Anthropometric characteristics, represent one of the most important subsystems within the “system” of man, and which can be in affected by physical exercises in the direction of the desired transformation. Very often the anthropometric parameters (height and weight) are used in the assessment of the morphological status of an individual, and on the basis of the results of Body Mass Index (BMI) bring certain estimates and conclusions. BMI as a statistical measures, is used in many public health campaigns as an approximate measure of the ideal body mass and the degree of nutrition of a population. The main goal of the research was to determine and analyze differences in BMI parameters between male and female students, aged 18±0.5 years, and determine the trend of changes. Using the T-test module, the obtained results confirmed that there are statistically significant differences in body height (t=8,17; p<0.001) and body weight (t=5,29; p<0.001), while in BMI values there are not statistically significant differences (t=-0.68, p>0.001). Based on BMI values, a positive trend of somatic changes of both poles is evident.
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. There are many evidences that the dysfunctioning lipotoxicity is the one of major factors of cardiovascular diseases such as, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Obesity and diabetes increase circulating lipids that are likely with more generation of toxic intermediates, which leading to the complications associated with cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome caused by abnormal lipid accumulation, which leads to cellular dysfunction and necrosis. Here we review the factors that induced pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases by lipid accumulation and the mechanisms underlying the lipotoxicity.
Purpose: There are uncertainties about whether general or central obesity is the more important determinant for blood pressure and hypertension in young Chinese. We aim to investigate the association between adiposity measures and blood pressure and hypertension in young medical students.
Methods: A total of 380 medical students were recruited from the 2012 batch in the Clinical College of Dali University. Anthropometric measures and office blood pressure were measured. Blood pressure status was defined by Chinese hypertension guidelines and ACC/AHA 2017 hypertension guidelines, respectively. We examined the associations of adiposity measures (body weight, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], ponderal index [PI], body adiposity index (BAI) and conicity index [CI]) with blood pressure and hypertension by sex.
Results: In 380 subjects (women 66.6%, mean age 21.5 years), the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2) was 2.1%, and the prevalence of hypertension was 2.6% (≥ 140/90 mmHg) and 24.5% (≥ 130/80 mmHg), respectively. In correlation analyses and multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, most adiposity measures of central obesity were significantly associated with blood pressure in men, while in women, either adiposity measures of central or general obesity were associated with blood pressure. The predictive power of adiposity measures for hypertension was generally low in men. However, adiposity measures of either general obesity or central obesity were predictive for hypertension defined by Chinese hypertension guidelines in women.
Conclusion: There are gender-specific associations of central and general obesity with blood pressure and hypertension in young Chinese medical students.
Important differences has been found in assessing the effects of obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk . Interestingly, accurate estimation of the body composition (BC) is highly relevant from a public health perspective , and it has the importance of being essential in establishing the impact of adiposity on increased myocardial infarction (MI) risk. However, in non-randomized studies, baseline differences of BC between groups to be compared may introduce bias in results.
Context: Perioperative management of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery is challenging. Lacking standardized perioperative protocols, complication rates may be high. This retrospective study aims to quantify the incidence of significant blood pressure decreases on induction of anesthesia and intraoperative hypoxemia, before implementation of a standardized protocol designed for bariatric surgery.
Design: Retrospective, observational study.
Setting: A 250-bed county hospital in northern Sweden.
Subjects: 219 morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m2) who underwent bariatric surgery between 2003 and 2008.
Main outcome measures: Incidence of systolic blood pressure (SAP) falls to less than 70% of the preoperative baseline during induction of anesthesia and incidence of perioperative hypoxemia.
Results: The incidence of confirmed SAP falls to below 70% of baseline at induction of anesthesia was 56.2% (n = 123/219). This incidence rose with increasing age (p < 0.001) but not with body mass index (BMI). 3.7% (n = 8/219) of cases were marked as difficult intubations. A transient period of hypoxemia was observed in 6.8% (n = 15/219) and was more common with increasing BMI (p = 0.005). Fourteen different drug combinations were used in the study population. Of those administered an induction anesthetic drug, 72.6% (n = 159/193) were given an overdose when calculated by lean body weight, but this did not correlate significantly to SAP falls (p = 0.468).
