The purpose of the present study was to define the period of time in which aerobic training does not increase further serum S-Klotho levels in untrained young adult males, and to examine the relation between plasma S-Klotho concentration and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max).
Methods: Sixty (60) untrained subjects (27.05±1.1 years) were divided into 2 groups, both exercised six months 4×wk-1 for the duration of 45 min×session. One group (LTI) exercised below the anaerobic threshold at 40-50% of VO2max, while the second group (HTI) worked above the anaerobic threshold at 65-70% of VO2max. Testing sessions were performed at 0, 2, 4, and 6 months. Blood samples were drawn after overnight fasting; S-Klotho was analyzed using an ELISA kit.
Results: Following 2 and 4 months, significant (p≤0.05) increases were noted in the HTI group, at the fourth testing session, S-Klotho leveled off. In the LTI group, S-Klotho remained almost unchanged. Findings of the present study, support emerging evidence suggesting that a relation between plasma S-Klotho concentration and VO2max exists.
Conclusion: Data suggest that increases in S-Klotho is tidally associated with VO2max levels. In addition, the S-Klotho increase levels-off following 4 months of aerobic training. Exercising below the anaerobic threshold does not increase VO2max and thus, does not increase S-Klotho.
Necrotizing fasciitis is a quickly progressing soft tissue infection that can be described with diffuse necrosis of subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia. The cause of this can be infectious process of odontogenic origin, most commonly caused by mixed gram+ and gram- , aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that are found in patients that are predisposed to infections. In a case of undiagnosed illness, there is a possibility of life threatening complications. This case analysis introduces the diagnostic criteria of the disease and treatment plan, encouraging doctors to devote more attention to prevention of infections.
Botulism is the disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins. It is produced by an obligate anaerobic bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. There is no immuno-detection system available in the world for the detection of C. botulinum. Secretory proteins of cooked meat media grown C. botulinum type B were extracted by TCA precipitation method. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against secretory proteins. Cytokine profiling of secretory proteins were done. An immunodetection system was developed to detect the C. botulinum type B using Secretory proteins of C. botulinum type B.
A 32-year-old G4P301LC3 woman presents to the office for a visit, with a 6-day history of vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor. On speculum examination, the discharge was green in color and frothy in appearance. Is noticed vulvar erythema, edema, and pruritus, also is noted the characteristic erythematous, punctate epithelial papillae or “strawberry” appearance of the cervix. Vaginal pH was 6.2. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis is made via wet prep microscopic examination of vaginal swabs.But also, for diagnosis help even the exam with the speculum, concretely “strawberry” appearance of the cervix. The diagnosis is confirmed by culture.Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection [1,2], that caused by trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomonas vaginalis is a unicellular, anaerobic flagellated protozoan, that inhabits the lower genitourinary tracts of women and men, but that can cause vaginitis. Clinical findings of Trichomonas vaginalis include a profuse discharge with an unpleasant odor. The discharge may be yellow, gray, or green in color and may be frothy in appearance. Vaginal pH is in the 6 to 7.Vulvar erythema, edema, and pruritus can also be noted. The characteristic erythematous, punctate epithelial papillae or “strawberry” appearance of the cervix is apparent in only 10% of cases. Symptoms are usually worse immediately after menses because of the transient increase in vaginal pH at that time. Diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis is made via wet prep microscopic examination of vaginal swabs. Other, more sensitive tests are available, including nucleic acid probe study and immunochromatographic capillary flow dipstick technology. The diagnosis can be confirmed when necessary with culture, which is the most sensitive and specific study. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have replaced culture as the gold standard. T vaginalis NAATs have been validated in asymptomatic and symptomatic women and are a highly sensitive test . Because the Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted infection, both partners should be treated to prevent reinfection. The mainstay of treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis infections is metronidazole. Treatment schemes can be:
A preliminary laboratory study was conducted using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to investigate the potential of methane generation from brewery wastewater. Brewery wastewater from a local brewery company was collected and used in the experiments. The experiments were run for 15 days. The rate of methane production was about 5.32 L per kg of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removed per day. The pH reduction in the experimental reactor limited the ability of gas production and is likely the result of the temperature at which the experiments were conducted.
