Sepsis

Maternal mortality and factors affecting it, among pregnant women in Abeokuta South, Nigeria

Published on: 2nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8185504249

This observational study assessed the knowledge of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at two selected hospitals in Abeokuta South, Nigeria on the causes and risk factors of maternal mortality, identified barriers to knowledge acquisition, and examined the influence of parity of respondents on their knowledge of factors causing maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is extremely high in Nigeria, it is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Descriptive research design was used in this study and qualitative data from 136 respondents selected randomly, were obtained through a self-designed questionnaire that comprised three sections. Data were analyzed and indicated that parity of the pregnant women do not have an influence on their knowledge of factors responsible for maternal mortality. Findings revealed that majority (67.6%) of the respondents had high knowledge on the causes of maternal mortality – haemorrhage, sepsis, prolonged/obstructed labour, anaemia, unsafe abortion, infection, hypertensive disorders, care rendered by unskilled medical practitioners and its risk factors - parity, poverty, place of last delivery and low attendance at antenatal clinic. Educational background, marital status, irregular antenatal visits, socio-cultural practices and occupational status were identified as barriers to knowledge acquisition. This paper concluded that pregnant women may have a high knowledge about the factors responsible for maternal mortality. This is probably due to the fact that all respondents had formal education and because they were interviewed on antenatal clinic days, which suggests that they might have heard about the causes and risk factors for maternal mortality during their visits. Authors recommended that government should employ qualified health professionals and provide medical subsidy, it is hoped that this will ensure that pregnant women get quality care throughout the period of pregnancy and delivery.
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A comparison of complications associated with nutrition between the patients receiving enteral or parenteral in the intensive care unit

Published on: 29th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872656709

The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the complications including infection and mortality associated with enteral and parenteral nutrition on patients in the ICU of a university hospital. In this study, a total of 100 patients who were under follow-up in the ICU for two years were examined. In our study, demographic characteristics, the reason for admission, comorbidity, initial ICU laboratory values, morbidity and mortality during the follow-up period of the patients who only received enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) were evaluated, and the results between two were compared as well as evaluating the complications within the groups. The comparison of the reason for admission between the EN and PN groups showed that surgical reasons were significantly higher in the PN group. Nosocomial infections, the presence of infection and the development of sepsis were significantly higher in the EN group. The 28-day mortality rate was higher in the PN group compared to the EN group. The length of stay in the ICU and on mechanical ventilation was longer in the EN group. There was no significant difference in the 28-day mortality, readmission to the ICU and repeated endotracheal intubation between the two groups. Because there is no statistical difference between EN and PN groups in point of infection and mortality, we conclude that the length of stay in the ICU and reason for admission play a more crucial role in the development of infection and on mortality rather than enteral or parenteral nutrition route.
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Host biomarkers for early diagnosis of infectious diseases: A comprehensive review

Published on: 5th June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8165317456

Biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis of disease and other conditions for many decades. There are diverse ranges of analytical targets, including metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins were used as a biomarker. Clinical diagnoses already rely heavily on these for patient disease classification, management, and informing treatment and care pathways. For that there is always a need of rapid and point of care test. However, until fairly recently, studies of biomarker efficacy in a clinical setting were mainly limited to single or dual use, and the landscape was complex, confused, and often inconsistent. Few candidates emerged from this somewhat clouded picture: C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT) for sepsis, ADA for mycobacterium tuberculosis and a Circulating miRNAs serve as molecular markers for diverse physiological and pathological conditions.
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Emphysematous pyelonephritis – A case series from a single centre in Southern India

Published on: 3rd May, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7666284358

TEmphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare but potentially life-threatening necrotizing renal parenchymal infection characterised by the production of intra-parenchymal gas. The approach and the management of emphysematous has changed dramatically over the last two decades with the advent of computed tomography (CT)-based diagnosis and advances in antibiotic therapy as well as multidisciplinary intensive care of sepsis leading to an overall decline in mortality rates to 20-25%. The previously standard treatment for EPN which included nephrectomy of the affected kidney has been replaced by minimally invasive and nephron sparing surgery with better patient outcomes. We present our case series of 12 patients with EPN over a short period of two years treated at our tertiary care centre in South Western India.
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Neutrophils, NETs, NETosis and their paradoxical roles in COVID-19

