We experienced a case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) caused by subacute infectious endocarditis (SIE). A 57-year-old male farmer complained of fatigue, lack of appetite and gross haematuria for a month; he had no cough, chest pain, or exertion dyspnea. After admission, lab tests showed mild proteinuria(1.04g/d) and heavy dysmorphic red blood cells(RBC) (543/HP), with serum creatinine(Scr) slightly elevated(1.46mg/dl) and anemia(hemoglobin Hb 85g/L). A renal biopsy revealed MPGN lesion with 16.6% cellular crescents. The echocardiogram test revealed mitra valve prolapse with perforation of the anterior lobe, vegetation, and severe regurgitation. He was diagnosed as SIE induced MPGN. Then he underwent mitral valve replacement after systemic antibiotic treatment without immunosuppressive agents. Follow-up showed that he dramatically regained normal kidney function in total 1 year after the operation. Thus, antibiotic administration and valve replacement may be efficient enough for some of SIE induced MPGN. We did a brief review of the literature on SIE induced MPGN, which was sometimes misdiagnosed due to its silent characteristics; some SIE patients may initially have other organs involved.
With the discovery by Calghatgi (2013) that three common antibiotics (Abs) increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen (ROS) and lipid peroxide (LP) and depleted their natural absorbant glutathione led me to investigate further the potential impacts of these genotoxic substances on carcinogenesis. The range of impacts on mitochondria and cellular DNA varied by antibiotic to those consistent with known prior contributions to carcinogenesis. Specific cancers probably increased by these changes were HCC, RCC (KCC), CRC, cancer of the esophagus. Tumor suppressor gene mutations resulting from LP were noteworthy in this regard and mutations induced in CRC were consistent with those found in carcinogenesis of CRC. In addition depression of short chain fatty acids in microbiomes were found which depress the immune system increasing risk of all cancers. Many cancers were increased according to epidemiological studies linking Abs with elevated odds ratios, with one concern in particular, fatal breast cancer. The impact of loss of functionality of the mitochondria was also linked to depression of the citric acid cycle and therefore ATP which deflected metabolism to glycolysis, the Warburg mechanism also increasing risk of all cancers, favoured by cancer cells. In conclusion, some portion of many cancer types are probably increased in likelihood by number, type and frequency of Abs treatment and chronic residue exposure which varies from individual to individual. This led me to propose a three pronged carcinogenesis mechanism for Abs. 1. Cancer critical mutations 2. Immune depression 3. loss of mitochondrial functionality leading to Warburg effects. Damage to mitochondria were also noted by common pesticides tested in China and cancer associations were also found for many pesticides supporting a similar contributory etiology. Heart health concerns were raised by these findings because of the myriad mitochondria in the heart and because of long term reliability needs. Studies suggesting hearts were affected by Abs and pesticide exposure were presented. Because of their geographical ubiquitousness and the huge range of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, antibiotics and pesticides and bacteriocidal biocides are of concern for biodiversity and life in general. I propose research steps to evaluate Abs safety and suggest directions for further research and make suggestions on ways to ameliorate Abs toxicity.
Tilmicosin (TMC) is a semi synthetic macrolide antibiotic of tylosin derivatives commonly used by veterinaries, has been shown to reveal beneficial pharmacological activities. In the current study, the potential wound healing activity, Anti-oxidant effect (ulcer and hepatoprotective) were investigated. Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic (central and peripheral), hypnotic and antispasmodic activity were also screened. This study included adult both sexes of rats (200-250 gm), mice (20-25 gm) and adult rabbits. Experimental wound was induced on the anterior-dorsal side of each rat whereas, ulcer induced by ethanol causing mucosal damage in rats. The oral anti-inflammatory induced through formalin producing edema, antipyretic (Brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia) and analgesic (writhing test, hot plate method, tail immersion method) while hypnotic effects induced through thiopental sodium. Anti-spasmodic effect on isolated organs (intestinal and uterine muscles) using new method of Modular Single Chamber Organ Bath were carried out on experimental animals. Tilmicosin antibiotic at different two doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg b.wt., has an important role in treatment of ulcer (cytoprotective effect) and improvement the wound healing processes besides anti-inflammatory, analgesics, and anti-pyretic effects. Tilmicosin revealed also hypnotic and intestinal anti-spasmodic effects but showed Pharmacovigilence hepatotoxic effect through the histopathological studies which revealed sever hepatic damage especially at larger dose.
