Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity.
Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise.
Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine.
Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
As people get older, chronic diseases become an important reason of disability while a decline in physical functions is related to aging among the elders, which may lead to dependency and isolation of the older adults. Body asymmetry and imbalance body alignment can bring added stress to the joint structures that can cause dysfunction of the joint, ligaments, tendons, bursas, and related muscles, which in return brings about problem while walking or during activities of daily living. Joint Functional Screening (JFS) is a systemic clinical examination with clinical reasoning of the entire human joints body, with or without causative limitation to derive a holistic analysis of musculoskeletal system. JFS profile helps to assess body disorder of older people. This clinical screening include documentation of balance of the body, lower and upper body strength, joints flexibility, body composition, and body alignment. This is an innovation build to profile a normal musculoskeletal state to decode any anomaly in an otherwise a normal subject, who might be preparing to take up any activities in one’s lifespan that could elicit an injury which could be prevented. JFS could be a useful tool for physiotherapists, exercise therapist or even the personal trainers to screen a body prior to rehabilitative or an exercise program; and this clinical screening is presently a best guidance to prevent risk of fall or injury among individual healthy people and older adult.
In a series of meanwhile 10 cases rigid straightening of the mid-portion of the left anterior descending coronary artery without lumen reduction mid-ventricular or basal ballooning was reported, or both basal and mid-ventricular ballooning in one case. In all these patients wrap-around (recurrent segment) phenomenon of the left anterior descending coronary artery was not present. The abnormalities of the left anterior descending coronary artery are due to myocardial bridging without lumen reduction of the LAD, only seen in computed tomography. When stress or in some cases happiness appears myocardial ballooning can appear, lasts 2-4 weeks and disappear with a recurrence rate of nearly 10% despite beta blocking agents.
Introduction: Coronary angioplasty is a safe therapeutic method for coronary disease. However, its major obstacles remain the occurrence of stent thrombosis (ST) and in-stent restenosis (ISR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term and medium-term results of coronary angioplasty patients in the cardiology department of Aristide Le Dantec hospital in Dakar.
Methodology: It was a longitudinal, descriptive and analytical study over a period of 12 months (April 2014 to April 2015) with a follow-up at 6 months. Was included any patient who had a coronary angioplasty with stent placement.
Results: Thirty-eight patients had been included with a male predominance and a sex ratio of 5.32. The average age was 57.94 years. Cardiovascular risk factors were mainly smoking (57.9%) and coronary heredity (42.1%), followed by hypertension (39.5%) and diabete (34.2%). The indications for angioplasty were acute coronary syndromes TS(+) and TS(-) respectively (50%) and (23.7%) and stable angina (26.3%). The right femoral approach was almost exclusive (97.4%). Coronary angiography revealed a predominance of anterior interventricular affection (84.2%). Type B lesions were the most frequent (68.4%). The single-truncal valve affection was predominant (76.3%). Direct stenting accounted for 63.2% of procedures. Twenty-one bare stents (55.3%) and 17 active stents (44.7%) were implanted. The results were excellent (94.7%). One case of acute stent thrombosis was noted. Echocardiography of dobutamine stress during follow-up was positive in 04 patients (12.5%). The control coronary angiography performed in two patients revealed an ISR. The predictive factors for restenosis were dominated by a deterioration in the segmental kinetics (p=0.009), in the diastolic function (p=0.002), the systolic function (p=0.003), a high post angioplasty troponin (p=0.004), the presence of calcifications (p=0.004) and a high SYNTAX score (p=0.021).
Conclusion: According to these results, Angioplasty is an effective therapy for coronary disease. However, a correct intake of double platelet antiaggregants and clinical and non-invasive screening are required for follow-up to avoid stent thrombosis or restenosis.