Conclusion: The incidence of a significant blood pressure fall upon induction of anesthesia was common. The incidence of airway and ventilation problems were low. Overdosing of anesthetics and excessive variation in applied anesthesia methods were found.
Background: Primary lymphedema occurs as a result of genetic abnormalities of the lymph system. Currently, complex decongestive therapy is accepted as the standard treatment of the lymphedema. In this case presentation, we described the management of bilateral primary lower extremity lymphedema and the use of complex decongestive therapy.
Case Report: A 62 years old female patient had stage III primary lymphedema on her left lower extremity and stage II primary lymphedema on her right lower extremity. The patient, who had morbid obesity, also had untreatable sleep apnea, urinary incontinence, umbilical hernia and hypertension controlled by drugs. She had stage 4 gonarthrosis according to Kellgren – Lawrence classification in her both knees. The patient received complex decongestive therapy as an outpatient.
After 27 sessions of complex decongestive therapy, edema reduced in both lower extremities. Before the treatment started, the patient couldn’t go up and down stairs, get out and had difficulty mobility in the home. But after the treatment, the patient could go up and down 16 stairs by holding the railing, get out by two walking sticks and had less difficulty mobility in the home. However, due to gonarthrosis in her knees, her pain did not diminish.
Conclusion: Complex decongestive therapy is effective in the management of bilateral primary lower extremity lymphedema, which progressed with multiple health conditions.
Miscarriage is a frequent outcome of pregnancy, with major emotional implications to the couple experiencing such an event. Threatened miscarriage is the commonest complication of early pregnancy and affects about 20% of pregnancies. It presents with vaginal bleeding with or without abdominal cramps. On the other hand recurrent miscarriages are post implantation failures in natural conception. Increasing age of women, smoking, obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and a previous history of miscarriage are risk factors for threatened miscarriage. The pathophysiology has been associated with changes in levels of cytokines or maternal immune dysfunction. Clinical history and examination, maternal serum biochemistry and ultrasound findings are important to determine the treatment options and provide valuable information for the prognosis. Many surgical and non-surgical interventions are used in the management of threatened and recurrent miscarriages. In this review, we present available evidence-based guidance on the incidence, pathophysiology, investigation and clinical management of recurrent miscarriage and threatened miscarriage, focusing mainly on the first trimester of pregnancy and primary healthcare settings. The review is structured to be clinically relevant. We have critically appraised the evidence to produce a concise answer for clinical practice.
Cissus quadrangularis a succulent vine belongs to Vitaceae family is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world and used frequently to various disorders. The plant has been reported to contain flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols, glycosides and rich source of calcium. This study aims to bring a systematic review of C. quadrangularis in various pharmacological mechanisms. Evidence from the previous studies suggested the efficacy of C. quadrangularis with antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, bone turnover, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective activities. In conclusion, Cissus quadrangularis appears worthy of pharmacological investigations for new drug formulations.
Emerging evidence indicates that micronutrient deficiency could play a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of many chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, kidney disease, cancer, anemia and other cardio-metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases through the induction of Insulin resistance (IR). However, there are still gaps in our scientific knowledge regarding the links between micronutrient deficiencies, IR, and cardio metabolic disorders. This review provides current information on recent advances and a global perspective regarding the relationship between micronutrient deficiency, IR, and cardio metabolic disorders. Empirical evidence indicates that deficiencies in either micronutrients associated with insulin activity (such as Chromium, manganese, magnesium, and iron) or antioxidant enzyme cofactors (such as vitamin A, copper, zinc, and manganese) could impact several physiological processes leading to a cascade of metabolic and biochemical derangements such as B-cell apoptosis, loss of islet cell mass, defective tyrosine kinase activity, oxidative stress, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, reduction in lean body mass, defective insulin signaling mechanism, elevated protein kinase C activity, and excess intracellular calcium. Collaboratively, these states of metabolic malfunctioning are associated with IR, which triggers the onset of many cardio metabolic diseases. Undoubtedly, the prevention of micronutrient deficiency may indeed ameliorate the incidence of IR and cardio-metabolic disorders in those at risk and in the general population.
