Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity.
Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise.
Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine.
Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
Purpose: The time course of muscle stiffness of muscles around the shoulder joint and the scapula was investigated according to the degree of muscle weakness. This study was conducted to clarify the recovery process of muscle hardness of the muscles surrounding the shoulder joint and the scapula after the shoulder internal and external rotational exercises.
Methods: Participants were 7 healthy men (23.6 ± 1.4 yr), repeated internal and external rotations of the shoulder joint until the mean work of three internal and external rotations each was less than 90%, 80%, or 70% of the standard. Muscle hardness of the supraspinatus muscle, the infraspinatus muscle, and the rhomboideus muscle was measured before, immediately after, and 1to 72 hr after each bout of exercise.
Muscle hardness was measured as Strain ratio using an ultrasound real-time tissue elastography. In addition, the rates of change were calculated using muscle hardness before exercise as the standard, to compare differences in the rate of change after exercise between conditions.
Results: The rates of change of the Strain ratio between measurements taken before and after exercise were compared among conditions for the infraspinatus muscle. Results were -7.1 ± 5.3, -15.2 ± 10.3, and -25.0 ± 8.8, respectively, at 90%, 80%, and 70%, with a significant difference between a decrease to 90% and to 70% (p < 0.05). Significant difference was found in the change over time for the infraspinatus muscle only between values obtained immediately after exercise and after 72 hr at a decrease to 70% (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Those results described above demonstrated that the infraspinatus muscle and the supraspinatus muscle were harder immediately after exercise when the shoulder joint was at a higher degree of muscle weakness, and demonstrated that the change was likely to be recovered after 72 hr.
This review paper analyzes the response of renal function during two types of exercise: 1) exercise of increasing intensity and 2) exercise of submaximal intensity and prolonged duration. During an effort of increasing intensity there is a decrease in renal blood flow that, theoretically, could compromise renal function. However, several studies seem to show that the kidney has self-regulatory mechanisms that allow maintaining the filtration fraction. On the other hand, ultra resistance exercises, such as ironman, are becoming more frequent. Knowing the renal response to this type of exercise is essential to apply knowledge to emergency situations such as dehydration or hyponatremia.
Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been plagued by inadequate efficacy and a high risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), which led to its replacement by procedures like percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) whenever possible. Since this requires hospitalization, it is time-consuming, and compromising salvage of brain tissue and myocardium. Thrombolysis is the only first-line treatment that can provide sufficiently timely treatment for optimal recovery of organ function. However, for this potential to be realized, its efficacy and safety must be significantly improved over the current method. By adopting the sequential, synergistic fibrinolytic paradigm of the endogenous system, already verified by a clinical trial, this becomes possible. The endogenous system’s function is evidenced by the fibrinolytic product D-dimer that is invariably present in blood, and which increases >20-fold in the presence of thromboembolism. This system uses tPA to initiate lysis, which is then completed by the other fibrin-specific activator prourokinase (proUK). Since tPA and proUK in combination are synergistic in fibrinolysis, it helps explain their efficacy at their low endogenous concentrations.
Taryètba André Arthur Seghda*, Théodore Boro, Jean Eudes Bambara, Kadari Cisse, Andrés Miguel Lopez, André K Samadoulougou, Taryètba André Arthur Seghda*, Théodore Boro, Jean Eudes Bambara, Kadari Cisse, Andrés Miguel Lopez and Patrice Zabsonre
Peripartum cardiomyopathy is one of the curable cardiomyopathy. It’s a severe and frequent disease arising among women of childbearing age. Its evolution in the long-term among some patients leads to chronic heart failure. Our study aims to determine from a prospective cohort, the factors associated with the non-recovery of myocardial function upon 12 months of diagnosis. Sociodemographic, clinical and echocardiographic data were collected at the time of diagnosis and then in months 3, 6 and 12. The outcome was the non-recovery of myocardial function at one year, defined by a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 50%. 60 patients were analyzed after 12 months of follow-up. Mortality was about 13.3% and recovery rate of myocardial function reached 42.3%. After logistic regression, delay diagnosis and observance were the factors related to non- recovery of myocardial function.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a relatively rare cardiac disease that manifests in the final stage of pregnancy and in the first months after delivery in women with no preexisting heart disease. Many etiological processes have been suggested: viral myocarditis, abnormal immune response to pregnancy, excessive prolactin excretion, prolonged tocolysis and a familiar predisposition to PPCM. Its diagnosis is often delayed because its symptoms, which include fatigue, dyspnea and palpitations are nonspecific. For this reason the diagnosis of PPCM is still made by exclusion of other etiologies. The long-term prognosis, once the acute phase is over, is a function of myocardial damage, this varies from complete functional recovery to chronic HF. The outcome of PPCM is highly variable with an alevated risk of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. We report a serious case of a 40 years old female with biamniotic bicorionic twin pregnancy (PMA) who delivered by caesarean section and developed acute PPCM on post-operative. Symptoms occurred two hours after an intramuscular injection of two vials of methylergonovine the same day of cesarean delivery. These manifested in sudden tachypnoe, tachycardia and the appearance itchy maculopapular rash on her chest. On further evaluation, ECHO revealed cardiomegaly with reduced ejection fraction (< 15%). The case was successfully managed by a multidisciplinary team, using drugs like levosimendan and cabergoline, which rapresent emerging strategy in this clinical context.