Tortuous microvessels alter blood flow and stimulate thrombosis but the physical mechanisms are poorly understood. Both tortuous microvessels and abnormally large platelets are seen in diabetic patients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the physical effects of arteriole tortuosity and platelet size on the microscale processes of thrombotic occlusion in microvessels. A new lattice-Boltzmann method-based discrete element model was developed to simulate the fluid flow field with fluid-platelet coupling, platelet interactions, thrombus formation, and thrombotic occlusion in tortuous arterioles. Our results show that vessel tortuosity creates high shear stress zones that activate platelets and stimulate thrombus formation. The growth rate depends on the level of tortuosity and the pressure and flow boundary conditions. Once thrombi began to form, platelet collisions with thrombi and subsequent activations were more important than tortuosity level. Thrombus growth narrowed the channel and reduced the flow rate. Larger platelet size leads to quicker decrease of flow rate due to larger thrombi that occluded the arteriole. This study elucidated the important roles that tortuosity and platelet size play in thrombus formation and occlusion in arterioles.
For 51 days, Gaza was pummeled down by the Israeli military in a war known as Operation Protective Edge. During the 50 days (7-7-204 to 28-8-2014) of the Israeli campaign, 2104 Palestinians were killed, including 253 women (12%) and 495 children (24%). According to the UN, at least 69% of Palestinians killed were civilians. It is estimated that 10,224 Palestinians, including 3,106 children (30%) and 1,970 women (19%) were injured. Preliminary estimates indicate that up to 1,000 of the children injured will have a permanent disability and up to 1,500 orphaned children will need sustained support from the child protection and welfare sectors, 17,200 homes destroyed or severely damaged, 58 hospitals and clinics damaged . Major stressful events are well documented to increase the incidence of acute cardiac events . Cardiovascular complications more than doubled during the FIFA World Cup games of 2006 . After the September 11 terrorist attacks, significantly more patients presented with acute myocardial infarction to the hospitals in Brooklyn  and New Jersey . We were able to examine the effects of the Isreli attacks on acute STEMI presentations in Gaza city.
Anomalies of coronary artery origin are congenital malformations characterized by the abnormal birth of a coronary artery from the controlateral coronary aortic sinus (birth of the left coronary artery from the right sinus or birth of the right coronary artery from the left sinus). The artery concerned has an abnormal initial path between the aorta and the pulmonary artery; this segment is most often intramural, in the aortic wall. They are rare with a prevalence (0.1% to 0.3% of the population).
They pose a high risk of sudden stress death related to exercise myocardial ischemia. The most common mode of discovery is aborted sudden death, but sometimes fortuitously. The contribution of multi-round CT is described for the positive diagnosis of these anatomical variations, sometimes delicate in coronary angiography, but also for the distinction between “benign” and “malignant” forms, potentially responsible for myocardial ischemia. Treatment is usually surgical in symptomatic forms. We report the cases of two patients with coronary connection abnormalities discovered in adulthood.
The development of reproducible rodent models of coronary microvascular disease (MVD) is essential for the early detection, treatment, and mechanism study of the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction and subsequent microthrombi in the coronary arterioles, two early events in clinical coronary MVD, could be reproduced by photochemical reaction (PCR) technology in mice hearts. After rose bengal (one of photosensitizers) was administrated systemically, a green light was locally used to activate the photosensitizer, inducing over-production of oxidative stress in the heart. Following PCR, animals demonstrated reproducible endothelial injury, occlusion in arterioles, focal ischemia, and infarct-let with preserved cardiac function. Our technique has proven to be a reliable and reproducible means of creating coronary MVD in mice. We believe that this is an ideal model for developing a novel molecular tracer for earlier detection of coronary MVD, for testing new anti-fibrinolytic drugs, and for investigating the complex pathophysiology of coronary MVD. The protocol for establishing this model takes about thirty to forty minutes.