We present below a mechanistic molecular approach for development of Anti-Inflammatory biomarkers of Probiotic Bacteria in Fermented Foods. Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote human health by counteracting the noxious toxic gut microflora in human intestine, by modulating of the tight junctions, and by increasing mucin production, enforcing intestinal epithelial cell barrier function, modifying microbial community within the gut intestinal disorders, and improving immune responses associated with chronic inflammation in experimental animal models, collectively enhancing human health. Cytokine secretion by intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages are regulated by probiotics through key signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated kinases, resulting in alleviation of several disorders such as allergies, diabetes, obesity, heart diseases and cancer. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in transcriptional and post-translational regulation of gene expression by inhibiting gene translation. Using in vitro and in vivo approaches in cell lines and mice models to study effects of probiotic conditional media and heat-killed bacterial strains with anti-inflammatory effect to elucidate the mechanisms by which probiotics affect signaling pathways, and by using global cytokine and microRNA gene expression analyses arrroaches to develop biomarkers for studying different pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, and using statistical approaches to analyse the data, we show that cytokines and miRNAs have an essential role in regulation of cancerous and inflammatory bathways. This mechanistic approach will result in developing specific disease biomarkers for the early diagnosis of certain pathogenic states, as well as evaluating the effect of different dietary componenents on developed biomarkers in health states that will promote and enhance human health. Comparing the concordance of the in vitro to the in vivo research findings will confirm the correspondence of both approaches to each other. Moreover, this study will have a major public health relevance in elucidating the role of miRNAs and their targets in inflammation, paving the way to diagnosing and treating of pathogenic human disease stages.
Obesity is a major contributor to ill health and numerous comorbidities globally. Recent studies suggest that addictive-like tendencies toward foods, especially highly processed foods, contribute to this epidemic. Therefore, interventions used to treat substance-use disorders may be effective for treating overweight/obese patients with food addiction (based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale, version 2.0). This pilot study evaluated four interventions, selected because of their effectiveness in the treatment of substance-use disorders [motivational interviewing, pharmacotherapy (naltrexone-bupropion), pharmacotherapy with motivational interviewing, information control (diet and physical activity instruction)], in overweight/obese individuals with and without food addiction. The food addiction construct identified a distinctive subset of overweight/obese individuals. Through one month, response to interventions differed between food addiction phenotypes with those who were positive for food addiction showing similar or less response to the interventions than those who were negative for the trait. This suggests that individuals with addictive-like tendencies toward food may require longer and more intensive intervention to achieve their goals. The greatest changes in biometric measures occurred between baseline and 1 month during which time participants were attending weekly intervention sessions. Across all groups, those who attended more sessions (dose) was correlated with a reduction in body mass index.
Obesity is a chronic and metabolic disease with a high increasing prevalence worldwide. It has multifactorial pathogenesis including genetic and behavioral factors [1-5]. Overweight and obesity have been defined and classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) [2,3]. A person with a normal weight has Body Mass Index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9. A person with a BMI under 18.5 is called underweight. An adult having a BMI of 25-29.9 is overweight and pre-obese. Class 1 obesity is defined as a BMI between 30.00-34.99. Class 2 (Severe) Obesity is to have a BMI between 35.00-39.99. Morbid (Extreme, Class 3) obesity is to have a BMI over 40 [1-5]. Obesity is significantly associated with enhanced morbidity and mortality rates. It has also various economic, medical and psychological effects and causes health problems including many systemic diseases, economic costs and burdens, social and occupational stigmatization and discrimination and productivity loss [4-6]. Obesity carries the increased risk of development of many systemic and chronic diseases, including sleep apnea, depression, insulin resistance, Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes, Gout and related arthritis, degenerative arthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, heart disease such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or coronary artery disease, polycystic ovary syndrome and reproductive disorders, Pickwickian syndrome (obesity, red face and hypoventilation), metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholecystitis, cerebrovascular accident, colonic and renal cancer, rectal and prostatic cancer in males, and gallbladder, uterus and breast cancer in females [6-12].
In recent years, some publications reported that obesity has been strongly associated with some ocular diseases including age-related cataract and maculopathy, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy [13-16].
