Background: Rotation of the femoral component in total knee replacement (TKR) is very important for good long-term results. Malrotation of the femoral component usually requires subsequent reimplantation. We performed X-ray projections of the knee at 90° to determine proper rotation of the femoral component without use of computed tomography.
Methods: The axial projection of the distal femur was measured in post-TKR cases. During the TKR operation, Whiteside’s method had been used to provide symmetrical flexion space. The exact outer rotation of the femoral component was measured by x-ray determination of the middle condylar twist angle, from the central epicondylar axis and posterior condylar axis.
Results: The middle condylar twist angle was in outer rotation, with an average of 3.36° (range: 1-7.6), similar to the literature. Six of the patients underwent bilateral TKR. In total, the case series included 18 women and 15 men, with average age of 71.34 years-old (range: 56-85). As a clinical evaluation we used Knee Society Score (2011). From results 2 patients were not very satisfied with the instability TKR. Axially X-ray seemed to be only which could distribute these patients.
Summary: X-ray values have the same evaluation as computed tomography. The results were 2 patients in pattern of 48, which were sufficient to extrapolate to whole population according to the statistical methods. This corresponds to 4% which we can add to evaluate satisfaction of all patients after TKR and eventually lower the total of unsatisfactory patients which is total of ¼ of total. It is also forensic reason for all patients. Our recommendation to have good results and patient satisfaction in TKR is to do x-rays before and after operation. Important are x-rays antero-posterior, lateral, and Kanekasu projection to know the rotation after TKR. Other cases without stability in flexion are nor very rarely planed for revision surgery, which is much more expensive, and burdens overall health system.
When Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is required in a patient with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), bone deficiency in the acetabular roof often remains a problem. The iliac crest (IC) has long been the preferred source of autograft material, but graft harvest is associated with frequent complications and pain. Autologous bone graft can also be obtained from the femoral head (FH) for reconstruction of the acetabulum in hip arthroplasty. However, in certain challenging clinical scenarios, incorporation of the femoral head autograft appears less successful than the iliac crest autograft. The difference in potential for proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation between the two sites has still not been evaluated; therefore, it is not known how to compensate for this difference when it is present. We designed this study to evaluate the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in both the iliac crest and femoral head of the same patient. We also determined the best operating room procedure for loading the femoral head with MSCs to achieve equivalent numbers of MSCs as in the IC. Twenty patients (8 men and 16 women) undergoing THA for DDH were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 55.5 years (range 41–65 years). Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from three depths within the femoral head and the aspirates were quantified relative to matched iliac crest aspirates that were obtained from the same patient at the same time. The cell count, progenitor cell concentration (cells/mL marrow), and progenitor cell prevalence (progenitor cells/million nucleated cells) were calculated.
Aspirates of FH marrow demonstrated less concentrations of mononuclear cells compared with matched controls from the iliac crest. Progenitor cell concentrations were consistently lower in FH aspirates compared to matched controls from the iliac crest (p = 0.05). The concentration of osteogenic progenitor cells was, on average, 40% lower in the FH aspirates than in the paired iliac crest samples (p = 0.05). However, with bone marrow aspirated from the iliac crest, we were able to load the femoral head autograft with sufficient MSCs to obtain the same number as present in an iliac crest. With concentrated bone marrow from the IC, supercharging the femoral autograft with MSCs to numbers above that present in the IC was possible in the operating room, and the number of MSCs supercharged in the femoral head was predictable.
Based on these findings we suggest that FH graft supercharged with BM-MSCs from the IC is comparable to IC graft for osseous graft supplementation especially in THA for patients with DDH.
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