Antenatal

Perinatal Morbidity & Mortality following repeat Cesarean section due to five or more previous Cesarean Section done in Tertiary centre in KSA

Published on: 31st July, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7815122185

Objectives: To highlight and determine the maternal and neonatal outcome and associated risks for patients who have undergone their 6th and more caesarean sections. Design: Case control study. Setting: Tertiary Centre (Security Forces Hospital – Riyadh – Saudi Arabia). Patients: 80 patients selected to study group who have undergone their sixth and more caesarean sections in Security Forces Hospital. Between June 2006 and May 2010. This group was compared to 80 patients who have undergone their third to fifth caesarean sections during the same time period and immediately following the studied case. Main outcome measured: Age and parity of women in study and the control group were correlated with the number of previous caesarean sections. Intra operative and post-operative maternal complications including presence and grade of adhesions, intra partum and postpartum hemorrhage, use of measurement and methods (both medical and surgical) to control bleeding such as Bakry balloon, Internal iliac artery ligation, etc., were highlighted. Bowel injury, blood transfusion, admission to surgical intensive care, incidence of placenta previa and accreta, post-operative complications like paralytic ileus, wound infection were also noted. Further, neonatal outcome including birth weight, Apgar score, and need for neonatal intensive care unit admission were reviewed. Results: Patients in the study group had higher incidence of extensive adhesions (41.25%) compared to (12.25%) in the control group. Bowel injury was (2.5%) in study group with none in the control group. The incidence of placenta previa was (8.75%) in the study group as compared to (2.5%) in the control group, with placenta accreta complicating (28.57%) of placenta previa seen only in the study group. Blood transfusion was higher in the study group (20%) as compared to (5%) in the control group. Neonatal admission to NICU was higher in the study group (27.5%) in comparison to the control group (12.5%). Also birth weight was lower in the study group. Conclusion: The more the number of caesarean sections, the more the maternal and neonatal morbidity. Patients should have proper counselling during antenatal follow up about the risks of repeated caesarean sections, and offered bilateral tubal ligation after the third or fourth caesarean sections.
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Focused Antenatal Care in urban Ghana: A qualitative study into physical accessibility of maternal health services in Kwabre East Municipality

Published on: 2nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8174834174

Background: Accessibility to healthcare is a major component of primary health care campaign for maintaining population health. Owing to this, the government of Ghana has instituted the free maternal care and focused antenatal care policies into the maternal health care policies to woefully control maternal mortality, morbidity and to ensure improved access, quality and continuous ANC use among pregnant women. Despite these interventions, pregnant women in the Kwabre East Municipality do not fully use ANC services as recommended by the World Health Organization. Methods: Using an in-depth interview and two focus groups conducted with women of reproductive age (15-49) in the Kwabre East Municipality. The study investigated women’s opinions, perceptions and experiences on their ANC visits. Results: The study revealed that physical accessibility and the social context of pregnant women continue to influence their ANC use even after the introduction of the free maternal care and focused antenatal care policies. Conclusion: The study suggests that in order to fully utilize ANC visits as recommended by the WHO in the Kwabre East Municipality, the Municipal Health Directorate should liaise with collaborating stakeholders if not eliminating to limit the influence of restrictive factors to women’s quest of using ANC. It is further recommended that management do away with hindrances that delay women who seek for ANC services in health facilities and adopt strategies and procedures that aim at increasing ANC uptake.
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Determinants of women’s perceived satisfaction on Antenatal care in urban Ghana: A cross-sectional study