Published on: 11th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8592950514

The pandemic of COVID-19 has adversely affected the world in many aspects. The health and economic sectors suffer most of the repercussions of this disease. The search for a cure for this rapidly spreading virus which is causing massive life losses worldwide requires clear understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this virus so as to develop pinpointed targeted therapies rather than relying mainly on supportive care measures and drug repurposing to fight this life-threatening virus infection. Neutrophils, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and NETosis are not well studied not only in COVID-19, but also in coroviruses in general. The review will shed lights on the functions of neutrophils, NETs, and NETosis in various infectious complications as well as in sepsis and acute lung conditions in an attempt to understand their actual roles and in order to help in designing targeted therapies in the near future.
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Urine Leak Following Kidney Transplantation: An Evidence-based Management Plan

Published on: 2nd October, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7869210591

Care of kidney transplant recipient remains complex and long-term graft survival is not seen in every transplant recipient. Due to reduced supply and increased demand of human organs, more transplants are carried out using marginal grafts on emergency lists. Transplant recipients have altered physiology due to known end-stage renal disease, recent surgery and the use of potent analgesic and immunosuppressive medications. Amongst the known surgical complications, urine leak remains the most common. It can result from poor graft preparation due to excessive peri ureteric or lower pole dissection or damage to lower polar artery resulting in ischemic necrosis. In addition, poor surgical technique, bladder outflow obstruction, iatrogenic injury to bladder or renal pelvis may contribute to urine leak. Ongoing urine leak may manifest itself as swelling, pain, high drain output, sepsis, ileus and eventual graft loss. Early identification, localisation and quantification of leak remain essential in management of these patients. In addition, sepsis should be identified and treated promptly as these patients are highly susceptible to infections. Early recognition of this complication can significantly reduce hospital stay, improve quality of life and reduce graft loss and mortality. In this article, we aim to develop an evidence-based management approach to a patient with urine leak using a clinical scenario.
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Levosimendan in sepsis

Published on: 29th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8872659589

Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer and its inotropic effect is mainly attributed to the troponin C of the myocardial fine filaments with calcium. Levosimendan also inhibits phosphodiesterase III. In contrast to inotropic effects, this does not increase calcium entry into the cell, which explains that levosimendan does not worsen myocardial diastolic dysfunction and may even improve diastolic function. Levosimendan does not increase the use of myocardial oxygen and increases coronary vasodilation and myocardial oxygen delivery. Levosimendan opens potassium channels and causes hyperpolarization in smooth muscle cell membrane, thus causing vasodilatation [1]. Levosimendan has also been reported to have antiinflammatory [2,3] and antiapoptotic effects [2].
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Retinopathy of prematurity - Intersibling divergence of risk factors among twins

Published on: 19th February, 2020

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a consequence of an arrest in normal retinal neural and vascular development, which determines the aberrant retinal regeneration [1,2]. ROP is a disease process mostly reported in preterm neonates ranging from mild, transient changes in the retina with regression to severe progressive vasoproliferation, scarring, detachment of retina and blindness and it is common blinding disease in children and a major cause of vision loss among preterm infants [3]. Today it is well known that oxygen therapy is not the single causative factor, but many other risk factors play a causative role in the pathogenesis of ROP [4,5]. The risk factors for ROP include oxygen administration, hypoxia, hypercapnia, blood transfusion exchange transfusion, apnea,sepsis and total parenteral nutrition. The incidence of ROP has been reported to be similar in multiple and singleton births [6-8]. Twin studies show that from 70% to 80% of the susceptibility to ROP is conditioned by genetic factors [9,10]. Hence this study is to find out the incidence of ROP in twins in a tertiary care centre in a developing country. It also attempts to identify the difference in risk factors among twins which predispose to ROP in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.
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Causes of hospital admission of chronic kidney disease patient in a tertiary kidney care hospital

Published on: 21st June, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8172399426

