Biomarkers have been used in the diagnosis of disease and other conditions for many decades. There are diverse ranges of analytical targets, including metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins were used as a biomarker. Clinical diagnoses already rely heavily on these for patient disease classification, management, and informing treatment and care pathways. For that there is always a need of rapid and point of care test. However, until fairly recently, studies of biomarker efficacy in a clinical setting were mainly limited to single or dual use, and the landscape was complex, confused, and often inconsistent. Few candidates emerged from this somewhat clouded picture: C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT) for sepsis, ADA for mycobacterium tuberculosis and a Circulating miRNAs serve as molecular markers for diverse physiological and pathological conditions.
Meigs’ syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the presence of a benign fibroma of the ovary, ascites and pleural effusion. Other benign cysts of the ovary (such as struma ovarii, mucinous cystadenoma, serous cystadenoma and teratomas), leiomyoma of the uterus, and secondary metastatic tumours to ovary if associated with hydro thorax and ascites are referred to as ‘Pseudo-Meigs” syndrome. It very uncommon and diagnosis is made difficult by symptoms that usually mimic disseminated malignancy or tuberculosis. The gold standard treatment is laparotomy and, by definition of the syndrome, after tumor removal, the symptoms resolves and the patients become asymptomatic. We presented an 18 years old girl with giant ovarian serous cystadenoma with associated pseudo-meigs syndrome, successfully managed in a low resources setting.
Peritonitis is the main complication of peritoneal dialysis caused the withdrawal of treatment like peritoneal dialysis which was used as primary treatment modality few years back in Pakistan. With this motto to know the exact cause of peritonitis this retrospective study was done and 35 out of 42 pervious peritoneal dialysis patients who had peritonitis were analyzed using old data. A total of 57 bags of all these peritonitis patients were analyzed in department of microbiology during the year 2007-2011. Out of these bags positive culture was obtained from 42 bags (74%). Most of patients with positive culture were undergoing acute peritoneal dialysis 66.67% and rest were on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Main concern was the yield of organisms causing culture positive peritonitis. It was found that bacterial peritonitis was positive in 80%, fungal peritonitis was 11% and mycobacterium tuberculosis peritonitis was 09%. Various culture techniques along with Gram Stain, Zeihl Nielsen Stain and Auramine stain were used for knowing the yield.
Limitations: Old and only small available data of peritonitis patients and stop of further peritoneal dialysis.
Between 2013 and 2016 the main tasks for the German public health care departments were mainly related to medical support in terms of the management of outbreaks of infectious diseases, physical examinations of children and adults to exclude tuberculosis ore other infectious diseases, the administration of vaccinations and medical acute care.
Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacillus of Koch), and presents chronic evolution affecting the lungs frequently.
Objectives: Analyse, in the state of Maranhão, the epidemiological prevalence of tuberculosis between 2014 and 2016.
Materials and Methods: Documentary and descriptive study of secondary data collected in the database of the dates, epidemiological information and morbidities, between 2014 and 2016.
Results: 3,897 cases of tuberculosis in the state of Maranhão were recorded. The most affected age range was 15 to 59 years, totaling 3,111 cases, for both gender; of 60 to 79 years, 577 cases were totaled.
Conclusion: Tuberculosis affects more adolescent males from adolescence to old age, and it is necessary to promote knowledge of the disease for the population in order to advance in the control of the same and obtain satisfactory clinical results.
Pulmonary mucormycosis is an uncommon pulmonary fungal disease, which is commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. It is caused by fungi of class Zygomycetes. It constitutes the third most common invasive fungal infection following aspergillosis and candidiasis. Risk factors include patients with hematological malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and immunocompromised states. It is difficult to diagnose early due to non-specific clinical presentation and delay in treatment associated with greater mortality. As we know that Tuberculosis and HIV are highly prevalent in country like India. Post pulmonary tuberculosis is emerging as a risk factor for Pulmonary mucormycosis in the developing countries like India. Patients with non-resolving pneumonia are generally misdiagnosed as Pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of Pulmonary Mucormycosis is based upon demonstration of fungal hyphae in the clinical specimen. We highlight the importance of clinical suspicion in these cases for early diagnosis and early treatment initiation can reverse morbidity and mortality associated with Pulmonary Mucormycosis. We report 2 cases of Pulmonary mucormycosis present in post-pulmonary tuberculosis patients.
We report a case of pulmonary embolism complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis. A 48-year-old woman suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis more than 6 years without formal treatment. Recently, she went to hospital because of “chest tightness and dyspnea”, and died in the process of admission to hospital. Pulmonary embolism was found by autopsy and histological examination. We analyzed the relationship between pulmonary tuberculosis and pulmonary thromboembolism and the problems we should pay attention to in forensic pathology.
Introduction: HIV infection leads to metabolic disorders. The objective of this work was to study the lipid profile of HIV + patients followed at the University Teaching Hospital of Kinshasa (UTHK).
