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Idiopathic parkinson’s disease and fatigue

Published on: 10th May, 2022

Introduction: Fatigue is a common non-motor symptom of Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD). The aim is to research the relationship between fatigue of IPD patients and the clinical findings, of mood disorders.Material and methods: A total of 39 patients with IPD were included in the study. The relationship between fatigue severity and demographic characteristics and the treatment was evaluated in IPD. The severity of fatigue was evaluated by Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Motor impairment was scored by the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale. The patients were assessed for the presence of depression and anxiety with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The mean age of the patients was 70.62 ± 8.35 years. 23 were men and 16 were women. The mean disease duration was 6.18 ± 3.35 years. The patients were assigned into two groups according to the presence of fatigue measured by FSS with less than 5 (Group I) and 5 or more (Group II). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to mean age, mean age of onset, and mean disease duration of the patients (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups for HADS depression, anxiety values, and terms of antiparkinsonian therapies (p > 0.05). The severity of fatigue was correlated with the HADS anxiety levels (p < 0.05).Discussion: Fatigue is an important non-motor symptom that is underestimated in clinical follow-up. We didn’t find any correlation between fatigue and age, duration of disease onset, or drug use. There was no significant correlation between the fatigue score and depression, and pain. However, the fatigue scores were higher in patients with high anxiety scores and females.
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Intrasellar psammomatous meningioma: a case report and review of the literature

Published on: 18th January, 2022

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9396189210

Intrasellar meningioma (IM) is a rare occurrence that is difficult to distinguish preoperatively from the most common non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Here we describe a case of psammomatous IM occurring in a 68-year-old woman, presented with visual defects. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) she was found to have an intrasellar mass with suprasellar extension that was approached with transsphenoidal surgery. Subtle radiological hints, namely dural tail sign, intralesional calcifications and a marked and homogenous early enhancement of IM on MRI after gadolinium administration, may aid clinicians in achieving an accurate pre-operative diagnosis and choosing the proper surgical approach. The clinical and neuroradiological features of IM described in the literature has been reviewed.
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A study to correlate the central corneal thickness to the severity of diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Published on: 14th December, 2021

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of preventable blindness. Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) develop not only DR but also corneal endothelial damage leading to anatomical and physiological changes in cornea. Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a key parameter of refractive surgery and Intraocular pressure (IOP) estimation. The role of CCT and higher glycemic index in DR needs to be researched upon.Objectives: To identify the corneal endothelial morphology in patients with type 2 DM, to measure the Central Corneal thickness (CCT) in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, to assess the relationship of CCT with HbA1C levels in the study group and to correlate the CCT with the severity of Diabetic retinopathy in the study group.Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between January 2018 and June 2019 in Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. The study included 100 subjects with type 2 DM for 5 years or more. Patients with comorbidities that may affect the severity of DR or alter CCT and other corneal endothelial parameters such as glaucoma, previous ocular surgery or trauma, corneal degenerations and dystrophies, chronic kidney disease and Hypertension were excluded. DR was assessed by dilated fundoscopy, fundus photography and optical coherence imaging of the macula and graded as per the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification. CCT and other corneal endothelial parameters were measured through specular microscopy. Relevant blood investigations including blood sugar levels were done for all patients.Statistical analysis: Relationship between CCT and grades of DR and HbA1c levels were established using the Chi-Square test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05.Results: The mean CCT in patients with no diabetic retinopathy, very mild and mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe and very severe NPDR and PDR was 526.62 ± 8.084 μm, 542.07 ± 8.713 μm, 562.16 ± 8.255 μm, 582.79 ± 7.368 μm and 610.43 ± 18.256 μm respectively. Analysis of the relationship between CCT and severity of DR showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the two parameters (Pearson r = 0.933, p = 0.001). Beyond this, a correlation was found between all the corneal endothelial parameters and severity of DR. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced DR was positively correlated with CV (r  = 0.917) and CCT (r = 0.933); while it was negatively correlated with ECD (r = -0.872) and Hex (r = -0.811). A statistically significant correlation was also found between CCT and HbA1c. Also increasing age, duration of DM and higher glycemic index were positively correlated with severity of DR. Conclusion: This study, by demonstrating a strong correlation between the central corneal thickness to the severity of DR and HbA1c levels emphasizes the importance of evaluation of corneal endothelial morphology in the early screening and diagnosis of microvascular complications of DM.
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Persistent symptomatic hyponatremia post-COVID 19: case report

