Purpose: The benefits of Physical Activity (PA) considered as a major supportive care in cancer patients, on survival, and recurrence risk is largely disseminated in public communication. However, these data must be taken with caution. The main objectives were to review the evidence and limits of studies reported regarding the post-diagnosis PA role on cancer survival and recurrence risk to secondly discuss of research perspectives on PA programs.
Method: The narrative review included all published or ongoing studies in English during the last 20 years related to PA, survival and recurrence risk with a systematic search on main databases.
Results and discussion: The current evidences regarding the PA role on survival and recurrence risk were only based on cohort studies, mainly in breast cancer. The major methodological limits identified as the lack of PA change assessment, PA level assessed largely by self-reported methods and the significant inter- but also intra- variability make the interpretation of data very. Beyond the use of rigorous RCT, the major issue is to develop adapted and personalized interventions to progressively increase PA level overtime in cancer survivors.
Conclusion: Despite the lack of causal relationship between post-diagnosis PA, survival and recurrence risk, the review underlines several interesting research perspectives. The future PA interventions, using innovative tools and integrated to the “real-life” will argued for the potential antitumoral PA role growing in literature.
Background: Current guidelines for diagnosis and management of heart failure (HF) rely on clinical findings and natriuretic peptide values, but evidence suggests that recently identified cardiac biomarkers may aid in early detection of HF and improve risk stratification. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of multiple biomarkers in patients with HF and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).
Methods: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (cTnI), N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), endothelin-1 (ET-1), pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pMMP-9), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured using single-molecule counting technology in 200 patients with varying stages of HF. Plasma detection with cross-sectional associations of biomarkers across all HF stages, and advanced-therapy and transplant-free survival were assessed using multivariate analysis and Cox regression analyses, respectively.
Results: NTproBNP, pMMP-9, IL-6 were elevated in early, asymptomatic stages of HF, and increased with HF severity. Higher circulating levels of combined IL-6, NTproBNP, and cTnI predicted significantly worse survival at 1500-day follow-up. Cox regression analysis adjusted for ACC/AHA HF stages demonstrated that a higher concentration of IL-6 and cTnI conferred greater risks in terms of time to death, implantation of left ventricular assist device (LVAD), or heart transplantation.
Conclusion: Biomarkers of inflammation, LV remodeling, and myocardial injury were elevated in HF and increased with HF severity. Patients had a significantly higher risk of serious cardiac events if multiple biomarkers were elevated. These findings support measuring NTproBNP, cTnI and IL-6 among patients with HF and LVSD for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.
With the discovery by Calghatgi (2013) that three common antibiotics (Abs) increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen (ROS) and lipid peroxide (LP) and depleted their natural absorbant glutathione led me to investigate further the potential impacts of these genotoxic substances on carcinogenesis. The range of impacts on mitochondria and cellular DNA varied by antibiotic to those consistent with known prior contributions to carcinogenesis. Specific cancers probably increased by these changes were HCC, RCC (KCC), CRC, cancer of the esophagus. Tumor suppressor gene mutations resulting from LP were noteworthy in this regard and mutations induced in CRC were consistent with those found in carcinogenesis of CRC. In addition depression of short chain fatty acids in microbiomes were found which depress the immune system increasing risk of all cancers. Many cancers were increased according to epidemiological studies linking Abs with elevated odds ratios, with one concern in particular, fatal breast cancer. The impact of loss of functionality of the mitochondria was also linked to depression of the citric acid cycle and therefore ATP which deflected metabolism to glycolysis, the Warburg mechanism also increasing risk of all cancers, favoured by cancer cells. In conclusion, some portion of many cancer types are probably increased in likelihood by number, type and frequency of Abs treatment and chronic residue exposure which varies from individual to individual. This led me to propose a three pronged carcinogenesis mechanism for Abs. 1. Cancer critical mutations 2. Immune depression 3. loss of mitochondrial functionality leading to Warburg effects. Damage to mitochondria were also noted by common pesticides tested in China and cancer associations were also found for many pesticides supporting a similar contributory etiology. Heart health concerns were raised by these findings because of the myriad mitochondria in the heart and because of long term reliability needs. Studies suggesting hearts were affected by Abs and pesticide exposure were presented. Because of their geographical ubiquitousness and the huge range of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, antibiotics and pesticides and bacteriocidal biocides are of concern for biodiversity and life in general. I propose research steps to evaluate Abs safety and suggest directions for further research and make suggestions on ways to ameliorate Abs toxicity.