Published on: 2nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8175476956

Despite evidence on major interventions on the uptake and scale up of interventions meant to promote maternal health care services, little is known about adequate use of such program in urban Ghana among reproductive aged women. This study examined the determinants of women’s Satisfaction on antenatal care use in selected health facilities in the Kwabre East Municipality of Ghana. Using facility-based cross-sectional survey design, a three-stage sampling technique was conducted to sample 220 women attending postnatal care at selected public health facilities. Open-ended questionnaires were used to obtain data from respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including binary logit regression model were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS and STATA software. Logit analytical framework was computed to determine equations of variance. The association between antenatal care use and women’s satisfaction was determined and assessed using Pearson’s χ2 (2) test indicating 1% was run. Most women (92.7%) had at least four ANC visits during their entire pregnancy. The results indicate standard deviation of 7 with 81% regular ANC visits and 19% irregular. Most women (55%) received care by one caregiver, followed by women (35%) who received care by two caregivers and women (10%) who were cared for by three caregivers. The regression results showed varying utilization levels of 10%, 5% & 1% ANC satisfaction. System induced factors aimed at promoting maternal care use satisfaction are suggested. 
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Maternal mortality and factors affecting it, among pregnant women in Abeokuta South, Nigeria

Published on: 2nd July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8185504249

This observational study assessed the knowledge of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at two selected hospitals in Abeokuta South, Nigeria on the causes and risk factors of maternal mortality, identified barriers to knowledge acquisition, and examined the influence of parity of respondents on their knowledge of factors causing maternal mortality. Maternal mortality is extremely high in Nigeria, it is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Descriptive research design was used in this study and qualitative data from 136 respondents selected randomly, were obtained through a self-designed questionnaire that comprised three sections. Data were analyzed and indicated that parity of the pregnant women do not have an influence on their knowledge of factors responsible for maternal mortality. Findings revealed that majority (67.6%) of the respondents had high knowledge on the causes of maternal mortality – haemorrhage, sepsis, prolonged/obstructed labour, anaemia, unsafe abortion, infection, hypertensive disorders, care rendered by unskilled medical practitioners and its risk factors - parity, poverty, place of last delivery and low attendance at antenatal clinic. Educational background, marital status, irregular antenatal visits, socio-cultural practices and occupational status were identified as barriers to knowledge acquisition. This paper concluded that pregnant women may have a high knowledge about the factors responsible for maternal mortality. This is probably due to the fact that all respondents had formal education and because they were interviewed on antenatal clinic days, which suggests that they might have heard about the causes and risk factors for maternal mortality during their visits. Authors recommended that government should employ qualified health professionals and provide medical subsidy, it is hoped that this will ensure that pregnant women get quality care throughout the period of pregnancy and delivery.
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Effectiveness of prenatal intensive counselling on knowledge, attitude and acceptance of post placental intrauterine contraceptive device among mothers

Published on: 27th March, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8573348290

Introduction: Contraception is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. In the first year of postpartum period around 65% of women are having unmet need of family planning. Post Placental Intrauterine Contraceptive Device is not only advantageous to the women and couples; even the service providers benefit from PPIUCD. PPIUCD insertion on the same delivery table saves time and separate clinical procedure is not required. Methodology: The Quantitiative Pre-Experimental One Group Pre and Post Test research design was used. 70 Antenatal mothers were selected by using Purposive Sampling Technique who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and who were available during the period of data collection at selected hospital, Puducherrry. Data was collected by using Structured Interview Schedule. Result: The Pre test mean score of Knowledge was 9.98 ± 2.38 and Post Test mean score of Knowledge was 14.91 ± 1.15. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-20.82) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Attitude was 34.67 ± 5.67 and Post test mean score of Attitude was 44.27 ± 4.70. The calculated paired‘t’ value was (-17.25) found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Pretest mean score of Acceptance was 0.11 ± 0.320 and Post Test mean score of Acceptance was 0.29 ± 0.455. The paired‘t’ value of t = -3.778 found to be statistically significant at p < 0.001 level. The Demographic and Obstetrical Variables like age at marriage, previous childbirth and decision maker of family about family planning have shown significant association with Post Test level of Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD at p < 0.05 and p < 0.001. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that Prenatal Intensive Counselling increases the mother’s Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of PPIUCD. So Prenatal Intensive Counselling on PPIUCD can be given to Antenatal Mothers during their antenatal visits to meet the unmet needs of family planning.
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Timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have infants less than six months of age in Gunchire Town, Southern Ethiopia 2019