The normal adult heart is a well maintained machine that has a mechanism for growth replacement of the sarcomere that is lost by natural degeneration. This process ensures the heart has the strength of contraction to function correctly giving blood supply to the whole body. Some of the force of contraction of the sarcomere is transmitted to its major protein titin where its strength results in unfolding of a flexible section and release of a growth stimulant. The origin of all the cardiomyopathies can be traced to errors in this system resulting from mutations in a wide variety of the sarcomeric proteins. Too much or chronic tension transfer to titin giving increased growth resulting in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and too little leading to muscle wastage, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). HCM can ultimately lead to sudden cardiac death and DCM to heart failure. In this paper I show (1) a collection of the tension/ATPase calcium dependencies of cardiac myofibrils that define the mechanism of Ca2+ cooperativity. (2) I then reintroduce the stress/strain relationship to cardiomyopathies. (3) I then review the cardiomyopathy literature that contains similar Ca2+ dependency data to throw light on the mechanisms involved in generation of the types of myopathies from the mutations involved. In the review of cardiomyopathy there are two sections on mutations, the first dealing with those disrupting the Ca2+ cooperativity, i.e. the Hill coefficient of activation, leading to incomplete relaxation in diastole, chronic tension, and increased growth. Secondly dealing with those where the Ca2+ cooperativity is not affected giving either increased or decreased tension transfer to titin and changes in sarcomere growth.
Worldwide, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infection is a highly prevalent disease with high morbidity and mortality. CDV causes a multisystemic disease in a wide range of hosts including 9 families of mammals among them some primates, cetaceans and numerous carnivores. It presents a high tropism for lymphoid, neurological and epithelial tissue, leading to an infection of almost all systems, so the clinical signs observed are very varied. The diagnosis is made based on the clinical presentation of the disease, which considers a variety of signs and must be confirmed by a laboratory diagnostic method. The molecular technique called Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been used to characterize viral strains based on the basis of genetic differences on the hemagglutinin (H) gene of CDV has allowed the identification of 14 circulating lineages in the world. Two lineages, namely the America-1 and the Europe-1/South America-1 have been described in Chile. The goal of this work was to implement a multiplex RT-PCR protocol, which was built on the in silico design of primers based on the H gene nucleotide sequences stored in the Genbank® database. This method was capable of detecting the previously described two circulating genetic lineages of CDV in a differential way providing a supporting diagnostic tool for epidemiological studies in the country. These results suggest that the primers described here are extremely selective for the above-mentioned lineages. In addition, our initial screening indicated that most analyzed clinical samples corresponded to the America-1 lineage, stressing the need for a continuous surveillance in order to properly address the prevalence of both lineages in Chile.
Background and Purpose: Injuries for the pre-adolescent female Irish Dancer (FID) are not well recognized. The purpose of this case study is to report imaging assisted diagnosis and management of atypical medial and plantar foot pain (MPFP) in an 8-year-old FID.
Description: The patient presented with chief complaint of diffuse left MPFP. The patient was initially evaluated by a Physical Therapist for persistent foot pain. The patient experienced minimal pain in non-weightbearing (NWB). Pain intensified in weightbearing (WB) escalating with a heel raise. The patient experienced pain with resistance testing, ankle passive range of motion (PROM) and first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) PROM. Diffuse tenderness with palpation over the medial column of the left foot was noted. The patient was unable to complete single leg dynamic activity on the left foot. There was suspicion for a metatarsal stress fracture (MSF). Radiographs were ordered and read as negative. The patient was treated with immobilization in a walking boot, WB as tolerated and relative rest including cessation of dance. The patient returned for re-evaluation 2 weeks after reporting no change in symptoms. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was then ordered.
Outcome: Results of the MRI identified 2 stress fractures in the first metatarsal. The treatment plan changed to NWB status with immobilization for an additional 6 weeks. The patient returned to full WB status and participated in all dance activity 15 weeks after the initial presentation to the Physician and 27 weeks after the initial onset of MPFP.
Discussion/Conclusion: In this pre-adolescent FID, the presentation of MPFP can be misinterpreted as a soft tissue injury. It is important to consider the diagnosis of first MSF in a pre-adolescent FID to allow appropriate management.