Septic arthritis of the shoulder joint is rare and might affect around 3% of the general population . A delay in diagnosis may increase morbidity and lead to bone and cartilage destruction . Septic arthritis is an unusual complication of pregnancy and can progress to permanent arthropathy and disability .
Septic arthropathy in pregnancy requires multidisciplinary team involvement for prompt recognition and treatment to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. High index of suspicion is vital when clinical and laboratory findings suggest septic arthritis. There are multiple predisposing factors reported previously for septic arthritis of the shoulder in pregnancy such as medical conditions, pyelonephritis and trauma. We report a 37 year old lady who presented at 26 weeks gestation with acute left shoulder pain and high temperature following minor left palm trauma. She also had left mastectomy with axillary clearance ten years earlier. She underwent arthroscopic wash out of her left shoulder joint and was covered with antibiotics with rapid improvement and recovery. We reinforce the importance of early multidisciplinary involvement when septic arthritis of the shoulder in pregnancy is suspected especially in women who have had previous mastectomy and axillary clearance which could be a predisposing factor for such a rare and serious joint condition in pregnancy.
NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare disease first described in 2007. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis affects mostly young women as neoplasms, mostly ovarian teratomas, are the underlying cause. The disease is caused by antibodies binding to extracellular epitopes of neuronal cell-surface, which leads to an internalization of NMDA-receptors. The characteristic syndrome of patients with anti-NMDAR as well as its recovery follows a certain pattern. Treatment includes immunotherapy and removal of the immunologic trigger. This case report describes a young woman with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis caused by an ovarian teratoma.
Statement of the problem: Anterior tooth fracture, as a result of traumatic injuries, frequently occurs in dentistry. This leads to necrosis of pulp and periapical pathology. The goal of endodontic and restorative dentistry is to retain natural teeth with maximum function and pleasing esthetics.
Purpose of the study: This study aimed at proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth through the procedure known as “Biological Restoration.”
Materials and methods: Biological post obtained through natural, extracted teeth from another individual represents a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of damaged anterior teeth that provides highly functional and esthetic outcomes.
Conclusions: This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of mandibular left lateral incisor after non-surgical healing of periradicular lesion.
Intraperitoneal vancomycin absorption is higher when there is peritoneal inflammation, but the absorption decreases with recovery from peritonitis. Consequently, intraperitoneal maintenance doses are ineffective, reducing the rate of cure.
Aim:To evaluate the outcome of Gram-positive peritonitis treated with intraperitoneal and subsequent intravenous vancomycin.
Methods: In April 1996, we initiated a protocol for treating peritonitis caused by Gram-positive organisms using a 2-g intraperitoneal loading dose of vancomycin followed by intravenous vancomycin at 1 g twice in 5 days for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and at 1 g three times in 5 days for Staphylococcus aureus. We analyzed episodes of Gram-positive peritonitis (coagulase-negative and S. aureus) and the efficiency of the treatment protocol in 113 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis between 1 April, 1996 and 3 August, 2016. There were 6090 patient-months and the mean treatment lasted 54±44 months. The outcomes were evaluated as (1) complete cure, (2) relapsing peritonitis, (3) catheter removal for refractory peritonitis, and (4) death.
