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Bioinformatics as a modern tool in forensic science for data understanding & investigation in research

Published on: 8th December, 2022

Modern-day biology is witnessing a data explosion with a vast amount of information generated from ongoing genome and sequencing projects. The abundance of data from genome sequences, functional genomics and another high throughput (HTP) technique with the potential of computing has led to rising of a new discipline namely ‘bioinformatics’. Bioinformatics is a young but fast-growing field for biological data collection, organization, interpretation, and modeling. Tools and techniques for bioinformatics are derived from multidisciplinary combinations of varied disciplines from natural and physical sciences. Previously various disciplines were carved out as and when sufficient specialization was achieved. However, now bioinformatics is borne out of an alliance between existing disciplines from life and non-life. Bioinformatics encompasses new foundations for the collection, organization, and mining of gene/ protein sequences, three-dimensional structures, and biochemical functions, for modeling biological processes of functioning cells. DNA sequencing performed on an industrial scale has produced a vast amount of data to analyze. Although the Human Genome Project is officially over, improvements in DNA sequencing continue to be made. The field of forensic science is increasingly based on biomolecular data and many European countries are establishing forensic databases to store DNA profiles of crime scenes of known offenders and apply DNA testing.
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Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension resulting in decompensated right heart failure

Published on: 24th November, 2022

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a notoriously underdiagnosed cause of severe pulmonary hypertension. It is a form of precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) that results from intraluminal thrombus organization and fibrous formation which ultimately results in the complete obliteration of pulmonary arteries, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance which leads to the development of pulmonary hypertension and as a result right heart failure. The mechanism involves the narrowing of the pulmonary artery which increases blood pressure within the lungs and impairs blood flow which increases the workload of the right side of the heart ultimately causing right heart failure. Pulmonary hypertension can also cause arrhythmias, blood clots, and bleeding in the lungs. Even though CTEPH is a deadly condition, among all forms of pulmonary hypertension, CTEPH is the only curable form. Echocardiography is the initial assessment tool for suspected PH. A right heart catheterization may be performed to confirm the presence of pulmonary hypertension. Confirmation of CTEPH requires a V/Q scan. Although ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy has a major role in the evaluation of patients with suspected CTEPH, nowadays CTA chest is being used widely as it produces much better-quality images compared to V/Q scan. Without treatment, the prognosis is very poor. Out of three treatment modalities such as; pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) surgery, balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA), and medical therapy, surgery is the gold standard. The physician must be familiar with the disease entity, early diagnosis, and appropriate treatment to improve survival. Here we present a literature review on this topic.
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The role of health sectors in the fighting misconception of COVID-19 vaccine

Published on: 27th December, 2022

In the long run people around the globe particularly those who live in underdeveloped Countries in Africa, especially in Ethiopia a large number of communities has a misconception that disease may be transmitted by utilizing health service due to a lack of trust in health service delivery system, Most of the population strongly related with religion, they claimed that it is sin or God or Allah driven. According to a health behavior model, knowledge and practice are contributing factors for increasing healthcare seeking among patients with low levels of trust [1,2]. 
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Physical activity can change the physiological and psychological circumstances during COVID-19 pandemic: A narrative review

Published on: 26th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8906001902

Background: With the outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many studies’ attention to this world’s complexity increased dramatically. Different views on sports and physical activities have been presented, which have addressed the advantages and disadvantages of sports activities in this period differently. The purpose of this review was to investigate the physiological and psychological effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Using PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, and Web of Science electronic databases, this review summarizes the current knowledge of direct and indirect effects of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic, evaluating the advantages and drawbacks of specific exercise physiology conditions. All types of studies were assessed, including systematic reviews, case-studies, and clinical guidelines. The literature search identified 40 articles that discussed COVID-19, immune system, the relation between immune system and exercise or diet, and psychological impacts of physical activity. Results: Forty articles review showed that the immune system depends on the type, frequency, intensity, and duration of the exercise. Intense or prolonged exercise with short recovery periods can progressively weaken the immune system and increase the risk of COVID-19. One of the acute responses after moderate-intensity training is improved immune function and a decrease in inflammatory cytokines. Paying attention to dietary intakes of micro-and macronutrients in conjunction with exercise can strengthen the condition to fight against coronavirus. Exercise can also affect the psychological dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic, including depression, anxiety, and stress, which improve community mental health during the quarantine. Conclusion: Setting appropriate physical activity based on individuals’ properties and proper diet plan may enhance the physiological and psychological body’s condition to fight against coronavirus.
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Double aortic dissection in a patient with Marfan disease. A case report