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at the risk of increase hospital admission as compared to the general population, due to various reasons. They have increased vulnerability to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) as well as infections, therefore they usually got admit in health care units due to various reasons. The causes of hospitalization in CKD patients in this part of the world are not studied well. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in The Kidney Centre Post Graduate Training Institute (TKC-PGTI) of Karachi. Variables included in the study were age, gender, are of residence, ethnicity, smoking status and level of education. Comorbid conditions like causes of CKD and causes of hospitalization. Data analysis performed by using software IBM SPSS 21. Results: Total of 269 patients were enrolled in our study. The male 148(55%), mean age was 55 years. The most common cause of hospitalization in our population was infection148 (55%) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was the most common site of infection 55 (20%) followed by sepsis of unknown origin 29(10.8%). Cardiovascular events like volume overload 32 (11.4%) and acute coronary syndrome 20(7.4%) were the second most important cause of hospitalization. Conclusion: Hospitalization of CKD patients is high, and in our population infection is found to be the leading cause of hospital admission. Infection originating from urinary tract is more common in all stages of CKD patients, while blood born infection originating from double lumen (DL) dialysis catheter or arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation is more common in dialysis population. Cardiovascular events, both acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary edema due to volume overload followed the infections.
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Dendritic cells and TNF-Related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) represent new possibilities for sepsis treatment

Published on: 14th November, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317654646

Sepsis refers to a generalized inflammatory response of the organism to an infection or to bacterial products in circulation, rather than the development of an infection per se. Despite recent advances in clinical practice and overall medical care, sepsis remains a great health care problem and is still the most common cause of death in critically ill patients with infection. We suppose that during the course of sepsis the expression of TRAIL in different organs correlates with acute mortality and further development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It is expected that dendritic cells (DCs) might become targets for apoptotic processes in a result of elevated TRAIL expression. This hypothesis is a bias for detailed investigations for in vivo studies in animal models and for in vitro studies of septic patients.
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Anterior Abdominal Wall Abscess: An unusual presentation of Carcinoma of the Colon

Published on: 18th October, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8465489492

Background: Colorectal cancer progresses without any symptoms early on, or those clinical symptoms are very discrete and so are undetected for long periods of time. The case reported is an unusual presentation of colorectal cancer. Case Report: A 60 year old man presented with right sided abdominal swelling. On examination, a well-defined, firm, tender swelling was noted. Computed tomography confirmed the presence of a mass arising from the right colon with infiltration of the right lateral abdominal wall and adjacent collection. An exploratory laparotomy with drainage of the subcutaneous abscess, resection of ascending colon, and ileotransverse colon anastomosis was performed. Conclusion: A differential diagnosis of carcinoma colon should be considered when an elderly patient presents with abdominal wall abscess accompanied by altered bowel habits or per rectal bleeding, even if there are no other significant clinical symptoms and a thorough investigative work up is required to confirm the diagnosis, to avoid untimely delay in treatment, and reduce mortality.
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A rare case: Congenital Megalourethra in prune belly syndrome

Published on: 30th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355941035

Introduction: Prune Belly syndrome is a disease characterized by abdominal muscle defect, bilateral cryptorchidsim and urinary system anomalies (reflux megaureter, hydronephrosis, etc.). Pulmonary, cardiac, and gastrointestinal anomalies may also be present. Management of these rare cases is very important. In this case, the clinical course of a patient with Prune Belly syndrome with megaurethra is presented. Case: The patient from the first gestation and parturition with birth weight of 2500 g and 38 weeks was hospitalized because of the bilateral hydronephrosis. His physical examination revealed undescended testicles and a large penis. The abdominal muscles were not very atrophic. The size of the kidney was small, bilateral hydroureteronephrosis and wide posterior urethra on the ultrasound. Renal function tests were progressively disturbed and the patient underwent cystourethroscopy for diagnostic purposes in terms of posterior urethral valve. A large diverticulum was found in anterior urethra. Prune Belly Syndrome was thought because the orifices were in appearance of reflux. The vesicostomy was applied. After vesicostomy the renal function tests got better but he was hospitalized due to urosepsis two times. In cystoscopic examination, the diverticulum in the urethra was filled with urine and the drainage was very slow. Phimosis was opened with dorsal slit technique. Cutaneous urethrostomy was proximal to the anterior diverticulum. Conclusion: Prune Belly syndrome should be considered in patients with megaurethra and postrenal or renal insufficiency although there are no obvious clinical findings. In Prune Belly cases, via a large penis with obstruction signs, anterior urethral diverticulum should be considered.
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Identifying patterns in COVID-19: Morbidity, recovery and the aftermath