Results: A total of 51 cases of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus peritonitis and 37 of S. aureus were seen in 46 of the 113 patients (40.7%). Of these, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (92.15%) and 34 S. aureus peritonitis (91.89%) resolved.
Conclusion:The response to treatment was very satisfactory.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with balanced general anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamics and fluid requirement, and on postoperative patient outcome.
Design: The study design was a retrospective data analysis of patients undergoing open hepatectomy at a single tertiary care center from May, 2013 to June, 2016. Patients undergoing hepatectomies were separated into two groups: patients not receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (either no epidural or epidural catheter not used intraoperatively) were designated the control group and patients receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (bolus and/or continuously). Patients were excluded if they underwent laparoscopic or non-elective procedures.
Results: 103 patients were included in the data analysis: Control n=14, Epidural = 89 patients. There were no major differences in demographics between groups. Epidural patients did not have higher requirements in intraoperative intravenous fluid administration, blood loss, or vasopressor use compared to control patients. Patients who received epidurals required less intravenous opioids with better post-operative pain scores initially and also on post-operative day 2. There were no differences in length of time to ambulation, or post-operative acute kidney injury amongst groups.
Conclusions: This study shows that patients undergoing hepatectomies using combined epidural and general anesthesia: 1) have no increased requirement for intraoperative crystalloid, colloid, or blood component therapy, 2) require lower total intravenous opioid dose, and 3) subjectively report better pain control. Therefore, intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia may be advantageous for ERAS protocol based oncological procedures.
A 50-years old female presented with dysarthria, inability to swallow and quadriparesis for three weeks. She had rapid correction of her serum sodium (Na) from 99meq/l to 138meq/l within 24 hours 1 week prior to development of these symptoms. She was diagnosed as a case of Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) formerly known as central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) which was confirmed by MRI. She underwent Plasma Exchange (PE) on the 20th day since her symptoms started and underwent 7 cycles of PE with complete neurological recovery. Pt was discharged with ability to ambulate independently and complete recovery of speech and swallowing. Hence, we report that PE is beneficial in chronic ODS.
Intraparenchymal cysts without communication to the ventricles or the subarachnoid space are named ependymal or epithelial cysts. The estimated ratio of their incidence compared with arachnoid cysts is 1:10. Neurologic deficit can occur when the cyst exerts mass effect on its surroundings. We report a case of cerebral ependymal cyst in a 75-year-old lady who presented with history of headache, vomiting and left incomplete homonymous hemianopsia. Neuroimaging studies showed a large right occipital cyst. She underwent the neurosurgical procedure of marsupialization. Histologic findings and the immunophenotype was consistent with a diagnosis of ependymal cyst. The patient made an excellent recovery after the procedure.
Background: Invasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic malignancies and in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Case: We report a patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia who developed disseminated Fusarium infection during the neutropenic period following the salvage cycle of chemotherapy given at King Fahad specialist Hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The invasive fungal infection was successfully managed with a combination of voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin-B.
Discussion: Fusarium species can cause invasive infections that may become disseminated and life-threatening in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Conclusion: Combined antifungal therapy and recovery of neutrophil count are essential to control invasive Fusarium infections
Background: Intensive care patients are often in need of sedation to endure being intubated. Light sedation is increasingly common since it has been proved to offer benefits such as faster recovery to patients.
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe critical care nurses’ experiences of nursing patients lightly sedated with dexmedetomidine.
Research Methodology: Qualitative personal interviews were conducted during 2015 with 10 critical care nurses in Sweden. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive qualitative thematic analysis.
Results: Light sedation of the patient facilitated communication and interaction with him or her, and the relationship between the patient and his or her family members. Dexmedetomidine was described as a fairly new drug, and the critical care nurses stated that they needed more knowledge about it and about sedation scales in order to learn more about the drug’s mechanism of action and its potential side effects on patients.
Conclusion: It is important to critical care nurses to learn more about dexmedetomidine and about sedation scales to assess levels of sedation, as light sedation has been shown to benefit the patient as opposed to deep sedation that can increase recovery time.
Objectives: There are variations in therapeutic regimens of different liver diseases. The accurate diagnosis ensures prompt recovery from these diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the underlying causes of unexplained signs and symptoms associated with liver diseases through biopsies.
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a public child care specialty of Lahore, Pakistan. The data was collected from medical records of the patients who were index hospitalized with unexplained clinical presentation of liver disease between 1st July, 2017 and 31st December, 2017. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.), and Microsoft Excel (MS Office 2010).
