antibiotic resistance

Efficacies of 11% Lactoferricin and 0.05% Chlorhexidine Otological Solution compared, in the treatment of microbial otic overgrowth: A randomized single blinded study

Published on: 4th October, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325011971

Background:Topical therapy with antimicrobial agents is used in otitis treatment. Due to increase of antibiotic resistance, new strategies are needed. Antiseptics are used but they may induce contact dermatitis. Natural antimicrobial peptides may represent future effective drugs. Objectives:The objectives were to test the efficacy of an 11% lactoferricin otological solution (LCF) in bacterial and yeasts otic overgrowth and compare LCF with a commercial one containing chlorhexidine (CLX) 0.05%. Materials and methods:Forty-one dogs diagnosed with bacterial or yeasts otitis overgrowths were included according to general good practice. They were randomly assigned to lactoferricin or chlorhexidine group for treatment. Otological solution were applied twice a day for a week and then daily for another week. Clinical and cytological score was assessed at day 1 and day 14. At the end of the study, the owners had to express an opinion on the overall efficacy of the products. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilkoxon’s test and T test for paired samples. Results in lesional and cytological score were significative with a p<0.05. Results:Forty dogs completed the study. All cases, receiving lactoferricin or chlorhexidine, were successfully treated with clinical signs remission and regression of infection (p<0.05). The owners’ judgment was good in 87%, mild in 13% for LCF group. For CLX they scored good in 41%, mild in 24% and unuseful in 35% of cases. Conclusions:Lactoferricin, an antimicrobial natural peptide, showed the same efficacy of chlorhexidine in the treatment of otitis characterized by bacterial or/and yeast overgrowth.
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Antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from urine in hospital patients and outpatients

Published on: 26th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8982640435

Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial species that often causes infections in humans. Infections occur most frequently in hospitalised or immunocompromised patients and are treated with antimicrobials. In recent decades, K. pneumoniae has developed significant resistance to many antimicrobials. Objective: The main goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance of isolated K. pneumoniae strains from urine samples of hospital patients and outpatients, and to find evidence of ESBL strains and their resistance to certain antibiotics. Methods: During the study period, Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated from the urine samples of 430 patients. The procedure for processing of urine samples, identification, susceptibility toward antimicrobials and evidence of ESBL strains were carried out according to the recommended standards. Results: Of the total K. pneumoniae isolates, 153 (35.6%) were isolated from hospital patients and 277 (64.4%) from outpatients. Strains isolated from hospital patients were resistant to each tested antibiotic. ESBL strains were detected in 169 (39.30%) samples, 92 (60.13%) from hospital patients and 77 (27.8%) from outpatients. Conclusion: Strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from the urine of hospital patients and outpatients have developed significant resistance against all tested antibiotic substances. A higher occurrence of ESBL strains was observed in hospital patients than in outpatients. ESBL strains were resistant to all penicillins and almost all cephalosporins. Highly effective antimicrobials were amikacin, colistine, carbapenem and fosfomycin. The best therapeutic results were achieved when patients were treated with fosfomycin and imipenem.
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General practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and practices on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections in children in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo

Published on: 16th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8701522218

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices declared among general practitioners (GPs) concerning the use of antibiotics for the treatment of ARI in children under 5 years in Lubumbashi. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices concerning antibiotic prescribing among 67 GPs working in the pediatric setting in various health structures in Lubumbashi city, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data were collected from April 1st to June 30th, 2020. Results: GPs had limited knowledge about antibiotic prescriptions (mean of 46% correct answers to 8 questions). Although they are generally concerned about antibiotic resistance (mean ± SD = 0.50 ± 0.68), and are unwilling to submit to pressure to prescribe antibiotics to meet patient demands and expectations (mean ± SD = –1.78 ± 0.31) and the requirements to prescribe antibiotics for fear of losing patients (mean ± SD = –1.67 ± 0.47), there was a lack of motivation to change prescribing practices (mean ± SD = −0.37 ± 0.94) and strong agreement that they themselves should take responsibility for tackling antibiotic resistance (mean ± SD = 1.24 ± 0.74). Multiple linear regression results showed that higher knowledge scores were associated with less avoidance of responsibility when prescribing antibiotics (β = 0.919; p = 0.000). Conclusion: To curb the over-prescription of antibiotics, it is not enough to improve knowledge in itself. The lack of motivation of physicians to change must be addressed through a systematic approach. These data show the need for interventions that support the rational prescribing of antibiotics.
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Treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by nanoparticles: Current approaches and prospects

