Background: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 4-week Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF Gold; Bergamet Sport) supplementation on serum nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethyl-arginine (ADMA), Endopat indices of endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake (V_ O2max) of athletes.
Methods: The effects of dietary supplementation (BPF Gold, 650 mg twice a day for 4 weeks) and placebo administration on flow-mediated dilatation (via Endopat measurements), serum markers (NO, ADMA), lipid profile, and V_ O2max were analysed in 30 athletes both before and after dietary protocols.
Results: Significant differences between pre- and post-intervention baseline NO levels were observed after BPF Gold dietary protocol. Higher post-intervention baseline NO level was observed after BPF Gold diet compared with placebo. Moreover BPF Gold Sport increased baseline NO concentration (ΔNO). The positive correlation was observed between baseline post-intervention NO concentration and maximal oxygen uptale and also between ΔNO and ΔVO2max in response to BPF Gold supplementation. There was an association between a higher Edopat values of endothelial function and higher V O2max after Bergamet Sport diet compared with lower values of placebo.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that an increase in NO release in response to BPF Gold Sport supplementation may play a central role in cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms and enhanced exercise performance in athletes.
Background: Pre-eclampsia is a frequent and serious pregnancy complication contributing for the increasing maternal morbi-mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy, on the incidence of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia among primigravid women.
Method: In a hospital-based, opened, randomized and controlled clinical trial carried out in the city of Yaounde, 70 women were randomized to either 1.5 g daily calcium supplements (n = 35) or vitamins at the same time (n = 35) from 20 weeks gestation till delivery. Were included all singleton healthy, primigravid women who offered their signed inform consent and were excluded, all women with any chronic condition. Primary outcomes were pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
Results: No significant difference was observed between the two study groups with respect to the baseline characteristics obtained at enrollment. We recorded a sevenfold decrease in the incidence of preeclampsia in the calcium group (RR = 0.26, CI 0.06 – 0.44, p = 0.024). The onset of pre-eclampsia was delayed 3 weeks in the calcium group. Meanwhile the mean diastolic blood pressure at delivery was of no significant difference (p = 0.126), the mean systolic blood pressure at delivery however, presented a significant difference between both groups (p = 0.009).
Conclusion: A 1.5 g daily calcium supplementation of healthy normotensive primigravid women during pregnancy seems to be effective in reducing the incidence of pre-eclampsia.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes with various treatment options.
Objective: To compare the efficacy and effect on pregnancy outcome of Metronidazole and Clindamycin in women with bacterial vaginosis in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Methodology: Randomized controlled study of 136 pregnant women diagnosed with BV at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. A structured proforma was used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and other relevant data. Treatment was with either oral Metronidazole or oral Clindamycin for seven days. A secondary test and evaluation of the effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes were determined. Data analysis was done using the SPSS statistical package version 22.0
Results: BV prevalence was 23%, with similar cure rates with both medications. The failure rates of clindamycin and metronidazole were 10.4% and 13% respectively (p = 0.639). The mean gestational age at delivery in the metronidazole treated group was 38.67 weeks ± 1.69 compared to 38.68 weeks ± 1.64 in the oral clindamycin group (p = 0.96). Pre-labour rupture of membranes and preterm delivery rates with both medications were similar (p = 0.73; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-4.9) and (p = 0.73; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3-4.9) respectively.
Conclusion: Both medications have comparable efficacy and similar pregnancy outcomes in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in low-risk asymptomatic pregnant Nigerian women and thus can be used interchangeably.
A mucoso-respiratory highly contagious disease; COVID-19, has led to tremendous global health and economy damages. This virus could be dampened through home use of fermented bio food material. Fermented millet flour (ibyer) is an indigenous non-alcoholic gruel made from cereals either (maize, sorghum and millet). It is prepared by cooking reconstituted cereal flour or wet milled paste with water. In this study, fermented millet fl our supplemented with ginger powder blends were formulated in the ratio 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30 for the production of gruel. The blends were subjected to feeding trial experiment using wistar albino rat. Results analysis revealed that Serum cholesterol was less than 200 mg/dl. The fasting blood glucose was also within the recommended range (67.7 - 125.0 mg/dl). The biochemical parameters were within recommended range, total serum protein ranged from 5.82-7.06 g/L, Alanine aminotransferase ranged from 28.53 to 41.13 iu/L, Aspartate aminotransferase ranged from 28.50 to 48.66 iu/L. The albino rats showed slight increase in body weight throughout the experimental period, ranging from 78.67 -103.80 g. The experiment shows that the diet did not have any adverse effect on the experimental animals and were within the recommended range hence a good anti diabetic blend and has excellent biochemical profile properties for homes use.