Methods: This study analyzes the lipid profile of HIV + patients, aged at least 18 years, followed at the UTHK from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2014. The medians of different types of lipids, the frequency of lipid disorders, the general clinical characteristics of patients and factors associated with dyslipidaemia were studied. Haemoglobin (Hb), White Blood Cells (WBC), Leukocyte Formula (LF), Blood Sugar, Urea, Creatinine, Transaminases, Uric Acid, CD4s+ count were analyzed.
Results: The lipid balance was performed in 38.8% of patients; 38.1% of them had dyslipidaemia. Total hypercholesterolaemia (28.6%), elevated LDL-C (19%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.8%) and HDL hypocholesterolaemia (42.9%) were observed. The medians of TG (128 mg / dL), HDL-C (51 mg/dL) and LDL-C (78 mg/dL) were high. Risk factors associated with dyslipidaemia were represented by WHO stage 4, tuberculosis (TB) and hyperglycaemia. The highest levels of LDL-C and TG and the lowest HDL-C were seen when CD4s+ were below 200 elements/µL.
Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS dyslipidaemia characterized in this study by HDL-C hypocholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridemia and total and LDL hypercholesterolemia can be considered as an indicator of the progression of HIV infection.
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), a form of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), is a rare disease with an often-occult presentation. It is more common in 4th and 5th decades of life but can be seen in all ages.
This case report details a 76-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain, generalized weakness, and malaise, who was found to have pulmonary nodules on chest imaging. Biopsy of the lung nodule showed organizing pneumonia. Initially, antibiotics were used to treat the patient. However, she developed acute renal failure a few days after presentation and found to have positive serum C-ANCA as well as elevated ANCA-PR3 serologies. A subsequent kidney biopsy demonstrated pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis that was consistent with GPA and the patient was started immediately on combination immunosuppressive therapy, plasmapheresis, and hemodialysis.
GPA’s clinical and radiological presentation can mimic other common conditions such as pneumonia, malignancy, bacterial sinusitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and urinary tract infection. Because of this, a high level of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and treatment to alter the high mortality rate in this disease entity. All forms of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) should be in the differential diagnosis for all patients presenting with multiorgan system involvement particularly in individuals with pulmonary and renal manifesations.
We described a case of specific (tuberculous) encephalitis in a patient after kidney transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy, continuously required in post-tranplant period, may cause various complications, such as infections. Specific meningoencephalitis is an infection that is rarely diagnosed and more common in immunocompromised patients.
Case report: A 30-year-old man had kidney transplantation (kidney donor was his father). He previously was two years on chronic hemodialysis treatment because of end-stagerenal disease based on diabetic nephropathy. He has diabetes type 1. The early post-transplant period duly passed with satisfactory clinical and laboratory parameters of renal function. Two months after transplantation, he presented with febrile condition, signs of septicemia and dehydration with significant neurological deficit and expressed meningeal signs. In cerebrospinal fluid we found lymphocytosis, elevated proteins and positive micobacterium tuberculosis antibodies (Hexagon method) and we suspected to specific etiology of meningitis. Performed computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain with contrast confirmed the expected finding.
Due to the poor prognosis of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in immunocompromised patients, only prompt diagnosis can improve survival in this group of patients. The therapeutic protocol after kidney transplantation include the prophylactic use of antituberculous drug (Isoniazid 300 mg) during the 9 months.
MMK Mbula*, B Longo-Mbenza, HNT Situakibanza, GL Mananga, JRR Makulo, MM Longokolo, MN Mandina, NN Mayasi, MM Mbula, B Bepouka, GL Mvumbi, EN Amaela, DN Tshilumba, O Odio, BM Ekila, A Nkodila, T Pindi and BBT Buasa
Background: The survival of people living with HIV (PLWHIVs) is increased and Health systems will have to deal with the early-aging-associated medical conditions.Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and biological profiles of PLWHIVs aged 50 and over and those aged less than 50 years.Material and methods: This study conducted at Kinshasa University Teaching Hospital (KUTH) covers 6 years. The clinical and biological characteristics of PLWHIVs aged 50 and over were compared with those under 50. Statistical analysis used the means ± SD, the calculation of frequencies, Student’s t-test and Chi-square.Results: PLWHIVs aged 50 or over represented 35.1%. Their average age was 58.0 ± 4.8 years. Women predominate among those under 50 and men among those 50 and over. Married people were more numerous (54% among those under 50). There were more unemployed (50% of PLHIV under 50). Patients 50 years and older were significantly classified as WHO stage 4 with a high frequency of history of tuberculosis, genital herpes, high blood pressure, smoking, vomiting, hepatomegaly, moderate elevation of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and sytolic blood pressure (SBP), tuberculosis and anemia.Those under 50 had a significantly increased frequency of shingles, hepatitis B-hepatitis C, headaches and more survivals. The mean of Hb, HDL-C, and CD4s+ were significantly lower in patients 50 years and older, and urea, LDL-c, and ALAT levels were significantly higher. Conclusion: The average age was higher from 50 years old. These PLWHIVs were more frequently in WHO stage 4 with more common TB and anemia. Their Hb, HDL-C, and CD4s+ levels were lower while their urea, LDL-C and ALAT levels were significantly elevated.