Published on: 27th December, 2022

Marfan syndrome is a dominant autosomal genetic disease of the connective tissue, leading to various complications. Cardiovascular complications are the main ones, with dilation of the aorta and aortic dissection which is the main cause of death. Double dissection with different sites of departure is scarcely reported by the literature. We reported the case of a 22-year’s-old young patient admitted for acute chest and abdominal pains, and cardiogenic shock. Investigations reported a double dissection of the aorta with a recent one of type A and an old one of type B. Ghent diagnostic criteria were used to allow the diagnosis of Marfan disease. Surgical management corrected successfully the type A dissection.Early diagnostic and adequate management of aortic complications can reduce the high mortality rate of patients with Marfan syndrome.
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Correlation between chronic inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis and coronary lesions: “About a monocentric series of 202 cases”

Published on: 6th December, 2022

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the world, headed by coronary artery disease, which is secondary to atherosclerosis. The latter recognizes classic risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure, tobacco, and dyslipidemia and other less classic factors such as chronic inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis. Many studies have highlighted the correlation between this chronic inflammation and clinical coronary disease but very few have focused on the anatomical correlation. Objective: To describe the correlation between the chronic biological inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis and anatomical coronary lesions on angiography. Method: This observational, retrospective, single-center study, including over 10 years, of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, confirmed the EULAR 2010 criteria and presented with coronary artery disease requiring coronary angiography. Patients with missing data or in whom coronary angiography was not done were excluded (n = 14). We divided then the patients according to the existence or not of chronic inflammation to study the impact of the latter on the existence (Stenosis < 50% vs. stenosis ≥ 50%), the extent (single vs. multivessel disease), and the severity of the coronary lesions (syntax score < 32 vs. ≥ 32). Results: 202 patients (49♂/153♀) aged between 30-75 years with a history of rheumatoid arthritis have had a coronary event requiring coronary angiography, were included; The mean ejection fraction at baseline was 57.3% +/- 5.8 (37 vs.-65%). 75% of them were ≥ 65 years old. 55% were diabetics, 61% with hypertension, 38% with dyslipidemia, and 19% were smokers. Chronic inflammation was diagnosed in 70% of them on non-specific parameters (ESR, CRP, fibrinogen, anemia, and rheumatoid factor). All patients had coronary angiography, which made it possible to identify the coronary lesions according to their existence (Stenosis < 50%: 51 patients vs. stenosis ≥ 50%: 151 patients), the extent (single: 86 patients vs. multivessel disease: 116 patients) and the severity of the coronary lesions (syntax score < 32: 142 patients vs. ≥ 32: 60 patients). Chronic inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis was correlated in bivariate and multivariate analysis (after excluding the impact of other risk factors) with the existence and extent of coronary lesions (p < 0.05) but not with their severity (p > 0.05). Discussion: The two limitations of this work are the monocentric nature of the study and the absence of specific inflammatory parameters such as anti-CCP antibodies. Strengths are anatomical correlations and multivariate analysis. Chronic inflammation apart from any influence of the various risk factors predisposes to the existence and extent of coronary lesions (p < 0.05). The severity of coronary lesions assessed by Syntax Score was not correlated with chronic inflammation, although other studies suggest that this inflammation is the cause of complex lesions.Interpretation: Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an increase in cardiac morbidity and mortality. Atheromatous lesions are more frequent in those patients than the existence of classic cardiovascular risk factors would suggest. Several explanations could account for this risk: the inflammatory syndrome and its impact on the cardiovascular risk factors and the vessel and the deleterious effect of the treatments. This requires stricter screening and management of risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis.
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Percutaneous Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) closure technique in case of association with an azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava “case report”

Published on: 2nd December, 2022

Introduction: Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is the most common congenital heart disease, accessible to percutaneous closure in 90% of cases. The closure procedure is performed usually under local anesthesia and TTE by femoral access. The association of OS-ASD with an azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava is very rare (< 0.1/1000 births) making femoral access impossible. Only a few cases are mentioned in the literature, here we describe the procedure as faithfully as possible. Important clinical finding: We present a case of a 32-years-old female candidate for percutaneous closure of OS-ASD with right cavity dilatation who present during her procedure an unusual guidewire path suspecting an azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava, confirmed by CT angiography, making impossible the closure via the femoral approach. Therapeutic intervention: After being confronted with the categorical patient refusal of the surgery, we performed successfully the procedure; one month later; under general sedation by internal jugular approach. We finished with manual compression before extubating the patient. Outcomes: The follow-up was favorable at the cost of a hematoma at the puncture site and brachial plexus compression, which regressed after 3 days. Conclusion: We opted for general anesthesia and intubation to guide the procedure by TEE. We placed it in the aorta, which gave us good stability to continue successfully the procedure. We underestimated the risk of complication at the puncture site, which could have been avoided by using a vascular suture device or more prolonged compression. Main takeaway lesson: Percutaneous closure is the reference treatment for OS-ASD. In case of is associated with an azygos continuation of the inferior vena cava, the right internal jugular vein remains a reasonable approach; it requires discussion and rigorous preparation by the whole team. The management of the puncture site in this situation remains delicate and requires great concentration. 
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How to manage balloon entrapment during percutaneous coronary intervention of a calcified lesion “Case report”