Background:Topical therapy with antimicrobial agents is used in otitis treatment. Due to increase of antibiotic resistance, new strategies are needed. Antiseptics are used but they may induce contact dermatitis. Natural antimicrobial peptides may represent future effective drugs.
Objectives:The objectives were to test the efficacy of an 11% lactoferricin otological solution (LCF) in bacterial and yeasts otic overgrowth and compare LCF with a commercial one containing chlorhexidine (CLX) 0.05%.
Materials and methods:Forty-one dogs diagnosed with bacterial or yeasts otitis overgrowths were included according to general good practice. They were randomly assigned to lactoferricin or chlorhexidine group for treatment. Otological solution were applied twice a day for a week and then daily for another week. Clinical and cytological score was assessed at day 1 and day 14. At the end of the study, the owners had to express an opinion on the overall efficacy of the products. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilkoxon’s test and T test for paired samples. Results in lesional and cytological score were significative with a p<0.05.
Results:Forty dogs completed the study. All cases, receiving lactoferricin or chlorhexidine, were successfully treated with clinical signs remission and regression of infection (p<0.05). The owners’ judgment was good in 87%, mild in 13% for LCF group. For CLX they scored good in 41%, mild in 24% and unuseful in 35% of cases.
Conclusions:Lactoferricin, an antimicrobial natural peptide, showed the same efficacy of chlorhexidine in the treatment of otitis characterized by bacterial or/and yeast overgrowth.
Septic arthritis of the shoulder joint is rare and might affect around 3% of the general population . A delay in diagnosis may increase morbidity and lead to bone and cartilage destruction . Septic arthritis is an unusual complication of pregnancy and can progress to permanent arthropathy and disability .
Septic arthropathy in pregnancy requires multidisciplinary team involvement for prompt recognition and treatment to improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. High index of suspicion is vital when clinical and laboratory findings suggest septic arthritis. There are multiple predisposing factors reported previously for septic arthritis of the shoulder in pregnancy such as medical conditions, pyelonephritis and trauma. We report a 37 year old lady who presented at 26 weeks gestation with acute left shoulder pain and high temperature following minor left palm trauma. She also had left mastectomy with axillary clearance ten years earlier. She underwent arthroscopic wash out of her left shoulder joint and was covered with antibiotics with rapid improvement and recovery. We reinforce the importance of early multidisciplinary involvement when septic arthritis of the shoulder in pregnancy is suspected especially in women who have had previous mastectomy and axillary clearance which could be a predisposing factor for such a rare and serious joint condition in pregnancy.
Statement of the problem: Anterior tooth fracture, as a result of traumatic injuries, frequently occurs in dentistry. This leads to necrosis of pulp and periapical pathology. The goal of endodontic and restorative dentistry is to retain natural teeth with maximum function and pleasing esthetics.
Purpose of the study: This study aimed at proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth through the procedure known as “Biological Restoration.”
Materials and methods: Biological post obtained through natural, extracted teeth from another individual represents a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of damaged anterior teeth that provides highly functional and esthetic outcomes.
Conclusions: This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of mandibular left lateral incisor after non-surgical healing of periradicular lesion.