This report provides an insight into a very unusual problem in the first trimester of pregnancy, and describes the unfolding of a series of potential blunders.
We all know that most problems in gynecologic oncology become terribly magnified when the patient is pregnant. HB had a routine ultrasound in the first trimester of pregnancy, and a large, extremely vascular mass occupying most of the lower anterior abdominal wall, was found (Figure 1). Because she had received methotrexate two years earlier for a persistent elevation of the hCG titer following surgery for an ectopic pregnancy, she was referred to the gynecologic-oncology service with the working diagnosis of metastatic gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). An MRI showed a vascular mass in the subcutaneous tissue invading the rectus sheath and muscle, but not attached to the uterus (Figure 2). The report stated, in no uncertain terms, that the mass was strongly indicative of a metastasis from GTD. However, the hCG level was consistent with the estimated gestational age, and a mass such as this would represent an extremely unusual way for this disease to present. She had been told that she would need the have the pregnancy terminated, followed by chemotherapy to reduce the size of the mass prior to its removal.
A malignant tumor has the capacity to grow rapidly and to metastasize to the other parts of the body. Ovary has been a common organ for secondaries caused by hematological spread of the tumor and exhibits the same histopathology as that of the primary tumor.
Very rarely, it has been found that the patients suffer from two or more histologically distinct, simultaneously detected malignancies, which are called as synchronous tumors or multiple primaries . These multiple primaries can have an impact on cancer treatment (e.g., surgery) and affect the overall prognosis of the patient. Although there is no consensus on the definition of synchronous cancer, commonly two or more primary tumors that occur in a patient closely with respect to the time interval are termed as synchronous tumors .
Simultaneous diagnosis of gall bladder carcinoma with ovarian carcinoma with distinct histopathology is rare. A very few cases have been reported so far in literature. We discuss here a rare case that presented with synchronous tumor of gall bladder and the ovary.
Purpose:Accurate patient positioning is crucial in radiation therapy. To fully benefit from the preciseness of proton therapy, image guided patient positioning and verification system is typically utilized in proton therapy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the inter-observer variability of image alignment using a commercially available patient positioning and verification system in proton therapy.
Methods:The VeriSuite patient positioning and verification system (MedCom GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany) provides a six degrees of freedom correction vector by registering two orthogonal x-ray images to digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) images that are rendered in real time from the planning computed tomography (CT) images. Six cases of various disease sites, including brain, head & neck, lung, prostate, pelvis, and bladder, were used in this study. For each case, the planning CT images and a daily orthogonal x-ray portal image pair were loaded into the VeriSuite system. The same set of x-ray images and CT images for each case were reviewed and aligned separately by each of the 10 radiation therapist, following the clinical procedure for the corresponding disease site. The resulting correction vectors were then recorded and analyzed.
Results:Our study shows that the inter-observer variation (One standard deviation) in image alignment using the VeriSuite system ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 mm for translational correction and from 0.6 to 1.3 degrees for rotational correction for the six cases. The use of fiducial markers for prostate patient alignment achieved the least inter-observer variation while the bladder case produced the largest.
Conclusions:Inter-observer variation in image alignment could be relatively large, depending on the complexity of patient anatomy, image alignment approach, and user experience and software limitations. Automatic registration and fiducial markers could potentially be used to align patient more accurately and consistently. To ensure adequate tumor coverage in proton therapy, inter-observer variability in patient alignment should be carefully evaluated and accounted for in patient setup uncertainty analysis and treatment planning margin determination.
