversed-phase HPLC is the most common type of HPLC. The reversed-phase means the mobile phase is relatively polar, and the stationary phase is relatively non-polar. HPLC instrumentation includes a Solvent reservoir, pump, injector, column, detector, and integrator or acquisition and display system. The heart of the system is the column where separation occurs. The information that can be obtained using HPLC includes identification, quantification, and resolution of a compound. The major applications are in the area of Pharmaceuticals, food, research, manufacturing, forensics, and bio-monitoring of pollutants.
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Comparative analysis of mobile forensic proprietary tools: an application in forensic investigation

Published on: 22nd November, 2022

The utilization of the Internet and wireless communication reaches its pinnacle from one side of the planet to the other. Marking the rise of criminal activity in recent years sees enormous growth in security breaches and data theft-related cases in mobile phones. To mitigate them, the implementation of security patches, safety fixes, and updates in mobile devices is of high priority for the organization. The need to foster techniques and procedures in the field to be able to extract and precisely dissect digital crime cases, providing valuable tactical data about the investigation. Mobile forensics is a developing branch assisting the investigator in criminal trials and investigations. Acquisition, Collection, and Analysis of mobile phones settle the purpose of recovering cumulative and corroborative evidence. Upgradation and innovation of mobile devices with time imposed a challenge to mobile forensic technology to extract information from such devices. The study aims at extracting comparative and statistical approaches in the analysis of Physical data acquisition utilizing significant versatile mobile criminological proprietary tools. The proposed study also introduces newly developed utility tools along with their characteristic features which help in successful data extraction from mobile devices.
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