Introduction: Radioiodine therapy is a standard procedure in thyroid autonomy treatment. Discrepancies in the visual comparisons of the scintigraphies prepared for this purpose using Tc-99m-O4- and I-131 have been known for years. In this study a new method is used to calculate and perform a quantitative comparison of both uptakes using subtraction analysis and 3D imaging. The results and their causes are discussed together with practice-relevant conclusions for better clinical results.
Material and Methods: The new method was used in 38 patients with thyroid autonomies for the subtraction analysis of standardized pretherapeutic and intratherapeutic scintigraphies. The parametric distribution of activity was calculated absolutely and as a percentage and displayed three-dimensionally. These results were compared with the visual assessment of the different scintigraphies by the experts. Inclusion criteria were pretherapeutic and intratherapeutic hyperthyroidism without medication affecting the thyroid. The time difference between acquiring the scintigraphies was 28 days maximum.
Results: Activity distribution was visually discrepant in 39.5% of cases. 60.5% displayed comparable uptake. The calculated values showed reversed results after applying the new method. The results using our method show a higher rate of calculated discrepancies compared with visual analysis.
Conclusion: Accurate functional imaging of the thyroid is next to further aspects very important in establishing the diagnosis and deciding about the therapy activity for thyroid treatment. In combination with clinical symptoms and laboratory values, Tc-99m-O4 - scintigram can be used for an orientated, preliminary assessment of functional disorders of the thyroid. But because of the higher rate of found discrepancies, the solely use of Tc-99m-O4 - scintigram is not always capable for exact and reliable diagnosis. The known reason for this is most probably due to the different biokinetics of both radiopharmaceuticals, which can be imaged more sensitively with this method. Consequently, a scintigram should be performed in the pretherapeutic radioiodine uptake test. Despite higher costs and radiation exposure, alternatively, pretherapeutic use of other diagnostic iodine isotopes like I-123 or -124 should be discussed, because they could overcome the limitation of the different biokinetics. Following this approach the preliminary assessment using Tc-99m-O4 - scintigraphy can be precised and double checked to improve diagnostic confi dence and treatment results for a better outcome of the patients.
In this work an efficient method developed for the synthesis of 125I-benzofuran-2-yl) pyridin-2-amine (125IBPA), followed by radioiodination with 125I by using Chloramine-T at pH 8. The reaction proceeds within 10 min at room temperature (20-25°C). The radiochemical yield determined by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) using hexane:ethyl acetate (1:6 v/v) and the purity analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase RP18column and acetonitrile:0.1 M ammonium bicarbonate (pH 7.5) (1:1) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml×min−1. The radiochemical yield using aH2O2 oxidant found equal to 96.5% with a radiochemical purity of 125I-BPA of over 96.5%. The biodistribution data in normal mice indicated a high initial uptake of 6.54±0.10 (% ID/g±SD) in the brain within 30 min post-injection. These results promote a further the use of 125I-BPA as a novel agent for brain imaging.
Effect of drying methods (sun-drying and cabinet oven drying) on the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oils extracted from moringa seeds was investigated. Oil from the seeds was extracted using solvent (hexane) after drying. Drying increased the yield from 30.30-33.11%. The oil samples were less dense than water with specific gravities of 0.9032, 0.9075 and 0.9030 respectively. A significant difference exists in the moisture contents (0.11-0.21%); smoke point (202-2250C), flash point (310-3170C) and fire point (360-3690C). Sun-drying and cabinet oven drying brought about a decrease in the acid value (1.80-1.08mgKOH/g), saponification value (174.87-105mgKOH/g), Iodine value (16.10-13.90wijs) and peroxide value (11.24-2.3-Meq/kg). The decrease is an indication of quality improvement of the oils. More unsaturated fatty acids were present in the samples between 76.61% and 81.66%. Oleic acid was predominant (44.92% raw, 45.71% sundried and 43.60% cabinet oven dried). Sun-drying and cabinet oven drying did not have much significant effect on the physical, chemical and fatty acid compositions of the oil. The results obtained from this study showed that the three oil samples are good as edible oil and for commercial purpose.
Objective: This study aimed to investigating of the epidemiological aspects of infertility and related risk factors in infertile women.
Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study, carried out on 330 infertile women referred to two infertility treatment center of Imam Khomeini Hospital and Mother center in Sari, Iran, from April 2015 to March 2017.
Results: 54.5% of these women were in the age of 30-39 years, infertility duration in 55.2% was 1-5 years, Body mass index (BMI) in 44.5% of samples was 26-30 kg/m2, 54.5% had diploma and associate degree. 63.6% lived in urban areas. 74.5 % of patients reported primary infertility. History of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOs) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and poor ovarian reserve were the most common causes and risk factors for the infertility with prevalence 19.42%, 16.81% and 13.91%, respectively. Most underlying disease was thyroid disorders (54.5%). There was found statistically significant relationship between residents of urban areas and infertility duration, endometriosis and educational levels, miscarriage with thyroid. Data analysis performed using IBM SPSS 21 software and Chi-Square test (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that women with infertility in north of Iran were more likely to be older, less educated, and also had overweight. They are more possible to have ovarian disorders. In these area, thyroid disease more common like Iodine deficient regions. Future research should be focused on the reasons why majority of women don’t seek treatment for the underline significant diseases that may be effects on ovarian function and fertility.
During the last few decades painstaking efforts have been made to eliminate iodine deficiency throughout the world. Todays in regions where dietary iodine intake is adequate or borderline, the main focus is increasing dietary iodine supply in the target population during pregnancy and the first years of life.
Objective: The aim of this study was to obtain longitudinal data on urinary iodine excretion and the changes of maternal thyroid parameters in two groups of healthy women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency and iodine sufficiency residing in an iodine replete area of Tehran capital city of IR Iran, for more than one decade.
Research designs and methods: The present study is part of a cohort study, investigating the relative influences of iodine intake on thyroid size and function of mothers and their infants during and after pregnancy. A total of 500 pregnant women enrolled from two mother-child health care centers and was divided into group I, with median urinary iodine excretion (MUIE) < 150 µg/L, and group II with MUIE ≥ 150 µg/L. Sonographic thyroid volume measurement, urinary iodine excretion and thyroid function tests were measured sequentially in all pregnant women during the three trimesters (T) of pregnancy.
Results: The mean ± SD age of the participants was 25.1 ± 5.1 years. The MUIE in group I and II in the first, second and third trimester were 123 and 250 µg/L, 127 and 166 µg/L, 120 and 150 µg/L, respectively. The MUIE in the third trimester of pregnancy in group I did not differ significantly from the values in the first and second trimesters (p = 0.67), but it did decline significantly in group II (p < 0.001). The median thyroid volume of subjects, in the first, second and third trimesters were 7.8, 8.2 and 8.1 ml in group I and 7.5, 8.0 and 8.4 ml in group II, respectively. No difference in thyroid volume was found between two groups in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy (p > 0.05). The mean (± SD) TSH concentration of subjects in first, second and third trimester was 2.3(± 2.6), 2.1(± 1.8), 2.3(± 1.7) mIU/L in group I and 2.1(± 3.1), 2.1(± 1.8) and 2.0(± 1.3) mIU/L in group II, respectively. The trend of TSH rising in group I was 26.7% and in group II it was 13.3%. The mean TSH value in three trimesters did not differ significantly in either groups (p > 0.05). The mean (± SD) total T4 concentrations of subjects in first, second and third trimesters were 13.2(± 3.4), 13.8(± 3.3), 13.0(± 2.9) µg/dl in group I and 13.1(± 3.2), 13.7(± 2.9), 13.4(± 3.2) µg/dl in group II, respectively. The mean total T4 value in three trimesters did not differ significantly in either groups (p > 0.05). There was no correlation between the thyroid volume and three observed parameters (UIE, total T4 and TSH) during the pregnancy in either groups.
Conclusion: Even in areas with well-established universal salt iodization program, pregnancy could be a risk of having iodine deficiency and systematic dietary fortification needs to be implemented in this vulnerable group.