During the last few decades painstaking efforts have been made to eliminate iodine deficiency through the world. Nowadays in regions where dietary iodine intake is adequate or borderline, the main focus is increasing dietary iodine supply in the target population during pregnancy and the first years of life. Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy increases the risk of irreversible brain damage, intellectual disability, neurologic abnormalities, stunted growth, increased pregnancy loss, infant mortality, impairments in child development and cretinism. The potential effects of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency are debated. Results from animal studies and observational human studies indicate that maternal mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency disturbs thyroid function in pregnancy and it also may affects fetal neurodevelopment. The effect of supplementation of iodine on thyroid function of pregnant women and their newborn, neurodevelopment of infants and cognitive performance of children have been investigated using iodine nutrition in pregnancy, based on median urinary iodine concentration. However they have found conflicting results regarding the benefits or harms of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Although many epidemiological, interventional and clinical studies have supported the association between thyroid function in pregnant women and later psychomotor and mental development of their children, the effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on neurodevelopment of children is inconclusive. Even in areas with well-established universal salt iodization program, pregnancy could be at risk of having iodine deficiency and despite WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation which believe that dietary iodine fortification during pregnancy depends primarily on the extent of pre-existing iodine deprivation, systematic dietary fortification needs to be implemented in this vulnerable group. However, iodine supplementation of mildly iodine deficient pregnant women may not have beneficial effects in their thyroid function or neurodevelopment of their children.
When Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is required in a patient with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), bone deficiency in the acetabular roof often remains a problem. The iliac crest (IC) has long been the preferred source of autograft material, but graft harvest is associated with frequent complications and pain. Autologous bone graft can also be obtained from the femoral head (FH) for reconstruction of the acetabulum in hip arthroplasty. However, in certain challenging clinical scenarios, incorporation of the femoral head autograft appears less successful than the iliac crest autograft. The difference in potential for proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation between the two sites has still not been evaluated; therefore, it is not known how to compensate for this difference when it is present. We designed this study to evaluate the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in both the iliac crest and femoral head of the same patient. We also determined the best operating room procedure for loading the femoral head with MSCs to achieve equivalent numbers of MSCs as in the IC. Twenty patients (8 men and 16 women) undergoing THA for DDH were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 55.5 years (range 41–65 years). Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from three depths within the femoral head and the aspirates were quantified relative to matched iliac crest aspirates that were obtained from the same patient at the same time. The cell count, progenitor cell concentration (cells/mL marrow), and progenitor cell prevalence (progenitor cells/million nucleated cells) were calculated.
Aspirates of FH marrow demonstrated less concentrations of mononuclear cells compared with matched controls from the iliac crest. Progenitor cell concentrations were consistently lower in FH aspirates compared to matched controls from the iliac crest (p = 0.05). The concentration of osteogenic progenitor cells was, on average, 40% lower in the FH aspirates than in the paired iliac crest samples (p = 0.05). However, with bone marrow aspirated from the iliac crest, we were able to load the femoral head autograft with sufficient MSCs to obtain the same number as present in an iliac crest. With concentrated bone marrow from the IC, supercharging the femoral autograft with MSCs to numbers above that present in the IC was possible in the operating room, and the number of MSCs supercharged in the femoral head was predictable.
Based on these findings we suggest that FH graft supercharged with BM-MSCs from the IC is comparable to IC graft for osseous graft supplementation especially in THA for patients with DDH.