Published on: 2nd December, 2022

Percutaneous coronary angioplasty is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at unclogging a coronary artery with a low complication rate (with a serious complication rate of 3% to 7% and a mortality rate of 1.2%). Device entrapment during PCI is a rare but life-threatening complication that occurs in < 1% of PCIs and balloon entrapment comes second after coronary guidewires. We present the case of 68-years-old man, smoker, hypertensive and type2 diabetic that presents angina with evidence of ischemia on myocardial tomoscintigraphy and in whom the radial coronary angiography reveals a tight calcified mid LAD stenosis. During his PCI and after dilatation with an NC balloon 2.5 × 12 the latter refuses to deflate and remains trapped in the lesion with the appearance of pain and ST-elevation despite several attempts to dilute the product in the inflator and to burst it by overexpansion. Traction on the balloon resulted in the deep intubation of the guiding-catheter, which comes in contact with the trapped balloon, and the rupture of the latter’s hypotube, which remains inflated at the site of the lesion and mounted on the 0.014 guidewire. We put a second 0.014 guidewire distally in the LAD and twisted with the distal part of the first guidewire, then we introduced a second balloon 2.0 × 20 over the second guidewire until the distal part of the guiding-catheter and inflated to trap the stucked balloon. We gradually removed this emergency assembly that allowed us to retrieve the trapped balloon. The control injection revealed a thrombotic occlusion of the LAD treated by thrombectomy and anti-GPIIbIIIa followed by a DES 2.75 × 28 placement. The patient was discharged 48 hours later with a good LVEF. The possible balloon entrapment mechanisms are an acute recoil of a highly calcified lesion with compression of the incompletely deflated balloon, which seems to be the case in our patient, strangulation of the proximal balloon end by the guiding-catheter if the balloon is removed before complete deflation and break or bend of the hypotube. The solutions in case of undeflatable balloon entrapment are to dilute the product in the inflator, to burst it by overexpansion, to pierce it through a stiff guidewire (or through its other end on a Microcatheter or OTW balloon), to cut its outer part and let it empty passively, to introduce a second guide-wire and perform a Buddy-Balloon or to transfer the patient to Surgery. Material entrapment remains a rare but life-threatening complication, its eviction requires the choice of material size and gentle manipulations (small balloons in the event of a calcified lesion) and its management uses different techniques, the choice of which depends on the clinical and anatomical situation. 
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Oncocardiology: Far beyond the cardiotoxicity

Published on: 29th November, 2022

Approximately 73.4% of global deaths are caused by chronic non-communicable diseases, among them, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, tumors, and chronic respiratory diseases ranked in the top 3 respectively [1]. An accumulating body of evidence showed that the risk of all-cause mortality in cancer patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) was 3.78 times higher than that of those without CVD and 8.8% of cancer survivors died of CVD [2]. Heart failure (HF) is a serious manifestation or terminal stage of various heart diseases. Although myocardial damage and dysfunction are the main causes of HF, the cardiovascular injury caused by the tumor itself and the detrimental effect of cancer treatment also play an important role. More recently, the data has suggested that up to 25% - 30% of patients with HF have histories of cancer for about 10 years; and cancer also determines the prognosis of heart HF [3]. 
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Acute ischemic stroke for alteplase or medical care alone or intervention with/without alteplase in Palestine (AIS-AMI Palestine)

Published on: 22nd November, 2022

Background: Stroke is the most common cause of permanent disability and the third most common cause of death in Palestine. We aimed to examine patterns of stroke presentation, causes, management and outcomes at the largest public Mistry of health hospitals in Palestine.Methods: Comprehensive data from all patients with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted to al-Shifa hospital between November 2021 and July 2022 and treated with alteplase alone or endovascular intervention with or without alteplase were prospectively collected and compare with acute ischemic stroke patients who were treated with medical care alone at Palestine medical complex hospital at 2018. Acute ischemic stroke presentation patterns, in-hospital evaluation and management, mortality, and morbidity were evaluated. Results: Medical care alone group: 138 patients with acute ischemic stroke, mean age was 65 ± 14 years and 49% were women. Most of the patients received antiplatelet therapy (98%), although none received thrombolysis. Only 17% received physical therapy evaluation. In-hospital mortality was 13%, and a modified ranking score of 0 -2 was in 44 patients (32%). Endovascular intervention with/without alteplase group: 56 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The mean age was 61 ± 12 years and 41% were women. All patients received brain computed tomography scans, although few received other investigations such as carotid Doppler (13%). Most patients with ischemic stroke received antiplatelet therapy (99%), although 39 patients (70%) received thrombolysis. Only 61% received physical therapy evaluation. In-hospital mortality was 7%. The modified ranking score 0 - 2: 32 patients (57%).Conclusion: This study conducted in Palestine showed that among patients with acute ischemic stroke, functional outcomes according to modified ranking score 0 - 2 were better by endovascular therapy with/without alteplase than with medical care alone.
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