Epidemiology

The epidemiology, evaluation, and assessment of lateral ankle sprains in athletes

Published on: 26th May, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9155134376

Approximately 30,000 ankle injuries occur every day in the United States. With the incidence estimated at more than 3 million a year and at a rate of 2.15/1,000 in the U.S. alone, medical specialists and other healthcare providers caring for the foot and ankle must take notice. Despite the millions of ankle injuries sustained annually, the true incidence may be underestimated, as fewer than half of individuals with ankle sprains seek medical attention from healthcare professionals. The economic burden associated with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is close to $4 billion annually. Ankle sprains account for half of all sports injuries and remains a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the athlete. Accurate diagnosis is critical as 40% of ankle sprains are misdiagnosed or poorly treated leading to chronic ankle pain and disability. Implementing evidence supported diagnostic and treatment strategies is the goal for ensuring safe and rapid return to play. The Lateral Ankle Sprain (LAS) is among the most common type of ankle sprains suffered during athletic activities. Up to 80% of LAS are of the inversion type, and 75% lead to recurrence and instability. Although most individuals experiencing a LAS return to activity within six weeks, many report continued pain, diminished function, and instability. The purpose of this review is to highlight the epidemiology, pathoetiology, pathoanatomy, and biomechanics of the LAS, enabling sports physicians to implement the best practice guidelines and protocols to manage this common enigma. 
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Explicating the presentations of Acanthamoeba keratitis with special concern in the COVID-19 pandemic ambient

Published on: 18th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8987259294

This article presents an overview of information regarding Acanthamoeba keratitis per epidemiology, host-pathogen interactions, clinical manifestations, risk factors, environmental implications, diagnosis, treatment and management as well as COVID-19 characteristics which may be taken into cognizance for suspected infected patients, researchers and ophthalmologic practitioners. Acanthamoeba spp. is pathogenetically ubiquitous in nature. Acanthamoeba keratitis is considerably an ocular-threatening and debilitating keratitis that exhibits contumacious characteristics which hinder or impede treatment or management. At inception, Acanthamoeba generally depicts atypical clinical features which are frequently misdiagnosed as other microbial keratitis. Fundamentally, it constitutes a rare corneal infection of which the aetiologic agent is the protozoon Acanthamoeba spp. in contact lens wearers, presenting features of severe ophthalmic distress, blurred vision, blepharospasm, ocular excoriation, extraneous entity sensation and photophobia culminating in aberrant visual functionality. These are perspicuously due to retarded prompt and adequate treatment and management. Personal and environmental hygiene, especially on the hands, face and ocular areas as advised for the COVID-19 protocol could prevent contamination and dissemination of Acanthamoeba keratitis infection. The differentiating relatedness of Acanthamoeba keratitis, COVID-19 ophthalmologic infections and other ocular problems may not have been clearly elucidated.
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Tumours of the Uterine Corpus: A Histopathological and Prognostic Evaluation Preliminary of 429 Patients

Published on: 30th January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7286353787