Published on: 16th May, 2022

Background: Hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 is considered an independent risk factor for a prolonged hospital stay, intensive care admission, and death, but its causes and treatment are not yet well known. Many workers attribute hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 to acute kidney injury and nephropathy associated with the disease. Others suggest that it is related to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, sepsis, or hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. We report a case of persistent acute hyponatremia in a COVID-19 patient with multifactorial etiology. Case presentation: A managed 77 years with known hypertension, type II DM, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease (stage 3B and on treatment) presented with post-COVID-19 pneumonia, confusion, fever, generalized fatigability, dizziness, and lower limb edema. COVID-19 ad has been diagnosed two weeks earlier with a positive nasopharyngeal swab and was managed with dexamethasone, 10 mg oral for 10 days, azithromycin, 500 mg once orally, and levofloxacin, 500 mg once orally. At presentation, laboratory investigation showed hyponatremia (127.7 mg/dl). Conclusion: The etiology of hyponatremia associated with COVID-19 is different from that in other cases of hyponatremia and its management should be individualized according to patient history and clinical assessment, and effort is needed to determine the exact cause.
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Facial-onset sensory-motor neuronopathy, a rare variant of Huntington’s disease or chance association?

Published on: 15th July, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9136190397

Objectives: To describe a patient with facial-onset sensory-motor neuronopathy (FOSMN) that later developed Huntington’s disease (HD). Case report: A 62-year-old woman complained of progressive dysphagia 8 years before referral. At initial evaluation, there was excessive salivation, dysphagia, and sensory-motor trigeminal impairment. Denervation was noted on the upper limbs and the tongue. Blink reflexes were abolished. Genetic study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes was normal. She was diagnosed with FOSMN syndrome. Her clinical state progressively worsened with corneal anesthesia, severe denutrition, right arm and axial weakness. Seven years after referral, she was unable walk and developed generalized chorea. Abnormal huntingtin gene repeat expansion confirmed the diagnosis of HD. She died 16 years after onset of dysphagia. Conclusion: Cases with both HD and ALS have already been reported but not FOSMN and HD, to our knowledge. Some FOSMN cases have been linked to ALS-related gene mutations and HD phenocopies have been associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. Recently, huntingtin repeat expansions were described in the ALS population. Although a chance association cannot be excluded, data from the literature are in favor of a pathogenic relationship between FOSMN and HD in this particular case. We suggest that huntingtin gene be more systematically studied in patients with FOSMN.
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Effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia during hepatectomy on intraoperative and post-operative patient outcomes

Published on: 13th November, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7929291912

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with balanced general anesthesia on intraoperative hemodynamics and fluid requirement, and on postoperative patient outcome. Design: The study design was a retrospective data analysis of patients undergoing open hepatectomy at a single tertiary care center from May, 2013 to June, 2016. Patients undergoing hepatectomies were separated into two groups: patients not receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (either no epidural or epidural catheter not used intraoperatively) were designated the control group and patients receiving epidural local anesthetic intraoperatively (bolus and/or continuously). Patients were excluded if they underwent laparoscopic or non-elective procedures. Results: 103 patients were included in the data analysis: Control n=14, Epidural = 89 patients. There were no major differences in demographics between groups. Epidural patients did not have higher requirements in intraoperative intravenous fluid administration, blood loss, or vasopressor use compared to control patients. Patients who received epidurals required less intravenous opioids with better post-operative pain scores initially and also on post-operative day 2. There were no differences in length of time to ambulation, or post-operative acute kidney injury amongst groups. Conclusions: This study shows that patients undergoing hepatectomies using combined epidural and general anesthesia: 1) have no increased requirement for intraoperative crystalloid, colloid, or blood component therapy, 2) require lower total intravenous opioid dose, and 3) subjectively report better pain control. Therefore, intraoperative epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia may be advantageous for ERAS protocol based oncological procedures.
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The pathogenesis of psoriasis: insight into a complex “Mobius Loop” regulation process