Background: Dysmenorrhea is menstrual disorder that affects about 40% - 90% of women worldwide, it is associated with oxidative stress. The current treatment of this condition is administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which when frequently used, may affect organs.
Objective: Assess the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity side effects related to dysmenorrhea and its treatment
Materials and methods: A survey (questionnaire) was designed and implemented on 689 female students of the University of Dschang. After this, and following the inclusion criteria, 191 blood samples were collected for assay of hepatotoxicity markers (transaminases, albumin), nephrotoxicity indicators (creatinine, urea, total protein) and the inflammation associated indicators. The measurements were performed on fully automated Olympus AU 400 Analyzer, using standard reagent kits.
Results: Subjects with untreated dymenorrhea lasting more than five years had a significantly high level (p < 0.05) of ALT (39.47 ± 15.74 IU/L) and AST (44.37 ± 13.74 IU/L). Transaminases levels were significantly associate (p < 0.01) and positively correlate (0.251 for ALT and 0. 223 for AST) with the disease duration. Dysmenorrheic individuals on medication for more than 9 years had significantly higher ALT (25.14 ± 7.85 IU/L) and AST (35.26 ± 0.70 IU/L) levels (p < 0.05) compared to those under treatment for less than 5 years (19.37 ± 8.27 UI/L and 27.68 ± 8.56 UI/L). The use of analgesics, regardless of the duration of treatment, had normal creatinine clearance (107.44 ± 30.86 ml/min), compared to those treated with either anti-inflammatory drugs (71.56 ± 26.44 ml/min), or a combination of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs (81.34 ± 31.97 ml/min), which was significantly reduced (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea duration, type and duration of treatment potentially expose participants to liver and kidney disorders.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle weakness and cancer-related symptoms in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and solid tumors. We recruited hospitalized patients older than 20 years who were receiving chemotherapy. Patients were divided into a solid tumor (n=74) and hematological malignancy (n=80) group. Age, body mass index (BMI), strength and thickness of the quadriceps femoris muscle, serum albumin and C-reactive protein levels, blood hemoglobin concentration, fatigue, psychological distress and pain, and duration of hospitalization were assessed. Eight physical symptoms (fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea) were also evaluated. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors affecting muscle strength in each group. Muscle strength was associated with fatigue in the solid tumor group and with age, BMI, muscle thickness, albumin and hemoglobin in the hematological malignancy group. Therefore, factors contributing to muscle strength might differ between patients with solid tumors and those with hematological malignancies. In particular, fatigue was an important factor in patients with solid tumors, while anemia was an important factor in patients with hematological malignancies. We therefore suggest that different treatments for muscle weakness might be considered for patients with these cancer types.
Amenorrhea is the absence or abnormal cessation of menstrual cycles in a woman of reproductive age. Prolonged cessation of menstrual cycles might results in complications such as infertility, psychosocial developmental delays, Osteoporosis, fractures etc. Better understanding of physiology of menstruation is essential to understand the various causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea. Any disruption or functional abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis can result in abnormal menstruation or amenorrhea. Therefore it is crucial to identify this menstrual distress in women at early age to minimize the risks of reproductive dysfunction in premenstrual and postmenstrual conditions.