Published on: 9th April, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8582297046

Background: Timely starting of breastfeeding is defined as the starting of breastfeeding within one hour after childbirth. Globally mothers who practiced breastfeeding within one hour were less than half in percent. In least developed countries like Eastern and Southern Africa including Ethiopia infant breastfeeding practice within one hour were low. The aim of this study was to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have an infant less than six months of age in Gunchire town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: The study was conducted from May 1 to 28, 2019 in Gunchire town. Data were collected by using a structured face to face interview questionnaire. The community based cross-sectional study was employed on 333 women. The study participants were selected by Simple random sampling techniques. The data were coded, entered, cleaned and analyzed by SPSS with windows version 21.0. Binary and multivariable logistic regression statistical model was used. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to see the strength of association. Results: In this study the magnitude of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 80.5%. Governmental employed mothers (AOR=2.914, 95% CI: 1.139, 7.46), Antenatal care follow up (AOR=5.99, 95% CI: 1.29, 27.81), Baby skin to skin contact (AOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.092, 5.34), Vaginal delivery (AOR=5.82 95% CI: 1.68, 20.14) Institutional delivery (AOR=5.5, 95 CI%: 1.66, 18.3), Good knowledge of breastfeeding (AOR=4.02, 95% CI: 1.04, 15.59) and Breast disease (AOR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.73) were significantly associated with timely starting of breastfeeding. Conclusion: More than two third of the mothers timely initiated breastfeeding within one hour after birth. Being governmentally employed, having Antenatal care follows up, skin to skin contact, mode of delivery, knowledge of mothers about breastfeeding and place of delivery were positively and significantly associated with timely initiation of breast feeding, whereas, breast disease was protective against timely starting of breastfeeding. Therefore, we would like to recommend Enamore woreda health office and Gunchire primary Hospital staffs work at MCH clinic to provide appropriate services and stimulate the mothers to initiate breastfeeding, skin to skin contact enhancing within the first hour of birth.
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Determinants of neonatal near miss among neonates admitted to Ambo University Referral Hospital and Ambo General Hospital, Ethiopia, 2019

Published on: 24th June, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8625640828

Background: Neonatal Near-miss is defined as complications of neonates so severe as to be imminently life-threatening but survived due to chance or treatment. The number of neonates who survived morbidities were approximately 3 to 6 times greater than those who died. There was little evidence about neonatal near miss in Ethiopia. This study attempted to identify the determinants of neonatal near miss among neonates admitted to the Ambo University Referral Hospital and Ambo General Hospital. Methods: Hospital-based quantitative unmatched case-control study was conducted at the Ambo University Referral Hospital and Ambo General Hospital from March 1 to 28, 2019. The respondents, 134 cases and 268 controls were recruited by simple random technique. Data were coded, entered and cleaned in EpiInfo version 7 and exported to SPSS. Both Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was computed at 95% CI and the final model was checked by Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness -of-fit test. Multi collinearity and cofounders were not detected. Result: Multivariate analysis showed that distance more than 15km away from health facilities [AOR=2.11, 95% CI: (1.09, 4.095)], Unwanted, and unplanned current pregnancy [AOR=3.71, 95% CI: (1.28, 10.79)], less than four Antenatal care visit [AOR=6.55, 95% CI: (3.07, 13.98)], Instrumental delivery [AOR=4.62, 95% CI: (1.78, 11.98)] were positively associated with Neonatal Near Miss. Whereas Term Neonates [AOR= 87%, 95% CI: (0.05, 0.32)], and Normal birth weight [AOR=91%, 95% CI: (0.03, 0.28)] were negatively associated with Neonatal Near Miss. Conclusion: Distance from health facilities, Antenatal care visit, current pregnancy type, birth weight, gestational age and mode of delivery were determinants of Neonatal Near Miss. Therefore, providing adequate Antenatal services, health education and training is needed to improve neonatal health.
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A case series review of patients with Thrombocytopenia and Absent-Radii syndrome (TARS) and their management during pregnancy