Results: Overall, the records of 53 patients were selected for the study. Most of them were 11 to 15 years of age. The patients were presented with unexplained hepatomegaly (60.4%) and jaundice (40.7%) during index hospitalization which made them eligible for liver biopsy (LB). The findings of LB revealed that the underlying causes of liver diseases in most of the cases were metabolic (33.9%) and inflammatory disorders (22.6%). Majority of the patients were ≤4 years of age, however cryptogenic cirrhosis (39.1%) was commonly found in >10 years of age. Although most of the patients were suffering from metabolic disorders (p-value=0.07) and liver cirrhosis (p-value=0.08) but these were not statistically significant.
Conclusions: LB was beneficial in evaluating the etiologies of unexplained signs and symptoms of liver diseases. It was found that glycogen storage diseases and liver cirrhosis were the most common etiologies of liver diseases among pediatric patients. But etiologies like metabolic and inflammatory diseases were insignificantly associated with gender.
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of ranibizumab in hastening the recovery of acute CSCR when given immediately at time of diagnosis.
Methods: In This retrospective case series, a total of 72 patients diagnosed with acute CSCR where reviewed, of which 63 received Ranibizumab at presentation. The patients were evaluated using Best corrected visual acuity, Ophthalmic examination, Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography, in addition to indocyanine green angiography and OCT angiography in some cases, at presentation, one week, one month and two months’ post injection.
Results: From the total 72 patients diagnosed with acute CSCR, 63 of them received intravitreal ranibizumab and the remaining 9 patients preferred to go for observation. The mean age of patients was 41.2 year old. The ratio of male to female was 8:1. The mean BCVA at presentation was 6/15 on Snellen chart. All patients who received ranibizumab injection showed an improvement after 1 week, with a mean improvement in BCVA of two lines. Of them, 43 patients were back to BCVA of 6/6 after 2 months and showed complete resolution of sub retinal fluid. The remaining 20 patients showed an additional mean of improvement of one line (over the previous two lines) after the 2 months.
Conclusion: Intravitreal ranibizumab hasten the recovery of both the BCVA and central macular thickness on OCT in acute CSCR when given immediately at presentation.
Background: The REFOCUS intervention was a whole team, complex intervention, designed to increase the recovery support offered by community based, mental health staff. The intervention consisted of two components: Recovery promoting relationships, which focused on how staff work with service users, and Recovery working practices, which focused on what activities and tasks staff and service users could do together.
Aim: We aimed to investigate the experiences of community mental health workers using the REFOCUS intervention to support personal recovery.
Method: In the context of the REFOCUS Trial (ISRCTN02507940), 28 semi-structured individual interviews and 4 staff focus groups, with 24 participants were conducted and thematically analyzed.
Results: Staff valued coaching training and used coaching skills to have tough as well as empowering, motivational conversations with service users. They were positive about the resources within the ‘working practices’ intervention component. The whole team training and reflection sessions helped create team cultures, structures and processes which were conducive to supporting recovery practice.
Conclusion: We recommend the wider use of coaching skills, strengths-based assessments, and approaches to support clinicians to broaden their understanding of service users’ values, treatment preferences and to support striving towards personally-meaningful goals. Staff who used these working practices changed their beliefs about what their service users were capable of, and became more hopeful practitioners. A team-based approach to support recovery creates a learning environment in which staff can support and challenge one another, making sustained practice change more likely.
Background: Corneal abrasions are a common result of eye trauma. Corneal injuries are very common in both the adult and pediatric population and account for a significant proportion of the workload of most emergency departments. Although abrasion heals well with preservative treatment, it still causes pain and job lost. The abrasion result from the scrabble of the corneal epithelium. These injuries cause pain, tearing, lids spasm, light scare, foreign body sensation, decreased visual acuity/blurring, and a gritty feeling. The light, friction & wink was worse the condition. Most abrasion cure within 24-27 hours and seldom proceed to erosion or infection. The study aims to use bandage soft contact lens [BSCL] as a primary treatment for traumatic corneal abrasion [TCA] instead of traditionally use pressure patch [PP].