A histopathological review preliminary of 429 patients diagnosed with tumours of the uterine corpus (TUC) cancer between 1984- 2010 in the Vigo University Hospital Complex (Spain) were evaluated prospectively for over 5 years. Of these 403 (93.9%) were epithelial tumours: 355 (82.7%) were adenocarcinomas of the endometrioid type, 5 (1.1%) mucinous adenocarcinoma, 10 (2.3%) serous adenocarcinoma, 17 (3.9%) clear cell carcinomas, 11 (2.5%) mixed adenocarcinoma, 4 (0.9%) undifferentiated carcinomas and 1 (0.2%) squamous cell carcinomas. A total 20 (4, 6%) were mesenchymal tumours: 4 (0.9%) endometrial stromal sarcoma, 7 (1.6%) Leiomyosarcoma, 9 (2%) Mixed endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumour. A total 1 (0.2%) were mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tumours: (0.2%) Adenosarcoma 1. And 5 (1.1%) were Metastases from extragenital primary tumour (3 carcinomas of the breast, 1 stomach and 1 colon). The mean age at diagnosis from total series were 65, 4 years (range 28-101 years). Age was clearly related to histologic type: Endometrial stromal sarcoma 46.0 years, Leiomyosarcomas 57.1 years, Adenocarcinomas of the endometrioid type 65.4 years, Clear cell carcinomas 70.1 years and mixed endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumours 71.2 years. Five-year disease-free survival rates for the entire group were: Endometrial stromal sarcoma 50%, Leiomyosarcomas 28.6%, Adenocarcinomas of the endometrioid type 83.7%, Clear cell carcinomas 64.7% and mixed endometrial stromal and smooth muscle tumours 44.4%. The 5-year disease-free survival rates of patients with Adenocarcinomas of the endometrioid type tumors were 91.4% for grade 1 tumors, 77.5% for grade 2, and 72.7% for grade 3. In conclusion, we describe 5-year histological and disease-free survival data from a series of 429 patients with TUC, observing similar percentages to those described in the medical literature. The only difference we find with other published series is a slightly lower percentage of serous carcinomas (ESC) that the Western countries but similar to the 3% of all ESC in Japan. Our investigation is focus at the moment on construct genealogical trees for the possible identification of hereditary syndromes and to carry out germline mutation analysis.
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Analysis of Pyogenic Liver Abscesses

Published on: 19th January, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7325071770

Background: Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) are frequent in immunosuppressed patients. We review the characteristics of patients with PLA at a tertiary academic Spanish hospital in Asturias. Methods: A retrospective observational study for 10 years, between 2006-2015. Epidemiological, clinical, analytical characteristics, treatment and hospital stay of the patients with PLA were analyzed. Results: 99 patients, 62 (62.6%) men, with age ≥65 years (72.7%). The most frequent etiology was: Biliary (40%), postsurgical (15%) and intestinal origin (11%). The most frequent clinical signs were fever, showing significant differences, abdominal pain (p=0.001) and nausea (p=0.02) between biliary PLA and the rest of the PLA. Microbiological results were confirmed in 63% (62 cases). All were treated with antibiotic therapy, along with percutaneous drainage (44.4% (44 cases)); and surgical drainage (12.1% (12 cases)). The overall mean stay was 23.1 days without significant differences between those treated with percutaneous drainage or surgical drainage. Conclusion: PLA predominate in patients ≥65 years. Biliary PLA are the most frequent, diagnosed at an older age than the intestinal PLA (p=0.005). - The treatment is based on systemic antibiotherapy and percutaneous drainage, especially in PLA only >5cm (p=0.019). - There are no significant differences in average stay of patients treated with percutaneous drainage or surgical drainage.
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Epidemiologic aspects and risk factors associated with infertility in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) in north of Iran

Published on: 20th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8897953759

Objective: This study aimed to investigating of the epidemiological aspects of infertility and related risk factors in infertile women. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study, carried out on 330 infertile women referred to two infertility treatment center of Imam Khomeini Hospital and Mother center in Sari, Iran, from April 2015 to March 2017. Results: 54.5% of these women were in the age of 30-39 years, infertility duration in 55.2% was 1-5 years, Body mass index (BMI) in 44.5% of samples was 26-30 kg/m2, 54.5% had diploma and associate degree. 63.6% lived in urban areas. 74.5 % of patients reported primary infertility. History of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOs) and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and poor ovarian reserve were the most common causes and risk factors for the infertility with prevalence 19.42%, 16.81% and 13.91%, respectively. Most underlying disease was thyroid disorders (54.5%). There was found statistically significant relationship between residents of urban areas and infertility duration, endometriosis and educational levels, miscarriage with thyroid. Data analysis performed using IBM SPSS 21 software and Chi-Square test (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that women with infertility in north of Iran were more likely to be older, less educated, and also had overweight. They are more possible to have ovarian disorders. In these area, thyroid disease more common like Iodine deficient regions. Future research should be focused on the reasons why majority of women don’t seek treatment for the underline significant diseases that may be effects on ovarian function and fertility.
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Anti COVID-19 immunity developed as assessed in a community-based oncological center