The recent reports demonstrated that the central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure were increased while as mean thickness of RNFL and retinal ganglion cell and choroidal thickness (CT) were decreased in the morbidly obese subjects [17-19]. However, another study has reported that CT increased in obese children . On the other hand, a recent study reported that all values of the specific tests used to evaluate the ocular surface were within the normal range . In some experimental studies, it has been demonstrated that obesity may cause retinal degeneration [22,23]. Additionally, in a past meeting presentation, it has been speculated that keratoconus is associated with severe obesity . Teorically, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and papilledema may also be associated with obesity . Obesity may be also a cause of mechanical eyelid abnormalities such as entropion . However, further investigations are needed to detect the significant relationship between these diseases and obesity.
On the other hand, the ocular surgeries of obese patients are difficult compared to normal weight-subjects. The posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss may easily develop during cataract surgery of these patients because obese patients have an elevated vitreous pressure and operating table cannot often be lowered or surgeon’s chair cannot be elevated sufficiently to provide the clear viewing of the operating area and tissues. So, some different surgical manipulations such as standing phacoemulsification technique and reverse Trendelenburg position have been developed. Additionally, the standing vitrectomy technique has been used for vitreoretinal interventions in morbidly obese patients [27,28].
In conclusion, all obese subjects should be subjected to a completed ophthalmological examination and to relevant clinics for the detection of possible comorbidities and diseases
Sanjeewani Fonseka*, B Subhani, V Alahakoon, CN Wijeyaratne, IB Gawarammana, NS Kalupahana, N Ratnatunga, S Rosairo and PVR Kumarasiri
Published on: 6th August, 2019
Background: Polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) is an endocrine disorder. It leads to menstrual disturbances, infertility, obesity and dermatological manifestations such as hirsutism and acne which leads to impaired health-related quality of life (QOL).
Aims: To evaluate the perceived health related QOL in patients with PCOD treated with ethinyl oestradiol (35µg)/cyproterone acetate (2 mg) (EE/CPA) and ethinyl oestradiol (20 µg)/ desogestrel (0.15mg) (EE/DES) alone and in combination with low-dose metformin.
Methods: A total of 117 patients with PCOD diagnosed according to Rotterdam Consensus Criteria 2003 with a hirsutism score of 8 or more according to modified Ferriman-Gallway Score (mFGS) were randomised to receive one of four drug combinations (arm A – EE/CPA, arm B- EE/DES, arm C- EE/CPA plus metformin, arm D- EE/DES plus metformin). The outcomes assessed were body mass index (BMI), hirsutism (using mFGS) and health-related QOL (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health- Related quality of life Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score) at baseline and 12 months after treatment.
Results: PCOSQ score in relation to the hirsutism, emotions, menstruation, obesity, infertility and VAS score in relation to hirsutism and obesity had improved at the end of 12 months (p< 0.001) in all treatment arms. There was no difference between treatment arms in all measured outcomes at baseline and at the end of 12 months.
Conclusion: Treatment with EE/CPA and EE/DES is associated with an improvement in perceived QOL in patients with PCOD. The addition of low-dose metformin did not have a significant benefit.
Introduction: Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg m-2) is epidemic globally and is associated with increased risk for a wide range of physical and mental health comorbidities. This is a particular concern for rural residents who have a greater rate of obesity than urban residents, but are disadvantaged in obtaining care because of a shortage of health care professionals. Community health fairs provide an opportunity for rural residents to receive health care services and education at reduced or no cost. Therefore, this study explored the role of community health fairs for providing health services and improving the health of residents in a rural community where obesity is a serious health concern.
Methods: This study involved a retrospective longitudinal analysis of data collected during community health fairs conducted in a rural western Nebraska, USA community during 2014, 2015, and 2016 (n = 83). The Planned Approach to Community Health (PATCH) framework was used to target health education in this rural community. This approach involved 1. Mobilizing the community (via health fairs), 2. Collecting and organizing data (from consented attendees), 3. Selecting health priorities (obesity), 4. Developing a comprehensive intervention (nutrition and physical activity education), and 5. Evaluating the effectiveness of the framework (declines in measures of obesity over time). Analyses characterized BMI, percent body fat, visceral fat, and BP and explored differences between genders. The sample was recruited by advertising with flyers for health fairs at the College of Nursing. Most booths provided printouts of results for participants in order for them to keep and track their health information. Once potential participants arrived at the health fair site, there were asked if they would like to participate in the study via an invitation letter. They could then decline or sign the consent.