The incidence of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is extremely high. RVVC is likely to have a greater impact on patients. The aim of the study was to explore the risk factors of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) in the tropical coastal area. In this case-control study, a questionnaire survey was conducted in patients with VVC in the Sanya area from July 2014 to December 2016. The data included demographic characteristics, host factors, and behavioural characteristics. According to the maximum number of symptomatic episodes per year, the participants were classified into a non-recurrent VVC (NRVVC; < 4 episodes/year, including the current one) group or a RVVC group (≥ 4 episodes/year, including the current one). Crude odds ratios were calculated for potential risk factors and were adjusted using logistic regression. All vaginal secretions of patients with RVVC were cultured. Of the 728 cases of VVC, 69.0% (502/728) were NRVVC, and 31.0% (226/728) were RVVC. Previous antibiotic treatment (adjusted OR: 4.41, p < 0.01), repeat abortion (p < 0.05), and vaginal lavage (adjusted OR: 1.62, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with RVVC. A total of 230 yeasts isolates were obtained from 226 patients. C. albicans were the predominant Candida species (194 strains) in all patients of VVC. Our results demonstrate that in the tropical coastal area, a significant association was found between previous antibiotic treatment and incident RVVC. Host factors may be the most important factors in the occurrence of RVVC.
Over the last few years, antimicrobial shampoo therapy has been increasingly used to treat skin infections in order to reduce systemic use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to compare the In vitro bactericidal effect of a black currant oil based shampoo (S1) to a chlorhexidine 4% shampoo (S2) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Escherichia coli (EC) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) isolates.
A collection of 50 bacterial strains from skin swabs of dogs with superficial recurrent pyoderma was selected: 10 MSSP, 10 MRSP, 10 SA, 10 EC and 10 PA. The two shampoos were blindly tested in duplicate with a microdilution plate method, with scalar concentrations from 1:2 to 1: 256. The MBC was performed for each dilution. A linear regression was used to detect a statistically significance between the two shampoos.
All isolates were completely killed at 1:2 up to 1:16 dilution of the two antiseptic products. At the 1:32 dilution the first bacterial growths were observed, in particular for 2 and 4 strains of MRSP by S1 and S2 respectively. The first lethal dilution for SA was at 1:64 for S1/S2 and only for S2 against SP. No significant difference was observed between the two shampoos according to the results of linear regression significant for: i) MRSP, PA and EC (p < 0.05); ii) MSSP and SA (p < 0.1).
This study showed that both black currant oil based shampoo and chlorhexidine 4% shampoo have a similar In vitro bactericidal activity.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological syndrome with clinical features of altered sensorium, headaches, visual problems and seizures. It has been associated with uncontrolled hypertension (HTN), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and immunosuppressive drugs. Rituximab has also been implicated as a cause of PRES that usually occurs after the first dose. We report a case of PRES that occurred after the second dose of Rituximab. A twenty three years old female known case of resistant TTP treated with multiple courses of steroids and plasmapharesis was admitted with renal failure, severe volume overload ad lower respiratory tract infection. She was treated with hemodialysis, intravenous antibiotics, steroids and plasma exchange (PEX).
Pneumonia caused by the Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease and the ongoing outbreak has been declared as a Pandemic by the World health organization. Pneumonia is a serious disease in pregnancy and requires prompt attention. Viral pneumonia has higher morbidity and mortality compared to bacterial pneumonia in pregnancy. All efforts are well exerted to understand the newly emerged disease features but still some areas are gray.
The treatment is primarily supportive with antivirals, steroids, anticoagulation and antibiotics for secondary bacterial infection. Severe cases require intensive care monitoring with oxygen support, mechanical ventilation. Investigational therapies include convalescent plasma, cytokine release inhibitors and other immunomodulatory agents like interferons. The mortality appears driven by the presence of severe Adult Respiratory Syndrome (ARDS) and organs failure.
COVID pandemic is a challenging and stressful socio-economic situation with widespread fear of infection, disease and death. In the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology, studies are being conducted to ascertain the manifestation of disease in pregnant women and the fetal outcome.
The aim of our case series is to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, feto- maternal outcome of severe and critical COVID pneumonia in pregnant women in Latifa Hospital.
TEmphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare but potentially life-threatening necrotizing renal parenchymal infection characterised by the production of intra-parenchymal gas. The approach and the management of emphysematous has changed dramatically over the last two decades with the advent of computed tomography (CT)-based diagnosis and advances in antibiotic therapy as well as multidisciplinary intensive care of sepsis leading to an overall decline in mortality rates to 20-25%. The previously standard treatment for EPN which included nephrectomy of the affected kidney has been replaced by minimally invasive and nephron sparing surgery with better patient outcomes. We present our case series of 12 patients with EPN over a short period of two years treated at our tertiary care centre in South Western India.