Ischemic heart disease may occur in isolation, or in combination with the pathological process of vascular ageing, arteriosclerosis. These two conditions have differing impacts on the haemodynamic changes in response to anaesthesia and surgery. Hypertension is not a feature of ischemic heart disease, and vice versa, but where the two conditions co-exist, hypertension aggravates and accelerates the pathological processes of ischemic heart disease. Patients older than 40 yrs. presenting for anaesthesia and surgery must therefore be considered at risk of any combination of these three conditions. Anaesthetic techniques must also be chosen to minimize haemodynamic changes which in the normal healthy patient cause no serious morbidity, but which, in the patient with ischemic heart disease, can lead to serious morbidity or death. Here we report a 70 years old (BMI of 23.3) elderly, hypertensive Male patient with ischemic heart disease with previous MI (EF of 40% - 5%) undergoing elective Inguinal hernia repair. We Opted Spinal anesthesia over General anaesthesia as it should be an asset in cardiac patients undergoing non-cardiac lower abdominal surgeries to reduce preload and after load, stress response, coagulation responses, improves coronary perfusion, provides better postoperative analgesia, reduces incidence of perioperative MI, maintains myocardial oxygen supply demand ratio and avoids harmful effects of GA such as hypotention due to intravenous induction drugs, tachycardia and hypertension due to pressor response during direct laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
In various patients conditions involved in lower urinary tract disease LUT (like overactive bladder, bladder neck sclerosis, dis –synergy (with our synenrgic contraction between bladder detrusor and bladder neck, BPH, recurrent cysytitis, interstitial cystitis, chronic prostatitis, uretral stenosys, loss of sfinteric coordination.
Prostatic cancer, anatomic abnormalities and other the receptor status play relevant role to reduce effect of vicious clycle that can be responsible in progression of the pathologic process.
In this work the complex receptorial status is analyzed to verify new therapeutic strategies.
Starting from the observation that various irritant substanties produce irritant stimulus in Prostatic Patients or in bladder neck condition is interesting to deep understand the etio-patogenesys and Functional results.
In Various prostatic, bladder neck or ureteral condition a reduced urinary fluss can produce infectious.
Conditions like acute or chronic prostatitis.
Irritants sustanties in diet (in example etilic alcohol drink, hot spices, crud meats, carbonate drinks, caffeine and other) can produce Painful stimulus in innervations of vecical trigonous, bladder neck and prostatic urethra.
The same recurrent cystitis and Bph contribute in a complex situation.
This stimulus produce ipertonus of bladder muscle involved in the expulsion of urine.
The event related inflamation and edema (bladder, prostatic uretra, trigonus) contribute to the global effect.
So conditions like bladder neck sclerosys IPB, recurrent prostatitis and cistitys in acts in a vicious circle. (Also immunomediated: Bph and cronic prostatitis with linfocite infiltration and tissue remodeling).
The ormonal status check the systems (see 5-ARI efficacy in Bph).
Simpatic, parasimpatic and other system are deeply involved.
Also behavioral habits or diet can influence in example urinary flux in a complex system like LUT. (Bladder and prostatic irritants that can produce edema and acute inflamation).
Other behavior habits are deeply involved as too much sedentary, water intake, coffee, pee modality and also psychological profile and stressing conditions.
Some disease like diabetes produce high consequences in all this systems due to
Bladder modification, oxidative stress, osmotic movens, and increase susceptibility of urinary infections.
This article are verified this kind of movens that contribute in physio -pathology of some low urinary tract conditions.
The anatomic abnormalities produces, obviously, physiological disfuntions.
Recurrent urinary tract infections, inadequate antimicrobial therapy:
Profile of resistance, duration of therapy, kind of antimicrobials, posology,
Pk. Kinetics, associations, compliance, biofilms, micro calcifications (recurrent chronic prostatitis) contribute to a progression of the condition.
Objectives: Tension-free vaginal tapes are the gold standard of the surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI); however, long-term recurrence of SUI after this surgery has been a matter of problem. Here, we attempted to determine the incidence of its recurrence and to identify the risk factors of 4-year-recurrence of SUI after this surgery.
Methods: Of all patients undergoing this surgery (n = 341, 2015-2019), 71 patients were met the study inclusion criteria. Of 71, SUI recurred in 8 patients, with the recurrence rate being 11.3%. The following three were identified to be independent risk factors: older age, history of delivery of macrosomic baby (>4 kg), and the presence of mixed urinary incontinence. The frequency of recurrence in cases with mixed incontinence amounted for 19.5%. Recurrence was 22 and 50% for women with macrosomic delivery once and more than twice, respectively.
Conclusion: Advanced age, macrosomic delivery and mixed urinary incontinence have shown to be independent risk factors of recurrence of SUI after tension-free vaginal tape-obturator at 4 years.