Published on: 7th October, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8861739910

Introduction: Serology (antibody) tests for the SARS-CoV-2 have been proposed as an instrument to inform health authorities about immunization during the COVID-19 pandemic. As there is a significant part of the population that may have some degree of immunity, it is of great interest to communicate the immunization results obtained in the first 500 healthcare workers (HCW), patients and relatives tested in a community-based Oncological Center. Materials and methods: Between April 9th, 2020 and May 8th, 2020, a group of healthcare workers (HCW), their families, and general public who had had the COVID-19 or had been in close contact with confirmed cases of COVID-19 were screened for IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The tests were carried out in a rigorous manner, strictly following the guidelines approved by the Spanish Ministry of Health (Ministerio de Sanidad). Results: The major objective of this study was to determine the proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals and those who had already secreted IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in our cancer treatment center or in the community of Barcelona. Patients were tested with PCR, Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) or enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 521 participants were tested, 206 with RDT and 315 with ELISA, 59 (11,32%) resulted positive to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: RDT and ELISA proved to be effective and sensible enough to determine the extent of SARS-CoV-2 immunization in a community-based oncological center. The degree of immunization reached is nowadays far away from what can be considered desirable for a herd immunization.
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Facial Necrotizing Fasciitis in Adults. A Systematic Review

Published on: 26th April, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317597468

Introduction: Necrotizing Fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressing, severe suppurative infection of the superficial fascia and the sorrounding tissues that may lead to necrosis, septic shock and death if left untreated. Facial NF is rarely seen and symptoms may be non-specific at the onset and depend on the origin site and the stage of the disease, making it difficult for diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done following the PRISMA guidance. PubMed database was searched for case reports published between January 2007 and March 2017. Full text articles were obtained and assesed for relevance. Data extraction was performed as an iterative process. Results: A total of 24 articles, describing 29 adult patients with facial NF were included. Facial NF was more common in males. Skin trauma was the most frequent mechanism of lesion and diabetes mellitus was the most common associated systemic disorder. Periorbital area was the most affected area. In order of appereance, swelling and pain were the most common initial clinical manifestations. Group A Streptococcus was the most frequent microorganism isolated. Advanced airway management was needed in more than 50% of the cases and surgical management was done in 90% of the cases. Conclusions: Practitioners should be aware of its existance, epidemiology, etiology, risk factors and initial clinical manifestations to develop a high index of suspicion, to order studies that may discard or confirm the diagnosis, and to offer prompt treatment to preserve patient’s life and reduce the disfigurement and disability that it may cause.
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Prospective Clinical Study to Find out Epidemiology of Xerophthalmia in Children in a Tertiary Care Centre in India

Published on: 29th December, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7355977840

Objective: To study the epidemiology of xerophthalmia in children 2-6 years of age in North India. Methods: A prospective clinical study was done at two tertiary care centers of North India between 2010 to 2016, Cases were selected from routine OPD and children less than 6 years of age were examined by an ophthalmologist. Diagnosis and classification of Xerophthalmia was done according to WHO classification. All the data recording demographic profile, socioeconomic status, other health problems etc were recorded in a fixed proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 16. Findings: Two thousand nine hundred forty six cases were included in the study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The prevalence of night blindness was estimated to be 2.93% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.53-3.33) among children between 2 and 6 years of age. Xerophthalmia prevalence was 4.43% (95% CI: 4.19-4.67). Prevalence was more in girls than boys and higher in low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Vitamin A deficiency is recognized to be a severe public health problem leading to corneal opacity and childhood blindness in most of the areas of North India
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Implications on mental health by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: The role of general practitioner

Published on: 5th May, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8588739409

Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic gives rise to a significant number of psychological consequences and health problems. The GP must recognize the feelings generated in their patients and address them. This task includes 4 areas: 1. Knowing and managing the epidemic of anxiety and fear in patients; 2. Assessing possible de-compensation of patients with previous mental problems; 3. Knowing and managing effects of quarantine and social distancing; and 4. Knowing and managing possible truncated mourning. The recommendations for GPs intervention are: 1) In the clinical interview (identify maladaptive thoughts and emotions; comprehensive health); 2) Health information (clear, evidence-based communication); 3) Health education (healthy behaviors); 4) Telecare (support, monitoring and attention over the phone, via WhatsApp or video calls); 5) Crisis interventions (psycho education, cognitive behavioral techniques or referral to specialist); 6) Bibliotherapy (free electronic copies for the public); 7) Special efforts directed at vulnerable populations (infected and sick patients, the elderly, with a compromised immune function and those living or receiving care in congregated settings and people with adverse medical, psychiatric or with substance use problems, their families and caregivers); 8) Psychosocial monitoring (stressors related to COVID-19: exposures to infected sources, infected family members, loss of loved ones and physical distancing, secondary adversities such as economic loss, psychosocial effects such as depression, anxiety, psychosomatic concerns, insomnia, increased use of substances and domestic violence, and vulnerability indicators such as pre-existing physical or psychological conditions); and 9) Follow-up of the “complicated” mourning (“accompaniment” and transmit compassion, love and affection).
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Coronaryvirus infection, oxidative stress in ENT

Published on: 17th September, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8671093042

In COVID-19 pandemic we focused on epidemiology and somewhat we neglect the possibility of biochemical influencing of the infection. Therefore we try to find some properties of the virus, which are impressionable by drugs. Droplet infection transmission is mainly (hypochloric acid) by nose and mouth. Diseases of nose and paranasal sinuses are most often of viral or bacterial origin.
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Is there improvement in renal function in patients undergoing bariatric surgery?

Published on: 31st July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8199196433

Introduction: Obesity may cause progressive chronic kidney disease. Weight loss in the postoperative follow-up of bariatric surgery may improve renal function in these patients. Thus, the purpose of this study was to give insight on the subject using a sensible biomarker. Methods: This cross sectional study was performed in the Obesity Department from Campina Grande – Paraiba, Brazil. It was randomly enrolled 23 postoperative patients (7 bypass and 16 sleeve), with at least two years of follow-up, from the outpatient Department and 29 (18 bypass and 11 sleeve) in the preoperative period for bariatric surgery. They were homogeneously from both genders with ages ranging from 25 to 57 years. Serum levels of creatinine and cystatin C were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the CKD Epi (chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration) cystatin-creatinine equation. The investigation was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI) of the preoperative group was significantly greater than the postoperative group (p ≤ 0.0001). The mean serum levels of C cystatin was significantly greater in the postoperative group as compared to preoperative (p= 0.0197). However, there was no mean difference between creatinine serum concentrations comparing the two groups (p = 0.3252). The mean glomerular renal function rates of the groups were similar (p = 0.1240). Conclusion: There is no definitive evidence for supporting the hypothesis that there is improvement in the kidney renal function after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Prospective cohorts are necessary to enlighten the answer for this important question.
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Epidemiological Prevalence of Tuberculosis in the State of Maranhão between 2014 and 2016

Published on: 24th July, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8207866924

Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacillus of Koch), and presents chronic evolution affecting the lungs frequently. Objectives: Analyse, in the state of Maranhão, the epidemiological prevalence of tuberculosis between 2014 and 2016. Materials and Methods: Documentary and descriptive study of secondary data collected in the database of the dates, epidemiological information and morbidities, between 2014 and 2016. Results: 3,897 cases of tuberculosis in the state of Maranhão were recorded. The most affected age range was 15 to 59 years, totaling 3,111 cases, for both gender; of 60 to 79 years, 577 cases were totaled. Conclusion: Tuberculosis affects more adolescent males from adolescence to old age, and it is necessary to promote knowledge of the disease for the population in order to advance in the control of the same and obtain satisfactory clinical results.
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Ethical Dimensions of Population Genetic Research in the Caucasus