During the last few decades painstaking efforts have been made to eliminate iodine deficiency through the world. Nowadays in regions where dietary iodine intake is adequate or borderline, the main focus is increasing dietary iodine supply in the target population during pregnancy and the first years of life. Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy increases the risk of irreversible brain damage, intellectual disability, neurologic abnormalities, stunted growth, increased pregnancy loss, infant mortality, impairments in child development and cretinism. The potential effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are debated. Results from animal studies and observational human studies indicate that maternal mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency disturbs thyroid function in pregnancy and it also may affects fetal neurodevelopment. The effect of supplementation of iodine on thyroid function of pregnant women and their newborn, neurodevelopment of infants and cognitive performance of children have been investigated using iodine nutrition in pregnancy, based on median urinary iodine concentration. However they have found conflicting results regarding the benefits or harms of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Although many epidemiological, interventional and clinical studies have supported the association between thyroid function in pregnant women and later psychomotor and mental development of their children, the effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on neurodevelopment of children is inconclusive. Even in areas with well-established universal salt iodization program, pregnancy could be at risk of having iodine deficiency and despite WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation which believe that dietary iodine fortification during pregnancy depends primarily on the extent of pre-existing iodine deprivation, systematic dietary fortification needs to be implemented in this vulnerable group. However, iodine supplementation of mildly iodine deficient pregnant women may not have beneficial effects in their thyroid function or neurodevelopment of their children.
Primary sources document Dr. Saul Hertz (1905 - 1950) as conceiving and developing radioiodine (RAI) as a diagnostic tool and as a therapy for thyroid diseases. Dr. Hertz was the first and foremost person to develop the experimental data on RAI and apply it to the clinical setting.
Saul Hertz was born on April 20,1905 to Jewish parents who had immigrated to Cleveland, Ohio. He received his A.B. from the University of Michigan in 1925 with Phi Beta Kappa honors. After graduating from Harvard Medical School in 1929, at a time of quotas for outsiders, he fulfilled his internship and residency at Cleveland’s Mt. Sinai Hospital.
In 1931, he came back to Boston to join the newly formed Thyroid Unit at The Massachusetts General Hospital serving as the Chief from 1931 - 1943.
More than 200 countries have been devastated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The health workers exposed to SARS patients have been confirmed to be infected with coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), regardless of the degree of their exposure. The increasing complexity of virus existence and heterogeneity has cast doubt on disinfectants as a viable choice. Hence, the present systematic review aims to achieve the comparative analysis of established disinfectants against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Three databases (Pubmed, Google scholar, and Medline) were searched to frame the systematic review. Our comparative analyses with 34 studies have found that 85% ethanol-based hand sanitizers and 7.5% Povidine Iodine based soaps/surgical scrub could be used to deter the SARS-CoV-2 virus as preferred hand sanitizers. For surface eradication, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite or a mixture of glutaraldehyde, Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC), and isopropanol could have more efficacies as compared to hydrogen peroxide, phenol, and QAC alone. Moreover, the accelerated hydrogen peroxide as an active ingredient in the automatic quick surface disinfectant (tunnel system), maybe a positive indication for quick whole-body sanitation. Additionally, the alternative method for avoiding the rapidly increasing chain of infection with SARS and restarting regular life has been exclusively discussed.
The impression of frictional ridges of the finger is known as fingerprints. Owing to this uniqueness, the fingerprints have long been used to identify a person since Ancient times. In any crime scene the presence of fingerprint makes the identification of the Culprit very easy. The fingerprints can also easily be embedded on any item such as paper, Clothing and body of the victim. To utilize this uniqueness of fingerprints forensic experts devised many techniques to obtain a clear fingerprint. These come under two categories i.e. Conventional and modern methods.
The conventional methods are although important but there are limitations of them. Just take the example of powder method. Powder method require different powders for different Surfaces and colors, but modern method like quantum dots method can easily detect Fingerprints on all surfaces regardless of their color giving great resolution in seconds. Other methods like physical developer method is very time consuming and expensive, carbon Black method creates mess and does not work on porous surface, iodine fuming and Naphthaloflavin does have an advantage that it can bring up prints on skin also but it does not Work on metallic surfaces. VMD also fails on heavy plastic polymers and body oils. But some modern methods like nanotechnology can obtain high resolution prints old and dried prints also within 3 minutes. Laser technology is very fast, accurate and can be used for Fingerprints up toten years old also on any surface without any mess. Multimetal deposition Method can even be used to identify smokers and drug addicts and can be used Porous, non-porous and wet surfaces.
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