Veterinary and agricultural surfactants are supposed to be inert additives, yet these substances commonly exert biological side-effects, in given cases synergistic with those of the active ingredients of these preparations. This is explicitly seen in altered toxicity of veterinary or pesticide formulations compared to their active ingredients alone. Neither the individual effects of these excipients, nor such combination effects are well-studied in toxicology, and therefore, possible toxicity consequences are occasionally not being considered at sufficient significance in the authorization, use and control of these substances. Risk assessment of these substances should cover all hazards they may represent, and corresponding levels of exposure. Surfactants used in veterinary and pesticide formulation enter the environment either by direct dispersion or by indirect release through excrement, leaching, sewage waters or sludge, and in turn, create potential exposure to a number of non-target organisms. Biochemical and (eco)toxicological hazards recently identified regarding certain agricultural surfactants include cytotoxicity (on cell lines of epithelial, neural and other tissues, as well as stem cells and tumor cells), endocrine disrupting effects, as well as aquatic ecotoxicity. This Mini Review summarizes toxicological effects identified in our studies in aquatic toxicity tests, in cell viability and cytotoxicity tests, in estrogenic activity assays, correlated with biochemical analysis of the surfactants and their decomposition. The conclusions are hoped to facilitate environmentally precautious revision of surfactants widely used in agriculture.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the tumor markers and diagnostic methods used in the preoperative period for dermoid cysts, the most common benign neoplasm of the ovary.
Material and Methods: 136 patients who were operated for any reason and reported as ovarian dermoid cyst in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital between January 2004 and September 2005 were included in the study. The medical records of the cases were obtained retrospectively from Ankara-Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, HIS, archive files and patient numbers where necessary.
Results: In the preoperative period, 119 patients underwent ultrasonographic examination, 33 underwent Computed Tomography, and 17 underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging.10 of the cases only underwent CT, while 3 of the cases underwent only MRI 22 of them underwent both USG and CT, USG and MRI were performed on 13 cases and only 1 case underwent all three of the imaging methods. Tumor markers were CEA, CA 125, CA 19-9, CA 15-3 and AFP.
Conclusions: The reviews of ultrasonography and / or computed tomography and / or magnetic resonance imaging (n = 132) revealed that 103 of the cases were put into operation and the sensitivity of the preoperative screening methods were calculated to be 75.5%. The sensitivity of the tumor marker CA 19-9 was calculated to be 31%.
Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a very rare benign cartilaginous tumor representing less than 0.5% of all bone tumors while also being the rarest cartilaginous bone tumor. Common locations of occurrence include the metaphysial region of the proximal tibia and distal femur. We report a case of a 10-year-old female affected by a CMF of the left lower tibia. The radiological features demonstrated by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are discussed.
Cellular Angiofibroma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor without gender preference. It is usually a small (<3cm), well-circumscribed, mostly asymptomatic and typically slow growing. Surgical removal of the mass with its capsule is the preferred treatment, not only helps guarantee complete excision and prevent its recurrence but also minimize blood loss. We present the case of a 76-year-old woman with a giant vulvar mass.
The main goal of hyperthermia is to elevate the tumor temperature to kill tumor cells and improve local control. The usage of hyperthermia is combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Hyperthermia is delivered in different types of cancers like breast cancer, melanoma and sarcoma. Breast cancer treatment enroll surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy. Hyperthermia is given once or twice a week concomitantly with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. This short review will enlight the types, physics, and the results of hyperthermia especially in the management of breast cancer therapy.