Published on: 20th January, 2017

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7317652374

The emergence and establishment of anthropological genetics as an interdisciplinary science is primarily, associated with the development of new genomic technologies. Precision genetic testing on the one hand, and the rapidly increasing number of genetic investigations on the other, have created a set of bioethical dilemmas for genetic and epidemiology research. Such research deals with persons who have the right to the protection of their personal information and confidentiality, and also concerns collective (village, region, ethnic group, state) consciousness, ethnic identity, and traditional culture, i.e., so called “ethnic pride”. In this regard, taking into consideration the results of ongoing field research, we make some recommendations for better management of relationships with individuals and communities and the preparation of questionnaires and informed consent forms that will facilitate similar research projects, especially in such an ethnically, linguistically and culturally diverse region such as the Caucasus.
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A Comprehensive review on genomic diversity and epidemiology of COVID-19

Published on: 22nd July, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8639906558

A respiratory outbreak of COVID-19 started from Wuhan, China and on 30 January 2020, WHO declared this infection to be epidemic, implementing public health emergency worldwide. On 11th March 2020, observing its prevalence in the whole world and WHO declared as a pandemic. Many countries completely collapse in the grip of this pandemic, as there are no effective treatments available, the precaution is the sole remedy to minimize this infection. The emergence and pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 (since the SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012] manifest the third time outline of highly contagious and pathogenic infection with infect-ability to spread globally in the twentieth-first century. The SARS CoV-2 genome is highly identical to bat coronavirus which is considered to be the perfect natural host. This coronavirus even utilizes the same ACE2 receptor as SARS-CoV and mainly spread the infection to the respiratory tract, which evidently showed that transmission of this virus through interactions and exposures. The death toll of these infected patients is increasing day by day especially when they have prehistory fatal diseases like cardiovascular, diabetics, and respiratory diseases. In this review, we summarized and explained the research progressed and available data on epidemiology, COVID-19 phylogenetic relation and its impact of different fatal disease and their relation and discuss the precautionary methods to combat this pandemic. Moreover, the pieces of evidence of spreading the virus through pets and prevention of being spreading by copper metal endorsement.
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What is new in Hypertension of Mexico 2018? -Impact of the new classification of high blood pressure in adults from American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA)

Published on: 7th March, 2018

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 7379463999

The new report of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on Clinical Practice Guidelines for High Blood Pressure in Adults was published online ahead of print November 13, 2017. The new American recommendation was focused on the criteria to define Hypertension. 130/80 mmHg or more is now considered as the new cut off point to define Hypertension. It is not new if we consider cumulative evidence in the las two decades has been broken the idea to consider 140/90 mmHg as the point to start medical actions. Thus, in México with current ACC/AHA definition it is estimated today around 48 million of adult hypertensive population. In the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) several strategies has been developed to improve prevention as the key action to confront non communicable chronic disease including hypertension. This updated guideline from ACC/AHA is an extraordinary opportunity to reinforce our preventive programs to high blood pressure control. In this brief report we analyze the epidemiological situation in Mexico and its possible consequences of the new criteria for hypertension diagnosis. The main current strategies that are applied into the IMSS to confront cardiovascular risk factors are directed to prevention. The IMSS is prepared to attend situations as the change of criteria diagnoses in Hypertension and new preventive models are in progression.
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Incidence of hypertension in a high-risk workgroup (Police officers) - Observational study

Published on: 8th November, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8333010066