Published on: 12th August, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8667871373

Bleeding diatheses due to platelet-related disorders can present challenges to treating clinicians especially in the context of peri- and post-partum patients in the obstetric setting. TARS is an inherited disorder characterised by reduced bone marrow platelet production, skeletal deformities affecting radii and other limbs; cardiac, renal, and other heterogeneous anomalies may occur. It is caused by co-inheritance of a microdeletion and a nucleotide polymorphism in the RBM8A gene on chromosome 1. Bleeding phenotype is more severe than platelet numbers might predict especially in infants but improves with age. There is minimal literature regarding impact in pregnancy and puerperium. We describe management of three pregnancies in the haematology-obstetrics clinic. As platelet counts normally decrease through pregnancy, close monitoring is required in TAR syndrome. No major bleeding was seen antenatally but two required platelet transfusion during labour. No other treatment definitely improves bleeding, although case reports of steroids claim variable success. Tranexamic acid may be helpful, and thrombopoietin agonists represent a potential future option. 
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Predominance of fetal malformations among pregnant women: A multi-centric observational study

Published on: 28th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9022388562

Objective: To observe the predominance of fetal anomalies in pregnant women in a multi-centric setting. Methods: This prospective observational study included 20225 pregnant women who came for antenatal care in University Hospital and fetal medicine units from 2016 to 2019. Fetal anatomical scanning was done for all participants. Results: One hundred eighty-three cases had fetal congenital anomalies, yielding a prevalence of around 0.9%. Third of cases had positive consanguinity, this increased in cases of skeletal and thoracic anomalies. The presence of past history of anomalies was evident in 8.2% mostly with skeletal and heart anomalies. History of drug intake was only verified in 1.6% of cases. Sixty-three women out of 183 (34.4%) were diagnosed to have anomalies in fetal nervous system. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis are recommended for early detection of congenital anomalies and counselling.
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Does it matter what a mother consumes? An anthropological exploration of dietary practices among Churachandpur (Manipur) pregnant women and its impact on infant birth weight

Published on: 2nd September, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: v

Background: Nutritional status of expectant women is an important indicator of healthy pregnancy and an ideal birth weight of the infant. The present study is an attempt to understand food eating practices and related taboos among the Paite women and whether or how these practices influence weight gain among infants during their first year of life. Methods: The longitudinal study was conducted for a period of 16 months between November 2010 and February 2012) among 186 Paite mother-infant pairs. Women who had completed 37 to 42 weeks of pregnancy were included. Infant’s weights were measured using standard technique and information on mothers’ food related practices was recorded during the house visit using a structured schedule. Standard statistical methods were used for description and analysis. Results: A peculiar practice, ‘pica’ was observed among a few women. A number of food taboos were found to be followed by the ‘Paite’ women during course of their pregnancy. Conclusion: No significant difference was noticed in the mean weight of babies from birth through the age of 1 year between mothers practicing and not practicing food taboos. However, it was found that the mean weight of the babies throughout the study period was comparatively higher among non-taboo mothers. It could be suggested that women must be counseled during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the maternity clinics and hospitals about dietary practices and their anticipated impact on health of the newborns.
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Severe preeclampsia at the University Hospital Center of Mother and Child (UHCMC) in N’djamena: Epidemiology and prognosis

Published on: 28th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9406521355