Published on: 22nd October, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9322473772

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex mechanism, which is believed to be mainly based on immune disorders and activation of inflammatory pathways. However, we have combed through the literature and found that the pathogenesis of psoriasis might involve a “mobius loop” of “immunity-inflammation-oxidative stress-proliferation” process. The disordered immune environment of the skin might act as the basis, the outbreak of inflammatory factors as the mediator, and the imbalance of oxidative stress homeostasis as the activator. These factors work together, leading to abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes and further immune abnormalities, finally aggravating psoriasis. Therefore, here we review the latest evidence and advance in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, trying to contribute to further understanding and treatment of psoriasis.
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Stiff “Left Atrial” syndrome post-mustard procedure

Published on: 1st December, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9359567131

Objectives: We describe the clinical course and management of two patients with post-capillary pulmonary hypertension due to diffuse pulmonary venous baffle calcification decades post-Mustard procedure.Background: From the late 1950s to the early 1990s, the definitive surgical repair for children with D-transposition of the great vessels (D-TGA) was an atrial switch procedure (either Senning or Mustard operation) which utilizes atrial-level baffles to shunt pulmonary venous blood to the morphologic right (systemic) ventricle and caval blood to the morphologic left (sub-pulmonary) ventricle. From a hemodynamic standpoint, baffle leaks and stenoses as well as precapillary pulmonary hypertension have all been described as both early and late complications [1]. Recently, delayed post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (in the absence of discrete baffle obstruction) decades post-atrial switch has also been described [2]. The underlying pathophysiology for this postcapillary pulmonary hypertension is unclear but is theorized to involve impaired diastology referable to the pulmonary venous baffle. Methods/Results: Using hemodynamic and imaging data, we describe two patients with extensive pulmonary venous baffle calcification and resultant pulmonary hypertension from the so-called “stiff left atrial (LA) syndrome.” This problem can be difficult to treat medically and is not amenable to catheter-based interventions. We hypothesize that this is an underlying mechanism for pulmonary hypertension in at least some post-Mustard and Senning patients. Conclusion: We describe the treatments and clinical course for each of these patients, and in particular describe how the surgical revision of the pulmonary venous baffle in one case led to the complete resolution of symptoms.
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Needs in siblings of individuals with Down Syndrome and levels of coping Cali, Colombia

Published on: 1st November, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9323541686

Objective: To determine the needs and level of coping in siblings of people with Down Syndrome. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, carried out in 2016. Sample consisted of 30 siblings of people with Down Syndrome between 6 and 60 years old. Using non-probability convenience sampling. Two instruments were used to collect the information: a) a validated sociodemographic and needs survey of the siblings, designed by the authors, and b). Callista Roy adaptation and coping survey validated. Results: 60% of the siblings report not having felt judged by other people when presenting their brother/sister with Down syndrome. 73.3% of the siblings did not receive information about Down Syndrome from a nursing professional, the need to strengthen the nursing care provided to the siblings of people with disabilities in this regard is evident. 53.3% of these present a medium level of coping with respect to the condition of having a brother with Down syndrome. Conclusion: Identified needs were: time needs, affective needs, family needs, social needs, economic and access to information needs. Highlighting these needs allows the nursing professional to identify and consider the siblings of people with Down Syndrome have different needs than the rest of the family nucleus. Where interventions aimed at reducing the harmful effects and enhancing those characteristics of gain related with having a brother with Down Syndrome.
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Viral overload of COVID-19 pandemics: Overweight people a soft target to get an infection

Published on: 7th September, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9227637980

A growing figure of data proposes that outcomes with Coronavirus Disease 2019 are worse in those suffering from obesity and that a significant proportion of those requiring intensive care suffers from overweight or obesity [1]. 
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