Results: Percent body fat and visceral fat level differed between genders (p = < .001 and .001, respectively). Mean body fat levels (women 39.4%, men 28.8%) were unhealthy. Mean visceral fat level was unhealthy in men (16), but healthy in women (10). BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not differ between genders. Mean BMI was 31 kg m-2; 33% of participants were overweight, 44% were obese. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 134 and 78 mg Hg, respectively. Most participants were hypertensive (systolic: men 57%, women 32%; diastolic: men 24%, women 7%) or prehypertensive (systolic: men 21%, women 39%; diastolic: men and women 36%).
Conclusion: Obesity and high BP were common in this rural population, supporting the need for effective education and intervention efforts to address these health issues. Health fairs provide a manner in which to reach community persons needing referrals to local clinics, mental health providers and physicians. Education provided at such events is valuable as well and may in fact be the only health care contact they receive. Though community health fairs provide an economical way for individuals to receive screenings and health information, few men participated and few individuals attended in multiple years. The lack of repeat attendees prevented assessment of the efficacy of the education intervention. Means of enhancing participation, particularly by men and previous attendees, need to be explored. Repeatedly attending health fairs enables participants to monitor their progress, seek physical and mental health screenings and discuss any health concerns and helps researchers assess the efficacy of interventions.
Introduction: Rural populations often experience disparities in health and access to and quality of healthcare. Such disparities may differ among subpopulations. Community outreach events provide an opportunity for rural residents to receive health services and education at reduced or no cost. This project builds on our previous experience with community health fairs by providing health events that target specific underserved subpopulations (rural youth, Latinas, and men).
Methods: Our first event provided free sports physicals to area students. The second provided free health screenings to men during an annual agricultural event (Bean Day). The third was a cardiovascular health event for Latinas that featured free or reduced cost health screenings and other health-related and culturally appropriate activities.
Results: Thirty-five students received sports physicals, enabling them to participate in sports. Twenty-two Bean Day participants, primarily men, received health screenings; four were hypertensive, three were overweight, and 12 were obese. Over 100 women attended Latina Red Dress and received health services and education. For many in these subpopulations, events such as this provide the only healthcare they receive. During all three events, participants received education regarding any health issues of concern and referrals to local health clinics when appropriate (e.g. hypertension, high glucose levels).
Conclusion: Community health events such as these provide culturally appropriate and economical means to deliver health services and education, enabling participants to identify and address any health concerns. Targeting events for underserved subpopulations helped engage them in their healthcare. These findings support the need for effective education and intervention efforts to address physical and mental health concerns in this rural area. This was our first contact with these particular populations whom we know need intervention to receive health care. Moving forward through 2020 and beyond we will have future health fairs in the same groups in order to assess if the health fairs are indeed impacting health of these children, men and minority women.
Background: Adipose tissue is one of the main sites of energy homeostasis that regulates whole body metabolism with the help of adipokines. Disruption in its proper functioning results in adipose tissue remodeling (primarily hypertrophy and hyperplasia) which directly influences the secretion of said adipokines. Obesity characterized as chronic low-grade inflammation of the adipose tissue is one such condition that has far reaching effects on whole body metabolism. Inflammation in turn results in immune cells infiltrating into the tissue and further promoting adipocyte dysfunction.
Purpose: In our study we explored this adipose tissue-innate immunity axis by differentiating adipose tissue derived stem cells (ADSCs) into white and beige adipocytes. We further stimulated our cultures with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, or meteorin-like, glial cell differentiation regulator (METRNL) to trigger an inflammatory response. We then evaluated Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA expression and secretion of interleukin (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) in these cultures.
Results: We found that TLR2 is the highest expressed receptor in adipocytes. Further, LPS and METRNL are strong activators of TLR2 in white and beigeBMP7(-) adipocytes. TLR4 was not significantly expressed in any of our cultures despite LPS stimulation. TLR9 expression is upregulated in ADSCs upon LPS and METRNL stimulation. IL-6 and IL-8 secretion is increased upon LPS stimulation in white adipocytes. METRNL activates both IL-6 and IL-8 expression in adipocyte cultures. Lastly, BDNF and NGF is secreted by all adipocyte cultures with beigeBMP7(-) and beigeBMP7(+) secreting slightly higher amounts in comparison to white adipocytes.