Diarrheal diseases continue to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. This study aimed to isolate, identify and determining the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella sp associated with acute diarrhea among children in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted among children less than 5 years diagnosed with acute diarrhea and admitted to paediatric ward of Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital Kano. Stool samples from a total of 37 (20 male and 17 female) subjects were used to isolate and identified the pathogen. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted using disc diffusion method. The result showed 12 out of 37 samples were positive for Shigella sp which accounted for 32.4%. Higher incidence of Shigella sp was found among subjects of age between 2 – 3 years. The isolates were 100% resistant to Ampicillin. High resistance was also observed in Amoxicillin (83.33%), Chloramphenicol (58.33%) and Tetracycline (25%). The isolates are 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 66.7% to Levofloxacin and Gentamicin each and 58.33% to Erythromycin. Three (3) isolates were resistance to Ampicillin and Amoxicillin, 5 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Amoxicillin while 2 isolates were resistance to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin. It is concluded that Shigella sp is one of the etiological agent of diarrhea in children. Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and Gentamicin are drugs of choice for treating diarrhea caused by Shigella sp.
Background: Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) are frequent in immunosuppressed patients. We review the characteristics of patients with PLA at a tertiary academic Spanish hospital in Asturias.
Methods: A retrospective observational study for 10 years, between 2006-2015. Epidemiological, clinical, analytical characteristics, treatment and hospital stay of the patients with PLA were analyzed.
Results: 99 patients, 62 (62.6%) men, with age ≥65 years (72.7%). The most frequent etiology was: Biliary (40%), postsurgical (15%) and intestinal origin (11%). The most frequent clinical signs were fever, showing significant differences, abdominal pain (p=0.001) and nausea (p=0.02) between biliary PLA and the rest of the PLA. Microbiological results were confirmed in 63% (62 cases). All were treated with antibiotic therapy, along with percutaneous drainage (44.4% (44 cases)); and surgical drainage (12.1% (12 cases)). The overall mean stay was 23.1 days without significant differences between those treated with percutaneous drainage or surgical drainage.
Conclusion: PLA predominate in patients ≥65 years. Biliary PLA are the most frequent, diagnosed at an older age than the intestinal PLA (p=0.005).
- The treatment is based on systemic antibiotherapy and percutaneous drainage, especially in PLA only >5cm (p=0.019).
- There are no significant differences in average stay of patients treated with percutaneous drainage or surgical drainage.
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide [1,2]. The Mid-20th century witnessed most of the antimicrobial discoveries but recently there is dramatic shortage of new classes of antimicrobial agents due to failure to build a sustainable antimicrobial discovery platform [1-4]. For example, antibiotics comprise ˂ 1.5% of the compounds under investigation at the major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies [1,5].
There is growing evidence that gastroesophageal disease is influenced by the esophageal microbiome, and that commensal bacteria of the oropharynx, stomach, and colon are thought to have a role in modulatiing pathogenesis. These emerging hypotheses are based on observed changes in the composition of the esophageal ﬂora, notably, repeated observations: 1. There is an abundance of gram-positive bBacteria in the healthy esophagus. are more gram positive prevalent 2. The esophageal bacterial population becomes increasingly gram negative with disease progression. Associated with this shift to a more gram negative prevalence is an increase in the potential for the presence of antigenic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The immunoreactivity of LPS endotoxin thought to promote susceptibility to inflammation and disease.
The pathogenesis of the more common diseases of the esophagus e.g. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal dysmotility (achalasia), eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal cancer, are well-established. Emerging data suggest however, that these are all characterized by an immune-mediated inflammatory cascade, propogated by a dysbiotic state. Thereby, the ability of the healthy “normative state” to protect against foreign bacteria is compromised. This dysbiosis thereby can create adverse inflammatory or immunoregulatory responses with progression of disease.
