Introduction: In endodontically treated teeth, dentinal defects such as microcracks can progress to a vertical root fracture and lead to tooth loss.
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate, by micro-computed tomography analysis, the formation of dentinal microcracks during filling removal in endodontic retreatment of root canals filled with gutta-percha and Total Fill BC bioceramic sealer.
Methods: Twenty mesial roots of mandibular molars were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and Total Fill BC sealer and then the filling material was removed with rotary Protaper Retreatment files. The specimens were scanned before instrumentation, after filling and after retreatment. The transversal images obtained after filling were compared with the images obtained after removal of the filling material. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed.
Results: Among the 24.444 cross-sections analyzed, 5.67% presented some type of dentinal defect, with 0.51% in the initial images, 2.58% in the post-filling images and 2.58% in the post-retreatment images. All the dentinal defects identified in the images obtained after the retreatment were already present in the corresponding images after the filling. New dentinal microcracks were not observed after removal of the filling material.
Conclusion: Retreatment of mesial roots of mandibular molars filled with a silicate-based root canal filling material do not influence the formation of dentinal microcracks.
The complicated process of cancer triggers many physiological systems like vascular endothelial functions and hemostasis, which signifies the increased risk of thrombosis, which triggers thromboembolic events resulting in increased mortality and morbidity [1-3]. Tumorigenesis contributes by activation of coagulation around the perivascular region .
Introduction: The tracheobronchial injuries are usually fatal and some of the lucky people can reach emergency services without dying in the place of trauma. They can cause severe symptoms which can be lifetreathing. This type of injuries must been taken carefully and need to decide fast what treatment you going to give.
Case report: We present a 53 years old patient who has been stabbed during a fight and got his trachea ruptured. His complaints shortness of breath and neck swelling. He can be treated conservatively with bronchoscopic and clinical evaluation.
Discussion: Tracheobronchial injuries are life-threatening and the airway must be secured first. They can be treated conservatively in some cases. CT can be useful but fiberoptic bronchoscopy is the key in diagnosis.
Conclusion: Although early treatment of tracheal lacerations is urgent surgery, it is reported that these injuries can be treated with conservative methods under appropriate conditions.
Haemophagocytosis is a dysregulated immune condition characterised by both inflammation and uncontrolled activation of macrophages and T-cells, which causes aberrant cytokine release, leading to cytokine storm  it can be primary or secondary, depending upon the etiology.
A case study on Jakob Erdheim-Chester disease.
Jakob Erdheim, pathologist, collector, scientist and educator was born in 1874 in Galicia and received his medical degree from the University of Vienna in 1900. He became interested in pathology and joined the Pathology Institute of the Municipal Hospital (Lainz) of Vienna
Priapism is currently defined as a prolonged painful erection without sexual stimuli, if priapism persists > 36 hours, conservative treatment does not lead to detumescence.
The most common etiologies are: medications into corpora cavernosa, anti-psychotics, anti-hypertensives, hematological disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia).
The Penile prosthesis is the choice treatment for restoring the erectile function after the failure of the conservative treatment.
But the corporal fibrosis makes it very difficult, with high risk of complications .
Lung cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Metastasis can be seen in many organs in advanced-stage disease. Acral metastasis rate in cancer is quite low. However, because of the direct opening of the arterial circulation, the risk of acral metastasis stem from lung cancer is higher than any other cancers. Although the mechanism is not known exactly, acral metastases occur in dominant extremities. Here, we present a case with lung adenocarcinoma metastasis of the left hand in the second phalanx. We presented this case which is rarely seen in the literature to emphasize acral metastases.
Zoon’s vulvitis or plasma cell vulvitis (PCV) is a rare, benign inflammatory condition of the vulvar mucosa . PCV can present with an asymptomatic lesion, or can cause discomfort, dyspareunia and pruritus . In this way, PCV can mimic other lesions of the vulval mucosa, such as lichen planus.
Dopamine agonists should usually be the first treatment for patients with prolactinomas of all sizes, because these drugs decrease serum prolactin concentrations and decrease the size of most lactotroph adenomas. Cabergoline is preferred first. When cabergoline develops side effects bromokriptin is switched. Cabergoline is more efficient than bromocriptine. Its side effect profile more favorable than bromocriptine. Cabergoline is an ergot dopamine agonist that is administered once or twice a week. Cabergoline can have rarely serious psychiatric adverse effects, including psychosis, impulse control disorders, dyskinesia, pulmonery fibrosis and valvular heart disease.
Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors, 93%-95% of the cases are microadenomas. Macroprolactinomas larger than 40 mm, known as giant prolactinomas, are exceptionally rare, accounting for 0.5% - 4% of all prolactin-hypersecreting adenomas.
In our case, after the 7 x 6 cm giant macroprolactinoma operated we report the manic episode occuring during the second week of cabergoline treatment. In the treatment of patients with prolactinoma, cabergoline is a first choice drug because it has a better tolerance profile and is more effective, however, bromocriptine can be switched to when drug resistance or side effects develop to cabergoline.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis -the most serious variant of Steven Johnson Syndrome -arises as the result of cell-mediated cytotoxic reaction against keratinocytes. Most common inciting factors include drugs, and infections. On the other hand, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), is a syndrome characterized by enormous immune response in the absence of down-regulation of activated immune cells resulting in cytokine storm causing severe tissue damage.
Up to date, several cases of concomitance of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) and Hemophagocytic Lympohystiocytosis (HLH) in pediatric patients have been reported. Both situations can be fatal and pediatricians should be aware that these two clinical entities are not mutually exclusive, to the contrary they may coexist.
We herein describe a case of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis with Central Nervous System involvement due to EBV infection.
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Zehra Guchan TOPCU
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