Patients and methods: The present prospective study has been conducted on 50 patients attending the out-patient department of ophthalmology in an Alyarmouk teaching hospital for six months after taking ethical permission. Before subjecting the patient to the treatment of bandage soft contact lens therapy, a detailed clinical history and thorough local examination have been done. A history indicating the occurrence of recent ocular trauma followed by severe pain, redness, lids spasm, photophobia, and tearing of the involved eye is suggestive of a corneal abrasion. Always we ask about contact lens wear as this can complicate the presence of an abrasion. To confirm the diagnosis of traumatic corneal abrasion we examine the cornea by slit-lamp under cobalt-blue filtered light after the application of tetracaine eye drops & fluorescein strips. The treatment of 50 consecutive patients presenting with traumatic corneal abrasion has been treated with anesthetic eye drop (tetracaine 0.5%) to relieve pain and lids spasm, antibiotic eye drop (ofloxacin 0.3%), therapeutic bandage soft contact lens was applied to provide pain relief and once again act as a splint to promote epithelial healing, then visual acuity was measured by Snellen chart, a cycloplegic eye drop (cyclopentolate 1%) was applied to relieve ciliary spasm & then preservative-free lubricant eye drop were applied lastly. This criterion dramatically relieves most, if not all of the pain the patient may be experiencing (which is a big plus for the patient and earns instantaneous trust), but it also allows the patient to return to work/school or any other daily activities. Patients have been evaluated after 24hours, 72hours and after 1week regarding pain, visual acuity, and complications. Though pressure patch [PP] occasionally advice in abrasion therapy, it does not assist and may prevent recovery. Employ the protective eyewear can preclude the traumatic corneal abrasion.
Results: A total of 50 cases were enrolled in our study during the study period of 6 months. Out of 50 patients, there were 30males and 20 females and the male/female ratio was 3:2. The patient’s age was ranged from 5-35years. The commonest cause of injury was direct minor trauma (80% of cases), with cosmetic & optical contact lenses related problems accounting for 20% of presentations, visual acuity was documented correctly in 90% of adult and pediatric group and difficult to documented in children less than 6-year-old 10%. Traumatic corneal abrasion treated with bandage soft contact lens has an apparent advantage over the traditional pressure patch in terms of reduced pain, speedier healing, and an advantage of faster rehabilitation, facilitation epithelial healing, and proper surface hydration. Evaluation of pain revealed sufficient comfort with this regimen, allowing 45 patients (90%) to go back immediately to their occupations. Moreover, visual function is retained without any complication. Healing of the traumatic corneal abrasion occurred within 1 to 3 days in all patients, with minimal or no pain. The infection did not occur at the time of the follow up. We remove the bandage soft contact lens after 1 week to allow epithelial migration and attachment without the interference of the shearing forces of the upper lid.
Conclusion: The use of bandage soft contact lens as a primary treatment for a traumatic corneal abrasion is a safe and effective method with anesthetic eye drop (tetracaine 0.5%), antibiotic eye drop (ofloxacin 0. 3%), cycloplegic eye drop (cyclopentolate 1%), preservative-free lubricant drop instead of traditionally pressure patch. Bandage soft contact lens causes dramatic improvement from pain, lid spasm, tearing & visual function is retained without any complication, and patients can immediately resume their regular activities.
Non-invasive electrical stimulation in the form of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been documented as an optional assessment and treatment technology for decades. In contrast, translation of the robust clinical evidence supporting the effectiveness of FES’ enhancement of muscle force generation and adding to the recovery of motor control following damage to the brain appears limited. Furthermore, enabling many patients to regain locomotion ability though utilization of FES as a standard care option in rehabilitation medicine remains unmet. This perspective evolved over years of collaborative experience in clinical research, teaching, and patient care having a common goal of advancing patients’ rehabilitation outcomes. The clinical successes are supported by repeated evidence of FES utilization across the life span, from toddlers to elders, from hospitals’ critical care units to the home environment. The utilization include managing multiple deficits associated with the musculo-skeletal, neurological, cardio-pulmonary, or peripheral vascular systems. These successes were achieved in no small part because of the technological advancement leading to today’s wearable wireless FES systems that are being used throughout the continuum of rehabilitation care. However, failures to benefit from FES utilization are likewise numerous, collectively depriving most patients from using the technology to maximize their rehabilitation gains. The most critical failures are both clinical and technological. Whereas numerous barriers to NMES and FES utilization have been published, the focus of this perspective is on barriers not considered to date.
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