Introduction: Hypertension is a silent pathology in a way that affects all four spheres to be considered as such; magnitude, transcendence vulnerability, and feasibility. The World Health Organization estimates that 45% of deaths from heart disease and 51% of deaths from stroke globally are caused by hypertension. Material and method: A longitudinal, descriptive and quantitative observational study was carried out on the personnel of high-risk public service providers. Results: The total population sampled was 550 people where it was possible to determine the sex where the disease predominates, since 92% of the hypertensive population belong to the male sex, while 8% of the female population. 57% of the total population were classified as normotensive, while 21% were classified as High Normal, Grade I Hypertension, and Grade II Hypertension. Discussion: AHT is the result of a series of interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors in an organism that tries to adapt to the increase of the cardiac output and the peripheral resistance of the blood vessels, which is manifested by the increase in blood pressure figures. Physical activity has been shown to have a lower risk of hypertension compared to sedentary individuals. The daily stress these workers face predisposes them to suffer their manifestations as headache, muscle pain, fatigue, digestive disorders and constant elevations of blood pressure.
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Leprosy persistence in the health district of Kenieba despite its elimination as a public health problem at the national level in Mali

Published on: 21st February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8541461066

WHO defined leprosy elimination as reaching a prevalence < 1 case of leprosy per 10,000 inhabitants. Mali eliminated the disease since 2001 but in 2011, it recorded 226 new cases. This has a serious involvement in term of disease spreading. Therefore, we undertook a cross sectional study in Kenieba health district, still above the WHO recommended elimination threshold to better understand the disease epidemiology and its associated potential factors. The study took place from October 2013 to September 2014. All consenting villagers, living in one of the selected villages were included and clinically examined for leprosy signs.
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Role of plants, environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological factors in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer Disease and other Neurodegenerative Diseases

Published on: 4th March, 2019

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8056301487

Aim of this work is to verify the effect of some neurotoxins, physical factors and geography in presentation of some Relevant Neurological disorder like some form of ASL, PD, AD. The geographic diffusion of the ASL/PD in west pacific (GUAM foci), and mutation of SOD 1 and other mutations are interesting facts to verify the recent literature about the neurotoxic process. Related to the references presented a global conclusion about the pathogenetic progression of some neurological disease will be produced as instrument for new hypothesis and for the introduction of new innovative therapeutic strategies.
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Brain washing systems and other circulating factors in some neurological condition like Parkinson (Pd) and vascular and diabetic dementia: How dynamics- saturation of clearance can act on toxic molecule?

Published on: 24th January, 2020

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8527419991

Observing the epidemiology of some neurodegenerative disease is interesting to verify some similarity and also related advanced or non-advanced countries and related diet habits. There are relationship between this conditions and diet habits? Some neurological condition related neuro-degeneration can be related to a complex dynamic system like the glymphatic system and the brain vascular clearance. Failure in this system seem related to aggravates of some condition like PD or vascular or diabetic dementia. (Animal model). But what happen if this dynamic system is saturated? A deep investigation related the specific role in CNS make possible to search new innovative strategies. The social economic cost for the neurodegenerative disease is the right tool to new research.
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Prognostic factors for chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in patients with lupus nephritis: A retrospective cohort study

Published on: 27th April, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9022387289

Background: Lupus Nephritis (LN) occurs in approximately half of all patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and it is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. Factors associated with poor renal outcome vary among studies, and researches coming from Brazil are scarce. Objectives: To identify the prognostic factors associated to the development of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in LN patients followed in a tertiary hospital. Design and Settings: We conducted a retrospective cohort study set in a tertiary hospital in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Methods: We compiled a total of 214 LN patients diagnosed between 1983 and 2015. Data was collected from medical records and further analyzed using logistic regression. Results: LN prevalence was 53.9%. The cohort had a mean follow-up of 11.2 years (SD ± 7.2 years). At the end of follow-up, 93 of 197 patients (47.2%) had CKD, and 49 of 191 (25.6%) were on regular dialysis. The main factors associated for developing CKD after logistic regression analysis were the following predictors: hypertension (HR 2.80; 95% CI 1.30-6.01; p = 0.008), time between diagnosis of SLE and diagnosis of LN (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99; p = 0.009) and discontinuation of medications (HR 2.41; 95% CI 1.08-5.37; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Hypertension, discontinuation of medications, and time between diagnosis of SLE and diagnosis of LN are independent variables associated with the development of CKD and ESDR in our study. 
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