Background: Dysmenorrhea is menstrual disorder that affects about 40% - 90% of women worldwide, it is associated with oxidative stress. The current treatment of this condition is administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which when frequently used, may affect organs.
Objective: Assess the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity side effects related to dysmenorrhea and its treatment
Materials and methods: A survey (questionnaire) was designed and implemented on 689 female students of the University of Dschang. After this, and following the inclusion criteria, 191 blood samples were collected for assay of hepatotoxicity markers (transaminases, albumin), nephrotoxicity indicators (creatinine, urea, total protein) and the inflammation associated indicators. The measurements were performed on fully automated Olympus AU 400 Analyzer, using standard reagent kits.
Results: Subjects with untreated dymenorrhea lasting more than five years had a significantly high level (p < 0.05) of ALT (39.47 ± 15.74 IU/L) and AST (44.37 ± 13.74 IU/L). Transaminases levels were significantly associate (p < 0.01) and positively correlate (0.251 for ALT and 0. 223 for AST) with the disease duration. Dysmenorrheic individuals on medication for more than 9 years had significantly higher ALT (25.14 ± 7.85 IU/L) and AST (35.26 ± 0.70 IU/L) levels (p < 0.05) compared to those under treatment for less than 5 years (19.37 ± 8.27 UI/L and 27.68 ± 8.56 UI/L). The use of analgesics, regardless of the duration of treatment, had normal creatinine clearance (107.44 ± 30.86 ml/min), compared to those treated with either anti-inflammatory drugs (71.56 ± 26.44 ml/min), or a combination of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs (81.34 ± 31.97 ml/min), which was significantly reduced (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea duration, type and duration of treatment potentially expose participants to liver and kidney disorders.
Primary umbilical cutaneous endometriosis is a rare umbilical endometrioma that affects women who are within the reproductive age group. It may be associated with infertility and severe dysmenorrhea and can be difficult to diagnosed in an asymptomatic patient.
We report a case of a 38-year-old nulliparous with seven years history of infertility and severe dysmenorrhea. Her hormonal profile assay and hysterosalpingogram results were normal while her husband semen analysis was also within normal range. She complained of monthly bleeding from a painful rubbery multilobate cutaneous nodule on the umbilicus of one year duration. She was diagnosed of cutaneous endometriosis. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically and she had surgical excision with good outcome.
We appreciate the fact that you decided to give us full waiver for the applicable charges and approve the final version. You did an excellent job preparing the PDF version. Of course we will consider your magazine for our future submissions and we will pay the applicable fees then.
I wanna to thank clinical journal of nursing care and practice for its effort to review and publish my manuscript. This is reputable journal. Thank you!
Wollo University, Ethiopia
I really liked the ease of submitting my manuscript in the HSPI journal. Further, the peer review was timely completed and I was communicated the final decision on my manuscript within 10 days of submission which is really appreciable. I strongly recommend all the scientists and researchers to submit their work in this journal”
My candid opinion is that the service you render is second to none. My favourite part is the prompt response to issue, really i value that.
Abiodun Akanbi Adeogun
The editorial process was quickly done. The galley proof was sent within a week after being accepted for publication.
The editorial team was very helpful and responded promptly.
Once I submitted the manuscript, the response time of the reviewers was very fast. The fine-tuning of the galley proof was likewise prompt. I believe the journal provide a valuable outlet to disseminate physical rehabilitation scientific knowledge to the clinical community.
Thank you very much for accepting our manuscript in your journal “International Journal of Clinical Virology”. We are very thankful to the esteemed team for timely response and quick review process. The editorial team of International Journal of Clinical Virology is too cooperative and well-mannered during the publication process. We are hopeful to publish many quality papers in your journal and I suggest the International Journal of Clinical Virology to all of my colleagues, researchers and friends to publish their research here.
Regarding to be services, we note that are work with high standards of professionalism translated into quick response, efficiency which makes communication accessible. Furthermore, I believe to be much inviting for the submission of future works for publication purposes.
Amélia João Alice Nkutxi
I am glad to submit the article to Heighten Science Publications as it has a very smooth and fast peer-review process, which enables the researchers to communicate their work on time.
I am delighted and satisfied with. Heighten Science Publications as my manuscript was thoroughly assessed and published on time without delay. Keep up the good work.