This report presents an adult patient suffering from sacroiliitis like low back pain, lumbosacral radiculopathy and elbow swelling. Multimodality imaging revealed multiple lytic bone lesions located in supra acetabular iliac bone, sacrum, and distal end of radius. Painful numerous lesions due to the extension to the articular surfaces are not expected for Brown tumors. Less than ten cases with multiple Brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism has been reported. Although Brown tumors are mostly diagnosed incidentally, this case would awake the physicians about rheumatological symptoms in the presentation of Brown tumors. Since Brown tumors are non-touch bone lesions that are expected to regress after parathyroid adenoma removal, it is important to distinguish Brown tumors from the giant cell tumors.
Mesenteric cysts are rare benign intra-abdominal tumors with an incidence of 1 case per 250,000 hospital admission. This lesion occurs most frequently in women in the reproductive period.The etiology of such cysts remains unknown but several theories regarding their development exist. Most of these lesions present with vague abdominal pain and nausea. Less commonly they will present with bowel obstruction due to external compression. The diagnosis of these tumors is by abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography. We report a case of Mesenteric cyst in 51-year-old female patient.
The RNA interference (RNAi) technique is a new modality for cancer therapy, and several candidates are being tested clinically. Nanotheranostics is a rapidly growing field combining disease diagnosis and therapy, which ultimately may add in the development of ‘personalized medicine’.
Technologies on theranostic nanomedicines has been discussed. We designed and developed bioresponsive and fluorescent hyaluronic acid-iodixanol nanogels (HAI-NGs) for targeted X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and chemotherapy of MCF-7 human breast tumors. HAI-NGs were obtained with a small size of ca. 90 nm, bright green fluorescence and high serum stability from hyaluronic acid-cystamine-tetrazole and reductively degradable polyiodixanol-methacrylate via nanoprecipitation and a photo-click crosslinking reaction. This chapter presents an over view of the current status of translating the RNAi cancer therapeutics in the clinic, a brief description of the biological barriers in drug delivery, and the roles of imaging in aspects of administration route, systemic circulation, and cellular barriers for the clinical translation of RNAi cancer therapeutics, and with partial content for discussing the safety concerns. Finally, we focus on imaging-guided delivery of RNAi therapeutics in preclinical development, including the basic principles of different imaging modalities, and their advantages and limitations for biological imaging. With growing number of RNAi therapeutics entering the clinic, various imaging methods will play an important role in facilitating the translation of RNAi cancer therapeutics from bench to bedside.
We evaluated a total of 115 patients diagnosed with anal cancer, who were treated at our clinic from 1995 to 2012. Their average age was 61 years, most often were diagnosed in stages II and III, in most cases it was a squamous cell carcinoma located in the anal canal. The mean follow-up was 83 months (minimum 1 month and maximum 240 months). We combined external radiotherapy with boost of brachytherapy or boost of external radiotherapy and possibly a combination of both boosts. Half of the patients received concomitant chemotherapy. We specifically evaluated local tumor regression, overall survival and the impact to therapeutic effect of the chosen irradiation technique. Complete regression was achieved in 92 patients, partial regression in 21 patients. Overall survival, regardless of stage, was 80% 3-year, 74% 5-year and 67% 10-year. The age of patients, the size of their own primary tumor and the therapeutic method used had a statistically significant effect on survival - especially the importance of brachytherapy was irreplaceable.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle weakness and cancer-related symptoms in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and solid tumors. We recruited hospitalized patients older than 20 years who were receiving chemotherapy. Patients were divided into a solid tumor (n=74) and hematological malignancy (n=80) group. Age, body mass index (BMI), strength and thickness of the quadriceps femoris muscle, serum albumin and C-reactive protein levels, blood hemoglobin concentration, fatigue, psychological distress and pain, and duration of hospitalization were assessed. Eight physical symptoms (fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea) were also evaluated. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify factors affecting muscle strength in each group. Muscle strength was associated with fatigue in the solid tumor group and with age, BMI, muscle thickness, albumin and hemoglobin in the hematological malignancy group. Therefore, factors contributing to muscle strength might differ between patients with solid tumors and those with hematological malignancies. In particular, fatigue was an important factor in patients with solid tumors, while anemia was an important factor in patients with hematological malignancies. We therefore suggest that different treatments for muscle weakness might be considered for patients with these cancer types.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and is a major public health problem. It is divided into several subtypes, including triple negatives. The general objective of our study is to establish the profile and the management of patients with triple negative breast cancer over a period of 2 years, operated in our department.