Key message: Stress urinary incontinence can recur so investigate possible risk factors is a priority. Our paper relates recurrence with: advanced age, fetal macrosomia and mixed incontinence.
Pneumonia caused by the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease and the ongoing outbreak has been declared as a Pandemic by the World health organization. Pneumonia is a serious disease in pregnancy and requires prompt attention. Viral pneumonia has higher morbidity and mortality compared to bacterial pneumonia in pregnancy. All efforts are well exerted to understand the newly emerged disease features but still some areas are gray.
The treatment is primarily supportive with antivirals, steroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. Severe cases require intensive care monitoring with oxygen support, mechanical ventilation. Investigational therapies include convalescent plasma, cytokine release inhibitors and other immunomodulatory agents like interferons. The mortality appears driven by the presence of severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS) and organs failure.
COVID pandemic is a challenging and stressful socio-economic situation with widespread fear of infection, disease and death. In the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, studies are being conducted to ascertain the manifestation of disease in pregnant women and the fetal outcome.
The aim of our case series is to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, feto- maternal outcome of severe and critical COVID pneumonia in pregnant women in Latifa Hospital.
Trans-radial uterine artery embolization (UAE) is acknowledged as a non- invasive, cost-effective and safe procedure for the treatment of symptomatic fibroids. However, it is associated with the recurrence of symptoms like abnormal uterine bleeding and pressure symptom in some patients. This is a comparative study of our data with other international data, in the context of percentage reduction in fibroid size, accompanying controlling factors, short and long term follow up data analysis of the first two years was done. Careful pre-procedural counseling of future possibility of fibroid recurrence and means of management should be stressed.
Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study at the Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The study was done from 1st November 2017-31st October 2019, on symptomatic patients diagnosed with fibroids, who refused surgical treatment.
The outcomes included: fibroid site, size and anatomical position, patients’ symptoms, general condition, and early and delayed complications. These data were compared with those from other international studies.
Results: The study involved 23 patients (mean age: 39 years). The average percentage reduction in fibroid volume was 49%. There were no major complications and no recurrence of symptoms during the covered period. Data analysis revealed a poor correlation between the overall percentage reduction of fibroid size with fibroid number, age of patients’, and body mass indices.
Conclusion: Despite poor correlation, we provided preliminary data of the first two years out of the total five-year projected period of the study where it showed effectiveness and relative safety of radial - UAE for fibroid.
This article presents an overview of information regarding Acanthamoeba keratitis per epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, clinical manifestations, risk factors, environmental implications, diagnosis, treatment and management as well as COVID-19 characteristics which may be taken into cognizance for suspected infected patients, researchers and ophthalmologic practitioners. Acanthamoeba spp. is pathogenetically ubiquitous in nature. Acanthamoeba keratitis is considerably an ocular-threatening and debilitating keratitis that exhibits contumacious characteristics which hinder or impede treatment or management. At inception, Acanthamoeba generally depicts atypical clinical features which are frequently misdiagnosed as other microbial keratitis. Fundamentally, it constitutes a rare corneal infection of which the aetiologic agent is the protozoon Acanthamoeba spp. in contact lens wearers, presenting features of severe ophthalmic distress, blurred vision, blepharospasm, ocular excoriation, extraneous entity sensation and photophobia culminating in aberrant visual functionality. These are perspicuously due to retarded prompt and adequate treatment and management. Personal and environmental hygiene, especially on the hands, face and ocular areas as advised for the COVID-19 protocol could prevent contamination and dissemination of Acanthamoeba keratitis infection. The differentiating relatedness of Acanthamoeba keratitis, COVID-19 ophthalmologic infections and other ocular problems may not have been clearly elucidated.
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Diaverum: PADC, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
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College of Fisheries, CAU(I), Tripura, India
Ajit Kumar Roy
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Wollo University, Ethiopia
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University of Tubingen, Germany
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