Kübra ARSLAN*, Ayça TÖREL ERGÜR and Mehmet Ali YİNANÇ
Published on: 7th March, 2022
Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) results from the inability to secrete ADH secreted by the neurohypophysis system to control water-electrolyte metabolism. In the etiology of CDI in childhood, many congenital and acquired central nervous system (CNS) tumors (germinoma, pinealoma, craniopharyngioma, optic glioma, acute myeloid leukemia), infiltrative diseases (Langerhans cell histiocytosis, sarcoidosis), infections (meningitis, tuberculosis, encephalitis), autoimmune events, head trauma, idiopathic) can be responsible . Hibernomas, which are very rare in childhood, may also rarely involve the central nervous system.
Oriba Dan Langoya*, Adrian Mwota Nampogo and Andia Irene
Published on: 15th March, 2022
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose a significant public health problem worldwide. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of extrapulmonary TB however other forms of central nervous system (CNS) disease include tuberculoma and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM carries high mortality even for a patient who is already receiving treatment. The difficulty in diagnosis often leads to a delay in treatment and subsequent mortality. The emergence of Xpert ultra has improved the rapid detection of MTB and rifampicin resistance in CSF and is the preferred diagnostic tool in TBM.Case: In this case report we present a 33 years patient of concern who presented with progressive lower limb weakness associated with pain and paresthesia for 4 months, admitted via the Orthopedic unit with a diagnosis of spinal mass (meningioma, neurofibroma, or nerve sheath tumor) for which biopsy was done and revealed a chronic inflammatory process, necrotic bone lesions with no granulomas and no malignancy, he was later diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis and promptly started anti-tuberculous therapy with a dramatic recovery and improvement in neurological function.Conclusion: Tuberculous meningitis conditions have high morbidity and mortality yet diagnosis and start of treatment continue to experience an important delay. Clinicians should keep in mind the limitations of clinical presentation due to pleiotropy and current diagnostics and should employ a combination of diagnostic modalities in addition to a high index of suspicion to prevent morbidity in patients with TBM.
Hoarseness of voice can occur due to anatomical or functional abnormality of the larynx, vocal cord, or recurrent laryngeal nerves. Common cause includes infections, blunt trauma, iatrogenic affection of recurrent laryngeal nerve, malignancies of thyroid, esophagus, and lung and cardio-vascular conditions such as mitral stenosis. Vocal cord paralysis due to respiratory cause is known as a pulmonary vocal syndrome.
Aim of the study: Conduct long-term monitoring of recovered patients with pulmonary TB and study the frequency of relapses of pulmonary TB and factors contributing to their development in the Republic of Tajikistan.Material and research methods: Of the total number of patients with pulmonary TB, 820 people in 2010-2011 after successful treatment, were transferred for further dispensary observation to PHC facilities, whose health status we monitored for 10 years (including 2020). Of the 820 patients, we were able to track the health status for 10 years in 622 patients (320 men and 302 women, age groups 19-44 years old - 330 people and 45-69 years old - 292 people). The rest - for various reasons were lost from further dispensary observation. All patients in PHC facilities annually during the period of dispensary observation underwent clinical, instrumental, laboratory, and X-ray examinations to exclude the recurrence of TB. Data for each patient were tracked using the National TB Registry OpenMRS data.Research results: The elimination of preventive anti-relapse measures in people with residual post-tuberculosis changes in the lungs led to an increase in the number of relapses of the disease. The analysis of the conducted studies shows that the incidence of relapses of pulmonary TB does not depend on the regions and the severity of TB burden, they often develop with insufficient follow-up after the end of treatment and inadequate preventive measures in dispensaries patients.The study of the reasons for the development of relapses makes it possible to timely identify a group of patients who need anti-relapse measures and prolongation of dispensary observation.Conclusion: Thus, the results of this observation revealed the occurrence of relapses within 10 years in 19.3% of cases. A retrospective analysis of the initial forms of the disease showed that relapses of pulmonary tuberculosis occurred more often in patients who had had fibrous-cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis, than in patients who had disseminated pulmonary TB, and less often after suffering infiltrative pulmonary TB. Relapses of the disease occurred more often in men aged 19-44 years. The results obtained indicate the development of relapses of pulmonary tuberculosis has a statistically significant dependence on the form of the initial disease, the presence of RPTCL, comorbid diseases such as HIV, diabetes mellitus, COPD, and the regularity of taking anti-TB drugs. At the same time, it turned out that the social status of all patients with relapses corresponds to the level of poverty, which should also be taken into account.
Many researchers in their publications on tuberculosis (TB) in high-burden countries recommended the integrated work of different ministries and departments with the involvement of non-governmental public associations, volunteers, and activists, including former patients [1-8].
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