Published on: 25th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8600329092

The infectivity and pathogenesis: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of Covid-19, involves Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on type II alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells in lungs. Apart from, the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the disease affects the gastrointestinal system prominently, as evidenced by the significant GI symptoms, early in the course of the disease. In addition, the virus infects ACE2-bearing cells in other organs including the heart and blood vessels, brain, and kidneys. Clinical features and morbidity: The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies from asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic presentation to moderate to severe states characterized by respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation and ICU support and those manifesting critical clinical condition with complications like sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction failure. The CT chest is an important tool for early identification of COVID-19 pneumonia as well as for prognostic purposes. The recovery and residual damage: The recovery and other outcomes vary depending on age and other aspects including sex, comorbidities, and genetic factors. The outlook for older adults, who account for a disproportionate share of critical disease, is unfavorable, and most of those who survive are unlikely to return to their previous level of functioning. The disease affects their long-term health and quality of life as well as brings in propensity for truncated post-disease survival. COVID-19 aftermath and follow up: The patients discharged from hospital following severe COVID-19, continue to suffer with lingering impact of the disease as well as that of the emergency treatments that saved their life. The post-infection reduced exercise tolerance and other subtle factors, like post viral fatigue syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, impaired concentration, delirium, and disturbed sleep-wake cycle often underly the functional impairment. In fact, there is need of step-down care and later a multidisciplinary support involving regular clinical assessment, respiratory review, physiotherapy, nutritional advice, and psychiatric support. Conclusion: The life after COVID-19: After recovery from the disease, the virus SARS-CoV-2, may persist for uncertain period. In addition, the chance of reinfection cannot be ruled out. The vitamin D supplementation may be helpful. In general, the quality of life (QOL) in ICU survivors improves but remains lower than general population levels, but most of the patients adapt well to their level of self-sufficiency and QOL. Also, the debility due to co-morbidities may further compromise the activity of daily living and QOL issues. The Age and severity of illness appear to be the major predictors of post-discharge physical functioning.
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Glycemic status and its effect in Neonatal Sepsis - A prospective study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal

Published on: 27th September, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8278647740

Introduction: Sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates. Neonatal sepsis can alter the glucose level and both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia may occur. A high or low blood glucose level may have a significant effect on the outcomes in patients of neonatal sepsis. Aims: The aim of the study to see the glycaemic status and its effect on outcome of neonatal sepsis. Material and Methods: This hospital based prospective observational cross-sectional study was conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Universal College of Medical Sciences, a tertiary care hospital over a period of 4 months, from May 2019 to August 2019. A total of 220 Neonates suspected sepsis under the age of 28 days admitted in NICU, were studied and included in our study. Clinically suspected neonatal sepsis cases were enrolled in the study. Venous blood was collected before giving any intravenous fluid, dextrose or antibiotics and blood sugar, complete blood counts, CRP levels and blood culture were send to laboratory within half hour of collection. All patients included in this study were treated accordingly and followed up strictly. Blood glucose level and mortality of neonates having hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia were analyzed among CRP and culture positive patients. Quantitative data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. Qualitative data were expressed as frequency and percentage and comparison carried by Chi-square (χ2) test. Results: A total of 220 patients clinically diagnosed as neonatal sepsis were studied. 118 (53.6%) patients were found CRP positive and 56 (25.5%) patients were blood culture positive. Glycaemic status was analyzed among CRP and culture positive patients. Majority (55.9%) patients were found normoglycemic, 35.5% were found hypoglycemic and 8.6% were found hyperglycaemic in this study. 182 (82.73%) patients were cured and 38 (17.27%) died. Mortality was high in hypoglycaemic patients (34.4%) compared with normoglycaemic patients (9.82%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) between two groups, the mortality was high in hyperglycaemic patients (58.33%) compared with normoglycaemic patients (9.82%) and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) between two groups. Conclusion: Alteration of glycaemic status occurred in septic newborn. Mortality is higher among the septic newborn with hyperglycemia. The present study found that majority of neonate with sepsis had high mortality rate when blood glucose level were either more than 145 mg/dl or less than 45 mg/dl. This signifies the importance of meticulous blood glucose estimation in cases of neonatal sepsis to improve mortality outcome.
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Atypical presentation of congenital pneumonia: Value of lung ultrasound