Conclusion: ADSCs and adipocytes alike are capable of expressing TLRs, but white adipocytes remain the highest expressing in both control and stimulated cultures. TLR2 is highly expressed in white and beige adipocytes whereas TLR4 showed no significant expression. LPS and METRNL trigger IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in adipocytes. Products of white adipocyte “browning” are capable of secreting higher amounts of BDNF and NGF in comparison to white adipocytes.
Alterations in cardiac autonomic modulation of children and obese preadolescents have attracted the attention of researchers around the world. These alterations cause disorders in the cardiac autonomic control and can interfere in cardiac output and in the homeostatic actions that depends on the cardiovascular system action.
Introduction: Obesity is a global-level epidemic. Together with this disease, called chronic subclinical inflammatory disease, many other diseases, known as comorbidities, arise.
Objective: To show that the association between low-level laser therapy and physical exercise is supported, by experimental and clinical studies, being an instrument that maximizes the treatment of obesity as well as its comorbidities.
Conclusion: This manuscript brings a compendium of accomplished work by our group that allows understand the mechanism base of interaction between the photonic technology and the physical exercise, allowing to potentiate the treatment of the obesity.
The etiology of abdominal obesity is multifactorial and has environmental factors as its most expressive risk factors. This study cross-sectional analyzed the association of abdominal fatness with physical inactivity and food inadequacy of 1,557 subjects, both genders, over 35yrs. old, enrolled in an ongoing epidemiological study. Waist circumference (WC) was the primary variable and demographic, social-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data, were the co-variables. NCEP-ATP III, WHO, IPAQ-long (version 8) and Healthy Eating Index were used for functional definition of variables. Furthermore, longitudinal data from 50 subjects in an exercise protocol for 10 week receiving either regular diet (G1, n=22) or 30g fiber adequacy (G2; =28), were analyzed. The performed statistical analyses used software SAS for Windows, version 9.1 with p=0.05. In a predominantly female sample (74%), 76% aging 35-60yrs, 64% completed elementary school, 73% were living in a low income household, 77.5% overweight. The 62.5% presenting altered WC values were predominantly older, presented higher body fatness, and were consuming low variety-poor quality diet rich in fat (mainly saturated) and lower in fruit. WC correlated negatively with fruit intake and aerobic capacity (VO2max) but only carbohydrate (positive) and fruit intake (negative) were considered independent risk factors for abdominal obesity. In the longitudinal study, both G1 and G2 groups were similar at baseline and G1 maintained the anthropometry values throughout the experiment. Conversely, G2 decreased total body (4%) and WC (7%) fatness, reducing severe obesity by 16%, minimally affecting overweight and eutrophic rates. G2 presented 211% increase in fiber intake and 150% increase in plasma beta-carotene (colorful-fiber marker). Thus, in conclusion, recommended dietary fiber intake (increased fruit and low CHO intake) and physical activity would be the recommended changes against abdominal obesity and, by associating both physical exercises and dietary fiber there was indeed a decrease in abdominal fatness and obesity, predominantly at its higher grade.
Introduction: Number of obese people is growing on a daily basis in Brazil, including morbid obese ones, but there is still a lack of studies with this subject. Due to this, the main goal of this study was to identify body profile, physiological variables behavior and oxygen consumption in grade III obese women, submitted to an ergospirometric test in arm ergometer.
Method: Take part in this study, thirteen (13) female grade III obese patients between 20 and 40 years. They were submitted to an electric bioimpedance test for body composition measurement and an Ergospirometric test in arm ergometer for oxygen consumption, heart rate, and oxygen saturation, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, resting and after exercises, analysis.
Results: The patients revealed a BMI of 46.5±3.81 kg/m², 51.9±1.59% of body fat percentage. The patients reached 168.2±4.57bpm of heart rate, didn’t make any hypertensive response to the effort reaching an arterial pressure of 171.1±22.15mmHg x 87.5±4.18mmHg. Oxygen saturation was 98±0.71% and oxygen consumption peak was, also in average, 12.3±2.75ml.kg.min-1.
Conclusion: It was verified that there was no oxygen saturation drop nor hypertensive response and all of the patients reached the maximum heart rate.
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