Published on: 8th June, 2022

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging pathogens whose resistance profiles generate a serious health crisis by holding their impact on human health. Misuse of antibiotics has directed the emergence of microbes immune to presently accessible drugs. Pathogenic bacteria become resistant by employing various mechanisms, such as; antibiotic modification, target site alteration, and biofilm formation, increasing the time they spend in the intracellular environment where antibiotics are unable to succeed at therapeutic levels. Due to this, attempts are being made to develop new alternative nanoantibiotics as a promising approach to treat multidrug resistance disease-causing bacteria. Accordingly, there is considerable contemporary attention to the use of nanoparticles (NPs) as antibacterial agents against different pathogens and as target drug delivery toward specific tissues therefore microbes are eliminated by the biocidal properties of nanoantibiotics. Additionally, the utilization of nanoencapsulation systems can help to beat the issues of, those with toxicity natures, and target drug delivery problems. This review encompasses the antibiotic resistance prevalence, mechanisms, and therefore the use of nanoparticles as antibacterial and drug delivery systems to overcome the antibiotic resistance challenges of bacteria. Overall, this review paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding the complexity of the matter of emergence of antibiotic resistance bacteria even for brand spanking new synthesized antibiotics. Therefore the availability of such knowledge will allow researchers to supply detailed studies about the applications of nanoparticles in the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacteria. 
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Hypochlorous acid has emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity

Published on: 30th March, 2023

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent antimicrobial agent that has recently gained attention as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics. HOCl is produced by the human immune system in response to infection and is known for its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and has been shown to be more effective than many conventional antibiotics. One of the key advantages of HOCl is its ability to kill bacteria without promoting the development of antibiotic resistance. Unlike conventional antibiotics, which target specific bacterial structures or processes, HOCl acts by disrupting multiple cellular components, making it much more difficult for bacteria to develop resistance. Another advantage of HOCl is its safety profile. Unlike many conventional antibiotics, HOCl is not toxic to human cells and does not cause side effects such as gastrointestinal upset or allergic reactions. Overall, HOCl shows great promise as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics, particularly in the face of rising antibiotic resistance. With further research, it may become an important tool in the fight against infectious diseases. Herein, we discuss the mechanisms of HOCl antimicrobial action, its potential clinical applications, and future directions for research. This review aims to provide an overview of the use of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as an antibiotic agent.
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Trends of Antibiotic Resistance among Uropathogens in Medical vs. Non-Medical Departments of Al-Shifa Medical Complex in Gaza Strip: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Study

Published on: 12th January, 2024

Antibiotic resistance is a growing global crisis, straining healthcare systems and leaving us with limited options to combat drug-resistant bacteria. This retrospective, cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of antibiotic resistance patterns among urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Al-Shifa Hospital’s medical departments in comparison with non-medical departments using data from microbiology laboratory archives over a one-year period. From the examined urine cultures about 25% were obtained from internal medicine departments and double the number was obtained from non-medical departments. The positive rate was around 35% and about two-thirds of the samples were collected from female patients. Among all departments, Enterobacteriaceae spp. were found to be the most frequently isolated uropathogens, accounting for 80% of cases. However, resistance rates varied depending on the specific organism and antibiotic used. For instance, E. coli showed a resistance rate of only 5% against meropenem, while amoxicillin-clavulanic acid exhibited a resistance rate exceeding 95%.Importantly, the study revealed a significant disparity in resistance rates between medical and non-medical departments, specifically concerning third-generation cephalosporins. In internal medicine departments, resistance rates were alarmingly high, with cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime showing resistance rates of 75%, 75% and 66.5% respectively. In contrast, non-medical departments displayed lower resistance rates, approximately 60%, 60% and 40%, respectively.In summary, this research sheds light on the escalating problem of antibiotic resistance in UTIs and emphasizes the discrepancy in resistance rates between medical and non-medical departments. Urgent efforts are required to address this issue and find effective solutions to prevent the rise of untreatable bacterial infections.
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