Age related macular degeneration is a severe disease of mainly elderly people and leads to central vision loss because of the degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium . Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the accumulation of extracellular material and deposit formation near the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer, which leads to loss of photoreceptors and induction of chronic inflammation. The deposits are composed of lipids and proteins including many complement proteins, indicating the involvement of the complement system in the degenerative process and chronic inflammation . So far there is no treatment for the dry form of AMD, except nutritional supplementation with antioxidants and vitamins . Combined with a prolonged lifetime expectation in developed countries, AMD is developing to a social and economic burden. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a treatment of AMD that can delay disease manifestation and progression for several years.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death and its prevalence and incidence is also related to smoking behavior . COPD is still a chronic inflammatory and progressive disease caused by multifactorial agents including environmental pollutants . Besides that, it is emerging that endogenous epigenetic factors induced by lifestyle and environment  could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease .
In the last years, several authors suggested that low vitamin D levels seem to be related with the increase of COPD manifestations . Moreover, a multicentre, double-blind, randomised controlled trial documented that vitamin D supplementation protects against moderate or severe exacerbation of the disease, but not by upper respiratory infections . However, low levels of vitamin D can be extended to many other diseases, including multiple sclerosis, diabetes, colon rectal cancer, headache or drug use [7-11]. Moreover, it is also important to remember that Vitamin D deficiency is common in high latitude regions, such as northern Europe, New Zealand, northern USA, and Canada where weaker ultraviolet B rays is not able to produce enough vitamin D. Finally, methodological factors (using low sensitivity methods) could contribute to misleading evaluation of circulating vitamin D levels. In any case, here we shall remind that vitamin D has a fundamental role in immunity . In particular, it has been reported that vitamin D is able to shift the pro-inflammatory T-helper cell 1 to anti-inflammatory T-helper cell 2 . Therefore, benefits of vitamin D supplementation in chronic diseases which directly or indirectly affect immune system are obvious. Today, the burden of COPD in never smokers is higher than previously believed. Therefore, more research is needed to unravel the characteristics of non-smokers COPD . Notably, vitamin D levels are reported to be significantly lower in smoker’ssubjects than in non-smokers ones . Therefore, low plasma vitamin D levels in COPD seems to be more a causality than a correlation.
The infectivity and pathogenesis: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of Covid-19, involves Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on type II alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells in lungs. Apart from, the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the disease affects the gastrointestinal system prominently, as evidenced by the significant GI symptoms, early in the course of the disease. In addition, the virus infects ACE2-bearing cells in other organs including the heart and blood vessels, brain, and kidneys.
Clinical features and morbidity: The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies from asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic presentation to moderate to severe states characterized by respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation and ICU support and those manifesting critical clinical condition with complications like sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction failure. The CT chest is an important tool for early identification of COVID-19 pneumonia as well as for prognostic purposes.
The recovery and residual damage: The recovery and other outcomes vary depending on age and other aspects including sex, comorbidities, and genetic factors. The outlook for older adults, who account for a disproportionate share of critical disease, is unfavorable, and most of those who survive are unlikely to return to their previous level of functioning. The disease affects their long-term health and quality of life as well as brings in propensity for truncated post-disease survival.
COVID-19 aftermath and follow up: The patients discharged from hospital following severe COVID-19, continue to suffer with lingering impact of the disease as well as that of the emergency treatments that saved their life. The post-infection reduced exercise tolerance and other subtle factors, like post viral fatigue syndrome, post-traumatic stress disorder, impaired concentration, delirium, and disturbed sleep-wake cycle often underly the functional impairment. In fact, there is need of step-down care and later a multidisciplinary support involving regular clinical assessment, respiratory review, physiotherapy, nutritional advice, and psychiatric support.
Conclusion: The life after COVID-19: After recovery from the disease, the virus SARS-CoV-2, may persist for uncertain period. In addition, the chance of reinfection cannot be ruled out. The vitamin D supplementation may be helpful. In general, the quality of life (QOL) in ICU survivors improves but remains lower than general population levels, but most of the patients adapt well to their level of self-sufficiency and QOL. Also, the debility due to co-morbidities may further compromise the activity of daily living and QOL issues. The Age and severity of illness appear to be the major predictors of post-discharge physical functioning.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy increases several risks of breastfed mothers. To prevent these adverse events, vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation is recommended, but suggested dose ranges vary.
Objective: To determine whether vitamin D3 1,800 IU/d supplementation in lactating mothers improves the vitamin D status of their breastfed infants.
Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo–controlled trial with Thai pregnant women was conducted. Lactating mothers (n=72) and their breastfed infants with insufficient maternal 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in the third trimester were randomly assigned to two groups, one of which received 1,800 IU/d vitamin D supplementation and the other a placebo. Maternal serum 25(OH)D during lactation, cord blood, and 6-week breastfed infant serum were measured using LC-MS/MS.
Results: Mean maternal age (±SD) was 27±5 years, and pre-gestational BMI was 22.29±5 kg/m2. Maternal serum 25(OH)D at baseline was 22.29±7.15 nmol/L. At 6 weeks, both maternal 25(OH)D and infant 25 (OH)D levels had increased significantly in the vitamin D supplement group of mothers and infants (68.30±15.40, 40.40±12.56 nmol/L) compared to those in placebo groups (55.15±13.57, 24.28±17.20 nmol/L) (p <0.001, p<0.001). The changes in infant 25(OH)D levels increased substantially in the vitamin D supplement group but decreased in placebo(17.49±16.27 ng/ml compared to -1.34±19.23 nmol/L in the placebo group, p<0.001). The change of maternal 25(OH)D were positively correlation to the change of 25(OH)D level in breastmilk mothers and infants by r=0.697, p<0.001 and r=0.379, p=0.003 respectively.
Conclusions: Vitamin D3 supplementation to breastfed mother during lactation can increase serum 25(OH)D level in Thai breastfed mother and infants. Further work is needed to determine the optimum duration of vitamin D supplementation to normalized breastfed infants with 25(OH)D level >75 nmol/L.
Zinc induced pediatric preventing respiratory 2019-nCoV is required that supplementation with zinc gluconate 20 mg in Zn deficient children resulted in a nearly twofold reduction of acute lower respiratory infections as well as the time to recovery. Zinc supplementation in children is associated with a reduction in the incidence and prevalence of pneumonia. Preventing 2019-nCoV pneumonia is required that zinc supplementation alone (10 to 20 mg) for more than 3 months significantly reduces in the rate of pneumonia. zinc pediatric intake may be required to be effective range 10～20 mg/d for 2019-CoV prevention, 10～30 mg/d for reduction of COVID-19 bronchitis, and 20～30 mg/d for recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia, in which Zn2+ could bind with viral surface proteins by Zn2+ions-centered tetrahedrally coordination pattern.
On the other hand, for aults, the zinc-homeostatic immune concentration may provide a protective role against the COVID-19 pandemic, likely by improving the host’s resistance against viral infection. 50 mg of zinc per day might provide an additional shield against the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly by increasing the host resistance to viral infection to minimize the burden of the disease. In order to prevent that an outbreak of respiratory sickness caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has become a serious public threat and disrupted many lives,assessing the efficacy of FDA-approved Zn-ejector drugs such as disulfiram combined with interferon to treat COVID-19 infected patients has been proposed. The key strategies for preventing lung damages include avoiding direct lung infection, altering host-virus interactions, promoting immune responses, diluting virus concentrations in lung tissues by promoting viral migration to the rest of the body, maintaining waste removal balance, protecting heart function and renal function, avoiding other infections, reducing allergic reactions and anti-inflammatory. The interactions had been found on the binding specificity by Zn2+ ions-centered tetrahedral geometric coordination of the inhibitors against 3C and 3C-like proteases. In addition, transient zinc chelation TPEN and EPDTC have been noted as preventing virus replication.
Zinc-induced ROS production in COVID-19 respiratory ailment and pneumonia occurs both in children and adults. In children.
ROS production in zinc (Ⅱ)-immune pediatric patient with COVID-19 bronchitis and pneumonia cannot be elucidated yet. In adults, zinc induced ROS generation in pulmonary COVID-19 infected cells is that alterations of ROS-producing and scavenging pathways that are caused by respiratory viral infections are implicated in inﬂammation, lung epithelial disruption, and tissue damage, and, in some cases, even pulmonary ﬁbrosis. The involvement of oxidative stress in cell deaths caused during RNA virus infection and ROS production is correlated with host cell death.
The Journal Clinical Nephrology provides a good opportunity for readers to stay updated in the field of clinical nephrology. Additionally - it provides a good opportunity for authors to publish their work.
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Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Israel
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Department of Biotechnology, Uttaranchal college of Applied and Life Sciences, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
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University of Agriculture, Pakistan
Muhammad Sarwar Khan
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