In the normal healthy state, the esophageal microbiome is constituted in-part, by a multitude of gram positive bacteria, many of which produce antibacterial peptides called bacteriocins. Bacteriocins are selective and used to maintain population integrity by killing off foreign bacteria. When the “normative biome” is interrupted (e.g. antibiotics, medications, diet, environmental factors), the constitutional changes may allow a more hospitable imbalance favoring the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. Therefore it seems rational that defining, perhaps that defining, perhaps cultivating, a protective bacterial community that could help prevent or mitigate inflammatory diseases of the esophagus. Furthermore, in conjunction with evidence demonstrating that some bacteriocins are cytotoxic or antiproliferative toward cancer cell lines, further exploration might provide a rich source of effective peptide-based drug targets.
Therapeutic options targeting the microbiome, including prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and bacteriocins, have been studied, albeit the attributable effects on the esophagus for the most part, have been unrecognized by clinicians. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the involvement of the microbiome in esophageal diseases (most notably GERD/Barrett’s esophagus/esophageal cancer) and identifies emerging new concepts for treatment.
Background:While recognition and documentation of true drug allergy is critically important, most physicians acknowledge that its prevalence is likely overestimated, often on the basis of historical, sometimes anecdotal evidence. Correct or not, once applied, drug allergy labels may result in altered, potentially inferior therapy, increased costs and prolonged hospitalisation.
Objective:Estimate the point prevalence, accuracy and symptomatology of self-reported drug allergy in a typical, large NHS Acute Trust adult inpatient population. In the subset with penicillin allergy (PA), estimate additional management costs from the use of alternative antibiotics and readmission rates in the previous 5 years.
Methods:Data on self-reported drug allergies were extracted from 440 adult inpatient prescription charts over a 4 month period. Where penicillin allergy (PA) was reported, alternative antibiotic regimens were recorded and their additional costs calculated. Hospital electronic records were used to assess readmission rates of PA patients.
Results:194/440 inpatients (44.5%) reported at least one drug allergy. Antibiotic allergy was most commonly reported (51%), followed by analgesic (23%) and antiemetic (12%) allergy. PA accounted for 76% of reported antibiotic allergy. The commonest reported symptoms were cutaneous (42%) and gastrointestinal (18%). Where antibiotic therapy was required for patients with PA to manage acute infections, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Teicoplanin, Clindamycin and Cefuroxime were the most commonly employed alternatives. Extrapolation of these figures to include the entire Trust inpatient population suggested that the use of alternative antibiotics in PA patients incurred additional annual expenditure of £268,000. Further, 87% of PA patients had been admitted more than once in the preceding 5 years, with 74% requiring further courses of antibiotics during these admissions.
Conclusion:Self-reported drug allergy, and in particular PA, is common in hospital inpatient populations and, in addition to the potentially unnecessary hazards to individual patients resulting from the use of alternative antibiotics, results in a considerable additional financial burden to the healthcare system. This problem could be eliminated by the provision of a nationwide and equitable tertiary Allergy service.
Treatment of various inflammatory processes, including acute pneumonia(АP), over the past decades is identical and does not reflect the specifics of a particular disease. The basis of such treatment is «antibiotics alone». The need for additional therapeutic efforts is realized by the use of General therapeutic techniques, regardless of the diagnosis. This does not take into account the important fact that the localization of inflammation not only determines its clinical picture,but,above all,the mechanisms of influence on other organs and systems of the body.
The question raised in the title of this letter is a natural consequence of the findings and conclusions that have been growing steadily in recent years regarding the results of treatment for acute pneumonia (АР). If you look at the publications of recent years in this field of medicine, it turns out that one of the main obstacles to progress in improving the results of treatment of this disease is the lack of appropriate methods for determining the pathogen. Thus, the lack of timely diagnostic information about the etiology of the disease excludes the possibility of targeted antibiotic therapy. In recent years, such regrets have become more and more relevant, playing the role of the main explanation for treatment failures .Continuing to narrow the unidirectional view of the problem and to pay attention only to the microbial factor as the main cause of the disease, such views are in fact another illusion, which, even in the case of its hypothetical implementation, will not make significant changes in the overall trend. This statement is easy to verify if you rely on well-known facts, and not use as arguments assumptions and guesses.