Introduction: Preeclampsia constitutes a public health problem in our region. According to the WHO, it is the third cause of maternal mortality after severe hemorrhages, infections and is responsible for morbidity and high fetal mortality. The aim of this study was to improve on the management of severe preeclampsia at the University Hospital Center of Mother and Child (UHCMC) in N’Djamena.Patients and method: It was a prospective and descriptive survey of 3 years duration, from January 01st, 2017 to December 31st, 2019. Included in our study were, all patients admitted for severe preeclampsia and agreed to participate in the study. Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic studies were conducted. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software.Results: During the study period, 13599 pregnant and parturients were admitted to the Gynecology-Obstetrics department of the UHCMC, among whom 406 cases of severe preeclampsia, with a frequency of 2.9%. The patients were young (23.2 years), married (96.3%), primipara (61.3%), referred (64.3%) without antenatal care in 47.9% of cases. Functional signs were dominated by headaches with 34.0% of cases. The proteinuria was ≥ 3 crosses in 83.7% of cases. Patients had received magnesium sulfate in 98.3%, the delivery mode was cesarean in 64.0% of cases. Principal morbidity was eclampsia (40.8%) and fetal was prematurity (36.4%). Maternal lethality was 11.1% and fetal mortality was 19.9% cases.Conclusion: Severe preeclampsia is frequent in the UHCMC in N’Djamena. It is responsible for high maternal and fetal mortality. The practice of quality antenatal care, could prevent the occurrence of complications and improve the maternal-fetal prognosis.
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Comparision of intra cervical PGE2 gel and transcervical Foley’s catheter for pre-induction cervical ripening

Published on: 3rd May, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9497124492

Introduction: Induction of labour is a common obstetric intervention, occurring in approximately 25% of term pregnancies in developing countries. Pharmacological and mechanical methods commonly used are prostaglandin preparations (PGE1 and PGE2) and various intracervical catheters (single or double balloon), respectively.Material and methods: Study was conducted in Siliguri District Hospital, Siliguri, Darjeeling, west Bengal. 100 antenatal woman admitted in obstetrics ward with pog more than 37 weeks were taken for study after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. 50 were induced with cerviprime gel and 50 with intracervical foley catheter. Statistical analysis done.Results: Mean interval between treatment initiation and delivery was not statistically significant, tachysystole was more common in group B women, rate of LSCS and NVD was similar in both groups.Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that Foley’s catheter (mechanical) and prostaglandin E2 gel [pharmacological] both are effective agents for preinduction cervical ripening which substantially improve the bishops score and increase the chances of successful labour induction. There is no significant difference in their efficacy, mode of delivery and perinatal outcome.
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Factors associated with utilization of Iron with Folic Acid (IFA) supplement among pregnant women attending antenatal care at government health facilities and family guidance clinic in Hawassa City Administration, Hawassa, Ethiopia

Published on: 13th May, 2022

Background: Iron deficiency anemia is common during pregnancy since the overall iron requirement is greater than non-pregnant women and is associated with adverse outcomes. Iron deficiency (ID) is a state of insufficient iron to maintain normal physiological functions of tissues and leads to anemia.Objectives: To assess factors associated with the utilization of Iron with Folic acid supplement Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal care at Government Health Facilities and Family Guidance Clinic in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia.Methods: Institutional-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 412 health providers who are working at public health institutes in Hawassa city from March to April 2015. Pretested Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. The data was entered into Epi-data and analysed by SPSS version 26.0. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to see the significant association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios and 95% CI will be computed to measure the strength of the association, p - value of ˂ 0.05 will be considered a statistically significant.Results: A total of 412 pregnant women who came to attend ANC at least for the second time were interviewed in seven health facilities. Our study showed that 333 (81%, 95% CI: 77.2 - 84.8) pregnant women reported taking IFA supplements and high compliance was 37.7% (95% CI: 32.5 - 42.9). In multivariable analysis, side effects and low acceptance of the supplement were significantly associated with compliance to IFA supplementation (p < 0.05).Conclusion: There is a relatively better level of compliance towards IFA supplementation compared to other national data. Pregnant women should be counseled regarding how to manage the side effects of IFA supplements during ANC. Further research has to be done on the acceptability of the supplements.
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