Published on: 29th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8984623626

A term neonate was transferred from a Local Neonatal Unit to our surgical Neonatal Intensive Care Unit on Day 2 due to abdominal distension with radiological appearances suggestive of intestinal obstruction. He was born by Caesarean section with no risk factors for sepsis. He was intubated at birth for increased work of breathing and failed planned extubation on Day 1. 
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Rationality and irrationality in the use of antibiotics in the epiclatino Latin American Neonatal Units

Published on: 29th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9006851560

Background: Recent years have seen chaos in the neonatology use of antibiotics with diverse opinions and recommendations in international guidelines and societies. This has created great uncertainty in which cases to use, for how long, and which tests apply to make these decisions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study about the use of antibiotics in the EpicLatino neonatal units and a Latin American network database, after noting these variations in the 2019 report. Methods: For the year 2019 using the EpicLatino database, we included cases (only first admission) ≤ 32 weeks gestational age at birth, excluding one unit that did not accept to participate. The number of cases and days receiving antibiotics were recorded as well as the progression for each unit. Inappropriate use of antibiotics was defined as greater than 3 days in patients with negative cultures (blood/CSF cultures) excluding: major malformations, urinary tract infections, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and cases with suspected chorioamnionitis in the mother (the latter two only during the course of diagnosis of NEC or chorioamnionitis). Results: A total of 6,543 days of antibiotics were observed, 49.5% of cases had at least one positive blood/CSF culture. A total of 595 days of antibiotics without justification were found in 72 courses in 61 cases: 19.4% had no diagnosis of infection in the database, 9.7% did not document any culture throughout their stay, and 51,4% obtained only one blood/CSF culture during their entire stay. In the 58 cases with diagnosis of infection: 41% were clinical sepsis and a diagnosis of pneumonia with a poor positive culture correlation was found. Furthermore, 74% of the unit’s didn´t use pneumonia as a justification to use antibiotics. Other diagnosis found: Conjunctivitis, NEC 1A and rotavirus NEC. Conclusion: Although the method of reviewing the use of antibiotics in a database has a number of limitations, especially the cause that motivated the use of antibiotics and other tools used for diagnosis of infections, the notable differences between units is striking. Although it is difficult to make recommendations to all units, it is important to control infections in some units and in others to reduce the excessive use of antibiotics, especially with diagnosis of pneumonia in neonates and negative blood/CSF cultures.
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Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulins in the prophylaxis of neonatal sepsis

Published on: 14th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9006870046

Despite critical care advances, robust antibiotic therapy and improved strategies in early detection and prevention of infection, the incidence of morbidity and mortality from neonatal sepsis worldwide in preterm and low birth weight neonates remains overwhelmingly high. Neonatal sepsis is characterised by a clinical syndrome of systemic signs of infection and bloodstream bacteraemia in newborns within the first months of life. The risk of sepsis in neonates is inversely proportional to gestational age and birth weight due to deficiency in humoral immunity and the need for more invasive supportive neonatal intensive care unit interventions. Adverse effects such as necrotising enterocolitis associated with antimicrobial therapy are serious enough to warrant exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy offers hope of enhancing immune competence and reducing infection rates in vulnerable populations. It is evident from the relevant studies to date that the benefits offered by intravenous immunoglobulin prophylaxis may not be significant enough for routine hospital implementation. Further research to better understand the mechanisms underlying immunodeficiency will lead to the realisation of alternative therapeutic and prophylactic interventions.
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Predictors of mortality in neonatal sepsis in a resource-limited setting

Published on: 16th June, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9272394428