Owing to the ever westernizing lifestyles in developing countries like India, the escalation of oral cancer patients are in need of urgent plan of action. With tobacco being the commonest cause for causation of oral cancer, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2016-17 revealed that almost 28% of whole population of India is consuming tobacco in either smoking or smokeless form. With these increasing numbers, the expected death toll to be expected to touch 1-2 million mark by the year 2035 .
Although, the current Onco-medicine fraternity excels in rendering care to oral cancer patients in the form of surgeries, chemotherapy and radiation-therapy. Often, these treatment modalities impart some unwanted adverse effects like, docetaxel (DCT) is known for its hepatotoxicity [2,3] whereas, one of the commonly used cisplatin (CIS) presents with nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, bone marrow suppression and vomiting [4,5]. Literature suggests of many non conventional medicaments being tested in past for their anti onco-genic effect, where few being effective and others being questionable ones. Chlorhexidine being one among them showing some how promising anti onco-genic activity with feeble amount of studies being conducted in past.
Chlorhexidine, one of the most commonly prescribed mouthrinse in the field of dentistry, with varying concentrations of 0.12% and 0.2% concentrations. Although, apart from being broad spectrum antibiotic, its capability to dismantle the protein – protein bond between anti – apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bcl-xL and its pro – apoptotic binding partners . The current study was conducted on three cell lines of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-4, SCC-9, SCC -15) and two pharynx carcinoma cell lines (FaDu and Detroit 562). The compounds induced apoptosis through mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway in oral tumour cell lines. Another study conducted to assess the similar anti – oncogenic activites of chlorhexidine mouthrinse along with cranberry . It was evident from results that, with increasing concentrations of chlorhexidine mouthrinse, there was increase in mean percent growth inhibition. The authors concluded saying, chlorhexidine has showed both anti cancerous as well as anti bacterial activity required to tackle common oral infections, part of common anti cancer therapy. Fernando Martínez-Pérez et al (2019) conducted study, where antitumor activity of Lipophilic Bismuth Nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) and chlorhexidine on human squamous cell carcinoma was assessed using energy dispersive X – ray spectroscopy in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (EDS-SEM). Study revealed, BisBAL NPs and chlorhexidine both showed cell growth inhibition on both cancer cell line (CAL-27) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Although, chlorhexidine showed non specific cytotoxicity for both tumoral and non tumoral control cells. The suggestive mechanism of action might be loss of cell membrane integrity .
Although Eliot MN (2013) conducted study, to assess the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma secondary to use of alcohol containing and non alcoholic mouthwashes including chlorhexidine. The study was concluded with an assumption based on chlorhexidine mouthwash alters the oral flora , thus resulting in increasing risk exponentially through diverse change in oral bacteria and altered immune response with contribution towards genesis or promotion of cancer . On the contrary, alcohol consumption and smoking are predisposing factors towards upper digestive tract cancer. The main causative factor being the first metabolite of alcohol, acetaldehyde. And much higher levels are derived from oral bacteria and thus, same can be altered in favour through usage of chlorhexidine mouthwash, to avoid excessive production of acetaldehyde intra orally.
In conclusion, chlorhexidine mouthwash has been into dental practice since long and the role it plays in either ways has to be assessed by a multi dimensional study with cell lines including that of control to derive better compared conclusions.
Mitomycin-C, first found its way into ophthalmic use in 1969, in Japan, where recurrent pterygia were successfully treated with the drug which is an antineoplastic / antibiotic agent isolated from the soil bacterium Streptomyces caespitosus . It is an anti-metabolite with anti-proliferative effect on cells showing the highest rate of mitosis by inhibiting DNA synthesis and interferes with RNA transcription and protein synthesis .CLINICAL USES
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