During our study period, triple-negative breast cancers accounted for 10% of our population. The most affected age group ranges from 50 to 60. The majority of patients in our sample are pauciparous. In the group of patients who received hormone therapy, it was mainly HRT for 4 to 6 years. 96.77% of patients consulted a health worker within 3 months of the discovery of the signs. Adenopathies are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. 93.54% of the cases have an invasive ductal carcinoma. Triple negative cancers are essentially poorly differentiated. Triple-negative cancer has a high rate of cell renewal. In our study, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is mostly indicated for triple-negative breast cancers ≥ 30 mm at diagnosis and a delayed lumpectomy is then performed in 23.52% of the patients. For tumors of < 30 mm size, a lumpectomy is performed immediately in 76.47% of the patients, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.
Mastectomy was performed in 45.16% of patients; it was mainly indicated in front of a large tumor size associated with a small breast volume, then multifocal breast tumors. Breast reconstruction was performed in 21.42%. Radiation therapy is indicated in the majority of patients, postoperatively. In our population, 11 patients were proposed to have an oncogenetic survey; it was mainly indicated based on the Manchester criteria in front of a young age and a family history of cancer. There are two BRCA 1 mutations, one BRCA 2 mutation, and one case of absence of mutation. The therapeutic intake in case of a mutation is directed towards a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy and adnexectomy, proposed at the age of 40. Two patients had presented triple negative recurrences of their already treated breast cancer; first case PDL1 positive PD-L1 ≥ 1% treated with immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy (atezolizumab/abraxane) while the second and second PDL1 negative treated with chemotherapy alone.
Despite their low frequency, triple negative breast cancers represent a subgroup marked by pejorative characteristics, a reserved prognosis, with limited treatment options.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is rarely seen in the prostate. Most of prostatic tumors are benign. However, local aggressively invading the adjacent organs and recurrence are frequent. Rarely, the malignant transformation and metastasis occurs, especially in elderly patient. The definitive diagnosis in a small biopsy is challenging. The correct diagnosis preoperatively will help to avoid unnecessary radical prostatectomy. Interval follow up is recommended. Here we reported two cases of prostatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with literature review.
Introduction: Desmoplastic Malignant Mesothelioma (DMM) is a rare histological subtype of sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma arising most frequently in the pleura or peritoneum and less frequently in the lung parenchyma.
Patient concerns: A 52-year-old female with no apparent asbestos exposure was referred for consultation in our center after 1 month of cough and no concomitant symptoms of chest.
Diagnosis: Chest computed Tomography (CT) revealed a localized mass measuring 4.5 x 3.9 cm in the right lung middle lobe with inhomogeneous enhancement following injection of contrast, and without pleural lesions, considered a primary intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma.
Interventions: Surgical intervention was performed.
Outcomes: Following complete tumor resection, the patient declined to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The final diagnosis of intrapulmonary desmoplastic mesothelioma was confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical examination. In addition, no local tumor recurrence was observed within 10 months of follow-up.
Conclusion: Even elderly female patients with localized pulmonary masses without significant pleural lesions should not excluded the possibility of malignant mesothelioma in the lungs.
Glomus tumors are rare, usually benign, lesions that arise most often in the extremities. They are derived from the glomus body and have a propensity to be found in the fingers and toes, and often in the subungual area . They typically demonstrate pinprick sensitivity, cold hypersensitivity and paroxysmal pain . Only two glomus tumors of the scrotum have been reported and we report a third case of this rare tumor.
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Wollo University, Ethiopia
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John St. Cyr
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