Background: Perinatal asphyxia (PA) which may result in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) affects four million neonates worldwide and accounts for the death of one million of affected babies. The science of metabolomics has become an area of growing interest in neonatal research, with a potential role in identifying useful biomarkers that can accurately predict injury severity in perinatal asphyxia and HIE.The aim of this review is to look at the evidence of the usefulness of urine metabolomics in predicting outcome in PA/HIE. Methods: The key words used in the advanced search ‘urine metabolomics’ AND ‘perinatal asphyxia’ OR ‘hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy’, yielded 13 articles. Results: Of the selected thirteen studies, 38% (n = 5) were human studies, 31% (n = 4) were animal studies and 31% (n = 4) were review articles. The studies confirmed the involvement of known pathways in the development of PA/HIE, primarily the Krebs cycle evidenced by accumulation of TCA cycle intermediates (citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate) and anaerobic pathways indicated by increased lactate. Other pathways involved include amino acid and carbohydrate pathways. Conclusion: Metabolomic studies so far are promising in highlighting potential biomarker profiles in PA/HIE. Further research is necessary to further clarify the role of identified metabolites in predicting outcome and prognosis in neonates affected by PA/HIE.
Recently announced centralized aerobic-anaerobic energy balance compensation (CAAEBC) theory has already demonstrated achievements in the treatment of arterial hypertension (AHT), diabetes myelitis (DM) and osteochondrosis. Such demonstration lifts the necessity to check the applicability of this theory to other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and develop the proper way to model the main idea of CAAEBC.
Kirill V Zhukov, Bagrat A Gasparyan, Alexandre A Vetcher* and Alexander Y Shishonin
Published on: 26th October, 2022
We demonstrated intrinsic connections between left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and arterial hypertension (AHT) through the recently announced centralized aerobic-anaerobic energy balance compensation (CAAEBC) theory. CAAEBC has already demonstrated achievements in the treatment of AHT, diabetes myelitis (DM), and osteochondrosis. Such demonstration lifts the necessity to check the applicability of this theory to other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and develop the proper way to model the main idea of CAAEBC.
Trying to understand the causes of climate change can be confusing. On the one hand, methane (CH4) emissions from cattle, and methane emissions from food wastes in landfills, are said to contribute to greenhouse gases (GHGs) that drive climate change. People are working on feed additives for dairy cows to reduce their methane emissions. But, at the same time, cattle manure and food wastes can be fed into anaerobic digesters to convert these organic wastes to biogas; the resulting “renewable methane” or “renewable natural gas” (RNG), can be used in place of fossil natural gas and avoid extra GHG emissions and stop global warming. Can we have it both ways? Burning gasoline in our cars and trucks generates carbon dioxide (CO2), which is said to contribute to climate change. But more than 8 billion people on planet Earth, breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide every minute of the day. And so do all the other animals who live on this planet, breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Is our breathing also contributing to climate change, just as the emissions from our automobile tailpipes?It is time to step back from all the hype, evaluate the various sources of CO2 and CH4 being generated and review the “mass balance” of these gases in our atmosphere. Some of these are part of the natural biogenic carbon cycle and some are simply adding to the overall mass balance. What is driving climate change - excess GHGs from the biogenic carbon cycle, excess emissions from other sources, or both? Let’s take a fresh look at the available data. (Of course, water vapor also plays a part in the climate change story, as a “positive feedback” effect. As non-condensable GHGs rise in concentration and slightly warm the planet, slightly warming oceans add a bit more water vapor to the story and push the warming up a bit more). During the past few decades, a great deal of pertinent data has been carefully observed and recorded, by world-class scientists and engineers. This data is available in the public domain and is now easily available on the internet. These data sources come from reputable organizations, such as NASA (National Atmospheric and Space Administration), NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), USGS (United States Geological Survey) and international organizations such as the “Global Carbon Project” and “Our-World-in-Data”. How much of the growing concentration of CO2 (and CH4) in our atmosphere can be attributed to out-of-control emissions of biogenic carbon? How much of the CO2 rise can be attributed to fossil fuel emissions: 10%, 50%, 90%, or more? The available data appear to show that the emissions from burning fossil fuels, more than account for all of the rise of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere during the past 60 years, or longer. In comparison, the biogenic carbon cycle data seem to be very consistent, year after year, decade after decade and have little or no impact on climate change. But, let’s have a closer look at the available data, and let the data speak for itself.
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