Introduction: Sepsis remains a major cause of death in neonatal period. Although significant advances in diagnosis, therapeutic and prevention strategies have been noted, sepsis remains a common concern in clinical practice especially in low-resource countries. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of mortality in neonatal sepsis in Lubumbashi city (Democratic Republic of Congo). Methods: The records of newborns with sepsis managed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units in two University Hospitals between November 2019 and October 2020 were studied. Binary and multiple logistic regressions have been used to observe the association between independent variables and dependent variable. Results: A total of 162 cases of neonatal sepsis were reviewed. The mortality rate of neonatal sepsis was 21% of babies admitted. Very low birth weight (< 1500 grams) and primiparity were significantly associated with mortality in neonatal sepsis (AOR = 12.66; 95% CI 2.40 to 66.86; p = 0.003 and AOR = 3.35; 95% Cl 1.31 to 8.59; p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate of neonatal sepsis was 21%. Very low birth weight and primiparity were significantly associated with mortality in neonatal sepsis.
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A study on pacemaker pocket infection

Published on: 25th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8576354340

Objective: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections now constitute ∼ 10% of all endocarditis cases. The incidence of CIED infection is usually < 2%. Our objective was to study pacemaker pocket infection rate and different risk factors in our institution. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a period of five years from January 2011 to December 2016 and it included 1096 patients. Common risk factors like patients with diabetes, repeat procedure, chronic renal failure, chronic obstructive airway disease, immunosuppressive agents were studied in our patients. Results: Our study consisted of 1096 patients. Pacemaker pocket infection occurred in sixteen patients (1.5%). Chronic renal failure patients were one hundred thirty in our study (11.86%). There were three hundred fifty six diabetic patients (32.48%). Repeat procedure was done in ninety five patients (8.6%). Results: Our study consisted of 1096 patients. Pacemaker pocket infection occurred in sixteen patients (1.5%). Chronic renal failure patients were one hundred thirty in our study (11.86%). There were three hundred fifty six diabetic patients (32.48%). Repeat procedure was done in ninety five patients (8.6%) Eighty six patients were suffering from chronic obstructive airway (7.8%). Patients on immunosuppressive therapy were fourteen in our study (1.2%). Conclusion: Pacemaker pocket infections is a dreaded complication after pacemaker implantation. During implantation, there is a risk of device contamination with the patient’s own skin flora and it can be prevented by ideal surgical asepsis technique, pre and perioperative use of antibiotics.
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An update in the utilization of N-acetyl cysteine & vitamin c for tackling the oxidative stress in acute kidney injury secondary to robust sepsis - A systematic review

Published on: 1st February, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9414669659

The commonest etiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) is Sepsis that results in an escalation of morbidity and mortality in the hospital intensive care units. Existentially, the therapy of septic AKI rather than being definitive or curative is just supportive, without tackling the pathophysiology. Usually, Sepsis gets correlated with systemic inflammation, along with the escalated generation of Reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular superoxide. Simultaneously liberation of nitric oxide (NO) subsequently reacts with the superoxide, thus, resulting in the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), that is mostly peroxynitrite. This sepsis stimulated generation of ROS in addition to RNS might cause a reduction in the bioavailability of NO that modulates microcirculation aberrations, localized tissue hypoxia as well as mitochondrial impairment, thus starting a vicious cycle of cellular damage which results in AKI. Here we conducted a systematic review utilizing search engine PubMed, Google scholar; Web of science; Embase; Cochrane review library utilizing the MeSH terms like septic AKI; ROS; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); nicotinamide adenine nucleotide phosphate(NADPH)oxidase complex; Oxidative stress; Renal medullary hypoxia; Hypoxia inducible factor1; hypoxia responsive enhancer A; mitochondrial impairment; Intrarenal oxygenation; urinary oxygenation; erythropoietin gene; RRT; NAC; Vitamin C from 1950 to 2021 till date. We found a total of 6500 articles out of which we selected 110 articles for this review. No meta-analysis was done. Thus here we detail the different sources of ROS, at the tie of sepsis, besides their pathophysiological crosstalk with the immune system, microcirculation as well as mitochondria that can result in the generation of AKI. Furthermore, we detail the therapeutic utility of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), besides the reasons for its success in ovine as well as porcine models of AKI. Moreover, we discuss preclinical along with clinical for evaluation of Vitamin C’s antioxidant effects as well as pleiotropic effects as a stress hormone that might aid in abrogation of septic AKI.
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